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Vol. XIII 

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January, 1919— December, 1919 



The American Historical Society 

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1 



THE MAYFLOWER 



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AMERICANA 

JULY, 1919 




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Beginnings of New England 

-J? HE time had at length arrived when the Pilgrims were to 
leave the goodly and pleasant city which had been their 
home for nearly twelve years. Leyden had no direct 
navigation connection with the North Sea, it depended 
on inland water communication which was furnished by a canal 
passing near the Hague, and through Delft, reaching Delfthaven 
on the Maas or Meuse river, fifteen miles west of the ocean. The 
journey from Leyden to Delfthaven, a distance of twenty-four 
miles, was made in barges. In the harbor of Delfthaven was moored 
at the quay the Speedwell, a vessel they had purchased and which 
was to convey them to Southampton, England. 

The colonists were aware that the battle of colonization would be 
a severe one, and there were those among them whose hearts failed. 
The younger and stronger and willing-hearted were selected for 
the journey; wives and children were left behind, until the hard- 
ships were overcome. More than half were ready to go, but not 
quite half could get ready in time, and it fell to Robinson's lot to 
stay with the larger number, while the ruling Elder Brewster ac- 
companied the emigrants. A day was appointed for humiliation 
and prayer, which continued through the night. Robinson in an 
excellent discourse gave them the never to be forgotten advice, 
which shows him a man of rare moral exaltation, and one of the 
most liberal minds in the seventeenth century. He charged them 
"before God and his blessed angels to follow him no farther than he 
followed Christ, and if God should reveal anything to them by any 
other instrument of his, to be already to receive it as ever they were 
to receive any truth by his ministry, for he was very confident the 



Note — Abridgement from "Tercentenary of New England Families, 1620-1920," 
Vol. I, lately from the press ; American Historical Society, Inc., New York. 

215 



BEGINNINGS OF NEW ENGLAND 

Lord had more truth and light to break out of his Holy Word." He 
also bewailed the state and condition of the reformed churches; 
censuring the Lutherans for refusing the truth of the Calvinists, 
and for the latter sticking where Calvin had left them. He declared 
it "not possible that full perfection of knowledge should break 
forth at once." He exhorted them to shake off the nickname of 
Brownists, to avoid separation from the godly people of the Church 
of England, and "rather to study union than division." He bade 
them not to loath to call another pastor or teacher, "for that flock 
which hath two shepherds was not endangered, but secured by it." 
Robinson was free from all pettiness and egotism. Working in one 
of the obscurest corners of the world, he succeeded in training and 
sending out a people that expounded and diffused his teachings into 
the institutions and habits of a great nation. 

The last night of the stay of the colonists at Leyden was passed 
in the large house of the pastor in which their services were usually 
held. Here the night was spent in social enjoyment, a feast was 
given to the "removers," psalms were sung, and encouragement 
was given to those brave souls who were willing to venture all in 
the execution of a high resolve. Their friends from Leyden ac- 
companied them to Delfthaven, and some of the Separatists of 
Amsterdam came likewise to the port. Then followed the indescrib- 
able parting; the Dutch spectators shed tears at the sight; words 
were few; "they were unable to speak to one another for the abun- 
dance of sorrow." Robinson's voice was at last heard in prayer, 
and around him they knelt, while he commended the emigrants to 
the keeping of God. The embarkation of the emigrants then took 
place, and the wind being fair, the sails of the Speedwell were 
set, those on board fired a salute, a volley of small shot and three 
pieces of ordnance, as a farewell to their friends on shore. 

The Speedwell brought her passengers safely to Southampton, 
where they found the Mayflower, which vessel had come round 
from London. Thomas Weston, on the part of the Adventurers, was 
there to see them off. The discussion over the disputed articles was 
renewed, but to no effect ; also he refused to make them further cash 
advances, and they had to raise money by selling some of their 
provisions. Prince says that seven hundred pounds sterling were 
spent at Southampton, and they carried about seventeen hundred 

216 



BEGINNINGS OF NEW ENGLAND 

pounds with them. His authority was Bradford, but the latter has 
left no such statement. 

The vessels put out to sea with about a hundred and twenty pas- 
sengers; each vessel chose a governor and two or three assistants 
to preserve order and to equalize the disposition of their provisions. 
The Mayflower was a hundred and eighty tons burden; the Speed- 
well of sixty. They had not proceeded far on their journey when 
the Speedwell proved leaky, and both vessels put into Dartmouth. 
The necessary repairs having been made, once more both vessels 
put to sea. When a hundred leagues from land the master of the 
smaller vessel represented that she was incapable of making the 
voyage across the ocean. Again the voyagers returned to the Eng- 
lish shores, landing at Plymouth. The excuse of the master of the 
Speedwell was believed simply to be a pretense so as to cancel his 
contract with the emigrants, with whom he had agreed to remain 
a year. The next resource was to divide the company, leaving the 
discontented and faint-hearted behind. Those who adhered to the 
enterprise crowded themselves into the Mayflower, huddled to- 
gether so closely that even the shallop on the deck was damaged by 
being used as a sleeping place. 

The Speedwell was sent back to London, and on September 6, 
1620, the third attempt was made toward the setting sun, to cross 
the wide and expansive ocean, to reach home comforts and happi- 
ness in the New World. Little is recorded of the incidents of the 
voyage. The first part was favorably made; as they approached 
the American continent, storms were encountered which their over- 
burdened vessel was scarcely able to sustain. Their destination was 
a point near the Hudson river, which was within the territory grant- 
ed by the Virginia Company. The colonists, men, women and chil- 
dren, embarked on the Mayflower, numbered one hundred and two. 
The same number arrived in America that left England, though 
there was one death on the passage, William Button, and one birth, 
Oceanus, a son of Stephen Hopkins. 

The narrow peninsula, sixty miles long, which terminates at Cape 
Cod, projects easterly from the main land of Massachusetts; it re- 
sembles in shape the human arm, bent rectangularly at the elbow 
and again at the wrist. At what is now Provincetown, at the ex- 
treme point of this projection, the Mayflower on a Saturday, near 
the close of autumn, dropped anchor. 

217 



BEGINNINGS OF NEW ENGLAND 

It was deemed necessary for an organization for the preservation 
of order and of the common safety, that an instrument should be 
prepared and signed. Some of the colonists while on shipboard had 
expressed views that when they came ashore they would use their 
own liberty, for none had power to command, as their patent was for 
Virginia, not for New England ; therefore, they belonged to another 
government outside of the jurisdiction of the Virginia Company. 
The covenant that was executed and signed by forty-one of the 
adult passengers was as follows : 

In the name of God, Amen. We whose names are underwritten; 
the loyal subjects of our dread sovereign lord, King James, by the 
Grace of God, of Great Britain, France, and Ireland ; King, Defen- 
der of the Faith, etc. ; having undertaken for the glory of God and 
advancement of the Christian faith, and honor of our King and 
country, a voyage to plant the first colony in the northern part of 
Virginia ; do by these presents, solemnly and mutually, in the pres- 
ence of God and one another, covenant and combine ourselves to- 
gether into a civil body politic, for our better ordering and preser- 
vation furtherance of the ends aforesaid; and by virtue hereof to 
enact, constitute and frame such joint and equal laws, ordinances, 
acts, constitution, and offices, from time to time, as shall be thought 
meet and convenient for the general good of the colony ; unto which 
we promise all due submission and obedience. It witness whereof 
we have hereunder subscribed our names, at Cape Cod, the 11th of 
November, in the year of the reign of our sovereign lord, King 
James of England, France, and Ireland, the eighteenth, and Scot- 
land, the fifty-fourth, Anno Domini, 1620. 

This agreement was signed in the cabin of the Mayflower by the 
following parties : John Carver, John Alden, John Rowland, Will- 
iam Brewster, William Mullins, John Tilley, Edward Fuller, Moses 
Fletcher, Peter Brown, Thomas English, John Turner, John Good- 
man, Richard Britteridge, Edward Doty, Edward Winslow, Chris- 
topher Martin, Edward Tilley, Myles Standish, Richard Warren, 
Francis Cook, Francis Eaton, Degory Priest, George Soule, Thomas 
Rogers, James Chilton, Thomas Williams, Richard Clarke, Edward 
Lister, Isaac Allerton, William White, William Bradford, Samuel 
Fullar, Stephen Hopkins, Thomas Tinker, John Crackston, Gilbert 
Winslow, Richard Gardiner, John Ridgedale, John Billington, Ed- 
ward Murgeson, John Allerton. 

After the adoption of this compact for government, John Carver 
was chosen governor of the company. He was a native of England, 
and died at Plymouth, Massachusetts, April 5, 1621. He was a man 

218 







Plymouth Rock, the gran it e bou lderThe Stepping Stone of the 
pll6rims.dec.2l 1620. still occupies the same position at the 
foot of a bluff of la nd. about 20 feet high. known in history 
as'Coles HlLL. IT BEING a PART OFSEVEN ACRESOF LANDGRANTED 

8Y THE COURT, A.D. 1637. TO JAMES THEFIRSTOFTHECOLES FAMILY FROM 
E N G LAN D TO LAN D IN PLY MOUTH AD. 163 O 



BEGINNINGS OF NEW ENGLAND 

of considerable wealth, which he devoted to the forwarding of the 
emigration of the pilgrims to America. He was a deacon of Robin- 
son's church in Ley den, and was one of the messengers to secure a 
patent from the Virginia Company and the consent of the King to 
the emigration. His wife died in the first winter of the Plymouth 
Colony, and there was no issue. 

In the afternoon of the adoption of the covenant, a party well 
armed was sent to reconnoitre the shore. They returned at even- 
ing reporting that they had seen neither persons nor dwelling, the 
country was well wooded, and the appearance of the soil promising. 
The shallop was hauled upon the beach and preparations made to 
repair it. Another land expedition was organized, and exploration 
of the surrounding country was made, but resulted only in the sight 
of a few savages in the distance, and the finding of four or five 
bushels of Indian corn. A week was spent in putting their tools in 
order and preparing lumber for a new boat. On November 27, 1620, 
another expedition was made in the shallop, which had been refitted. 
The weather was severe, no vestige of human life was found, though 
another parcel of corn and a bag of beans were found. The ex- 
ploring party being worn out with exposure and fatigue, returned to 
the Mayflower. As soon as the state of the weather permitted, a 
party of ten set off in the shallop with eight seamen. This was to 
be their final expedition of discovery; the coast was searched for 
forty or fifty miles in a vain attempt to find a suitable harbor. Suf- 
fering from extreme exposure and being encountered by a gale that 
disabled their rudder, they finally landed on an island afterwards 
known as Clarke's Island, in Plymouth harbor. The next day the 
harbor was sounded and found fit for shipping; the land explored, 
and divers cornfields found, and running brooks. They returned to 
the Mayflower to the rest of their people with news that comforted 
their hearts. During the absence of the expedition, which was ac- 
companied by Bradford, his wife, who remained on the Mayflower, 
fell overboard and was drowned. 

No time was now lost. The Mayflower set sail for the harbor, 
and a landing was made under disagreeable conditions, the pas- 
sengers on account of shallow water having to wade to shore in cold 
December weather. The death of James Chilton took place on 
board of the Mayflower before a landing was made ; the birth of the 
first child in New England, Peregrine White, also took place on 

219 



BEGINNINGS OF NEW ENGLAND 

board of the ship. Including children, there were twenty-eight 
females in the company, eighteen of whom were wives of the emi- 
grants. 

************ 

William Brewster, justly named the "Patriarch of the Plymouth 
Colony," was the moral, religious, and spiritual leader of the colony, 
and until his death its trusted guide. His early environments were 
of wealth and prosperity, therefore he was not brought up to ardu- 
ous labors. 

Young Brewster's education followed the lines given to the sons 
of the nobility and gentry. He matriculated December 3, 1580, at 
Peterhouse, the oldest of the fourteen colleges which afterward be- 
came the University of Cambridge; but he did not stay long enough 
to receive his degree. We find him after leaving Peterhouse in the 
service of William Davidson, Queen Elizabeth's Secretary of State; 
he accompanied him in August, 1585, to the Court of the Nether- 
lands on a diplomatic mission. The downfall of Davidson occurred 
in 1587, and Brewster, leaving court circles, returned to Scrooby. 
At the time of his father's death he administered his estate, and 
succeeded him as postmaster. He resided at the Manor House, and 
was held in high esteem among the people, associating with the 
gentlemen of the surrounding country, and was prominent in pro- 
moting and furthering religion. Of a serious and religious mind, 
the forms and customs of the Established Church became abhorrent 
to him, and he became interested and active in the cause of the 
dissenters. Always loyal to the home government, he reluctantly 
accepted the fact that his conscientious scruples required his sep- 
aration from the Established Church. He helped to form a dissent- 
ing society which met at his residence, thus forming the nucleus 
which constituted the Plymouth Pilgrims. The meetings were inter- 
rupted by persecutions, continuance of which caused a number of 
the Separatists (by which they became known), to agitate in 1607 
an emigration to Holland. Brewster being under the ban of the 
Church, became a member of a party which unsuccessfully tried to 
sail from Boston in Lincolnshire, England, and was arrested and 
imprisoned. He was in possession of considerable property at this 
time, a large part of which was spent to regain his liberty and in 
assisting the poorer members of the party to escape to Holland. 

At the time of the departure of the Pilgrims for their future home 

220 



BEGINNINGS OF NEW ENGLAND 

in a new land, on account of his popularity he was chosen their 
spiritual guide. He embarked on the Mayflower with his wife, 
Mary Love, and Wrestling and Love, sons, the latter an infant in 
arms. On arrival on the bleak coast of Massachusetts, the famous 
Covenant establishing the Pilgrim Republic was drafted, and Brew- 
ster is credited as being its author. For the first nine years of the 
Plymouth settlement he supplied the vacant pulpit, preaching im- 
pressive sermons; though often urged, he never administered the 
sacrament. 

Elder Brewster, as a patriarch of a new religion in a new country, 
stands at the doorsteps of a great nation as a monument never to 
be erased from American history. Three centuries have rolled 
away since by his guiding hand and spirit the foundations were laid 
for a prosperous nation, that today takes her place in the galaxy 
of countries as a dictator with the power to proclaim universal de- 
mocracy to the world at large. 

What Brewster was to the religious government of the colony, 
William Bradford was to the civil government. He was born in 
1588, at Austerfield, Yorkshire, a village of a population of three 
hundred, mostly belonging to the yeoman class, and one mile from 
Bawtry, England. He was seriously and religiously inclined from 
his childhood, and though he had little schooling, by diligent study 
he became proficient in Dutch, Latin, French and Greek; he 
even studied Hebrew, so that he could read the Bible in 
its original form. He early became interested in the religion of 
Separatists, thereby drawing upon himself the hostility and con- 
tempt of his relatives and neighbors; this naturally led him to be- 
come a member of the church at Scrooby that met in the Manor 
House where Brewster resided. At the time of the emigration of 
the members of that church to Holland he became an ardent sup- 
porter of the pilgrimage. 

After suffering several months confinement in prison for his 
attempt to emigrate to Holland, he escaped in the spring of 1608 
and joined his companions at Amsterdam, where he apprenticed 
himself to a French Protestant to learn the trade of silk-weaver. 

At the time of the agitation of the Pilgrims ' emigration to Amer- 
ica, he was one of its firmest supporters. At Governor Carver's 
death he was elected governor of the colony, and was continued by 
annual elections except in 1633-1638 inclusive, and in 1644 until his 

221 



BEGINNINGS OF NEW ENGLAND 

death. His authority was restricted at his own request in 1624, by 
a council of five, which in 1636 was increased to seven members. 
In the council he had a double vote. Bradford's friendly relations 
with the Indians, which he maintained through his understanding 
of the native character and his combination of firmness and energy 
with patience and gentleness, was the reason of their friendly sym- 
pathy, and which was vital to the continued existence of the colony. 
During the famine of 1622 he made several excursions amongst the 
savage procuring corn and beans. 

Governor Bradford possessed a higher degree of literary culture 
than was usual among persons similarly circumstanced. He was 
read on history and philosophy, and much of his leisure time was 
spent in literary composition. His only production published dur- 
ing his lifetime was "A Diary of Occurrences," covering the first 
year of the colony, written in conjunction with Edward Winslow 
(London, 1622). He left several manuscript books in prose and 
poetry. The most valuable of his writings was a "History of the 
Plymouth Plantation," being a history of the society from its in- 
ception in 1620, and its history in Plymouth down to 1647. This 
manuscript became lost during the Revolution, but in 1854 was 
found complete at the Fullham library in England, and was in 1856 
published by the Massachusetts Historical Society. The original 
manuscript is preserved in the State Library of Massachusetts. 

Governor Bradford died at Plymouth, May 9, 1657. In an esti- 
mate of the character of Governor Bradford, his deep religious prin- 
ciples, his utmost fairness in his dealings not only with his fellow 
Pilgrims but with the native aborigines, stand forth as sterling 
qualities in his life. A man not physically strong, he battled with 
the adversities and hardships of pioneer life with cheerfulness, and 
with always a helping hand to his brethren in their misfortunes and 
distress. The student of history is under many obligations to him 
for his chronological narrative of the facts and events of the Ply- 
mouth colony. This with his manuscript works, shows his energetic 
will power; devoid of any collegiate education, by purely physical 
and mental force he overcame the lack of education in his early life. 

Edward Winslow, born in Worcestershire, England, October 18, 
1595, had charge of the commercial transactions of the colony. He 
negotiated the first treaty with the Indians and won their respect 
and affection, curing Massasoit of an illness. The treaty then made 

222 






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BEGINNINGS OF NEW ENGLAND 

remained intact until it was broken by King Philip in 1675. Wins- 
low conducted the first embassy to the Indians, which was also the 
first attempt of the English to explore the interior. He sailed for 
England in September, 1623, and prepared for publication his 
4 'Good Newes from New England," which was the means of drawing 
attention to the colony. On his return to Plymouth in the spring of 
1624, he imported the first neat-cattle into New England. At the 
election in that year he was chosen assistant governor, in which 
office he was continued until 1647, excepting 1633, 1636 and 1644, 
when he was chosen governor. The Adventurers in London sent 
John Ly-ford, a preacher, to Plymouth, who wrote letters full of 
slander and falsehoods to the people in England. Winslow in the 
summer of 1624 again sailed for England to refute these charges, 
and returned with evidence that banished Lyford from the colony. 

While Winslow was governor, the Court of Associates enacted the 
elaborate code of laws and statutes that placed the government on 
a stable foundation. In the establishment of the United Colonies of 
New England he was a commissioner from his colony. His book, 
"Hypocrisie Unmasked," was a complete vindication of the accusa- 
tions of religious intolerance that was brought against the colonists 
by Samuel Gorton and others of England. 

Winslow advocated the civilization and conversion of the Indians, 
and published an address to Parliament upon the subject; and by 
his influence an act was passed incorporating the Society for Propa- 
gating the Gospel in New England. The society was under the direc- 
tion of the Church of England, and still exists. Governor Winslow 
in the middle of the seventeenth century returned to England. He 
was appointed by the government, in 1654, to adjust the claims 
against Denmark for losses to English shipping. WTien Cromwell 
planned an expedition against the Spaniards in the West Indies, 
he appointed Winslow head commissioner. The army was defeated 
at San Domingo, and the fleet sailed for Jamaica, but on the passage 
Governor Winslow died on May 8, 1655, and was buried at sea. The 
only authentic portrait of any of the Pilgrim fathers is the one of 
Governor W r inslow painted in London in 1651, and now preserved 
at Plymouth, Massachusetts. 

The militant character of the colony was Myles Standish. Dur- 
ing the war between Spain and Holland he was a soldier in the ser- 
vice of the latter country. Afterward he joined in Leyden the Pil- 

223 



BEGINNINGS OF NEW ENGLAND 

grim emigration to America, more likely in a spirit of adventure 
than through any religious enthusiasm. He was not a member of 
Robinson's church, nor did he become a member of the Plymouth 
Communion. He was a dissenter from the dissenters. His mili- 
tary knowledge was of value to the colonists, and on their second 
exploration in search of a suitable place to land, he commanded six- 
teen armed men, each with his musket, sword and corslet. 

After the founding of Plymouth, he was appointed military com- 
mander of the colony. In the fall of that year he undertook an ex- 
pedition to explore Massachusetts Bay. They also explored the 
broad plains known as "Massachusetts fields," the gathering place 
of the Indian tribes, which comprises a part of what is now Quincy, 
Massachusetts. 

The new colony at Weymouth, Massachusetts, planted in 1622, 
incurred the enmity of the Massachusetts Indians and a plot was 
formed by them to destroy it. The plan was revealed to the Ply- 
mouth Colony by Massasoit, and Standish with a force of men was 
ordered to their aid. Arriving at the colony, two of the Massa- 
chusetts Indian chiefs, Pecksuot and Wituwamat, with a half broth- 
er of the latter, were enticed into a room and by Massasoit 's advice 
the Indians were killed by Standish and his men. This was the first 
Indian blood shed by the Pilgrims ; a general battle ensued, and the 
Indians were defeated, though there were no lives lost. This victory 
of Standish spread terror among the savages ; the head of Witu- 
wamat was exposed to view at Plymouth as a warning to deter the 
Indians from further depredations. 

Captain Standish was the military commander of the colony dur- 
ing his lifetime. He commanded the Plymouth troops in their ex- 
pedition against the Narragansett Indians in 1643, and ten years 
later, when there was danger of hostilities with the Dutch, he was 
one of the council of war and was appointed to the command of the 
troops. His wife Rose, who accompanied him on the Mayflower's 
voyage, died January 29, 1621. His courtship of Priscilla Mullins 
has been made a subject of romance by the poet, Henry W. Long- 
fellow. Although his envoy, John Alden, won his chosen bride, 
there does not seem to have been any illwill created between them, 
as they remained close friends until death, and later generations of 
Standish and Alden families intermarried. He married for his sec- 
ond wife, Barbara ; a tradition says she was a sister of his first wife. 



BEGINNINGS OF NEW ENGLAND 

She came to the colony on the ship Ann in 1623, and was the mother 
of all his children. 

Captain Standish was prominent in the civil affairs of the colony. 
He was for many years assistant on one of the governor's council. 
He was a commissioner of the United Colonies; a partner in the 
trading company; and for many years treasurer of the colony. He, 
with a number of the other colonists, removed from Plymouth and 
founded a town to which was given the name of Duxbury, in honor 
of Duxbury Hall, in his native parish in England. Here he lived 
the remainder of his life, and the site where he built his house be- 
came known as Captain's Hill, a name it bears to the present time; 
here he died October 3, 1656. A granite monument to his memory 
was erected on this hill in 1888, the shaft is one hundred feet in 
height, and upon it stands a statue of Standish looking eastward; 
his right hand, holding a copy of the charter of the colony, is ex- 
tended toward Plymouth, while his left hand rests upon his sheathed 
sword. 

Captain Standish was of small stature, of great energy, activity, 
and courage. He was able to impress the hostile Indians with awe 
for the English. He was "an iron-nerved Puritan, who could hew 
down forests and live on crumbs." He was resolute, stern, bold, 
and of incorruptible integrity. There was found in 1877 in a picture 
shop in Boston a portrait painted on a panel, bearing the date 1625, 
on which the name of M. Standish was discovered after removing the 
frame. This picture now hangs in Pilgrim Hall, Plymouth; also 
one of his swords and several other relics are in the possession of 
the society. Another sword is preserved in a cabinet of the Massa- 
chusetts Historical Society. 

The picturesque hero in both romantic verse and history of the 
Pilgrim Fathers, John Alden, was born in England, in 1599. Alden 
was never a member of the Leyden Colony, but joined the Pilgrims 
on the Mayflower at Southampton. He was hired as a cooper, and 
on reaching the American coast he signed the Covenant in the cabin 
of the Mayflower , and became a member of the Church. Longfel- 
low, in his "Courtship of Myles Standish," delineates his wooing 
by proxy, for the military hero, Captain Myles Standish, of the coy 
and winsome Puritan maiden, Priscilla Mullins. The manly and 
youthful beauty of the advocate surpassed in her eyes the mighty 
warlike exploits of the doughty captain, and she manifested her 

225 



5 

BEGINNINGS OF NEW ENGLAND 

choice to the aspiring orator of love, and he readily seized the op- 
portunity and became the successful claimant for her hand in mar- 
riage. The marriage took place in the spring of 1621, and they lived 
long and happily together, and she bore him a family of eleven 
children. 

Alden was elected in 1633 assistant to the governor, an office which 
he held for nearly all of the remainder of his life, serving with Ed- 
ward Win slow, Josiah Winslow, Bradford, Prince and Hinckley. 
From 1666 until his death he held the office of first assistant, often 
called deputy governor, and was many times acting governor in the 
absence of the chief magistrate. On the Alden farm in Duxbury, 
Massachusetts, his son Jonathan built a house which has been oc- 
cupied by eight generations in a direct line. It is the oldest house in 
New England, with three exceptions — the old fort at Medford, built 
in 1631; the Fairbanks house at Dedham, built in 1636; and the old 
stonehouse at Milford, Connecticut, built in 1610. Here Alden spent 
his declining years. He died in Duxbury, Massachusetts, September 
1, 1686, aged eighty-seven years, the last of the famous band of Pil- 
grim Fathers that signed the compact in the cabin of the Mayflower. 

In the first century of the settlement of New England, the clergy, 
besides being the spiritual guides, were prominently connected with 
the temporal government of the colonies. In England they had been 
ejected from the Established Church for nonconformity, and, gath- 
ering their flocks around them, like the Israelites of old, they mi- 
grated to a new world to be free from religious persecutions and to 
obtain freedom of voice and action in a new land. 

Among the pioneers of the clergy in the Massachusetts Bay Col- 
ony, was Francis Higginson. He was of English parentage, born in 
1587. He was educated at Cambridge University, became rector of 
a parish in Leicestershire, was deprived of his benefice for non- 
conformity and was employed among his former parishioners as a 
lecturer. While so engaged he was apprehensive of receiving a 
summons to appear before the High Commission Court, and readily 
accepted an invitation from Massachusetts to proceed to their 
colony. He embarked in May, 1629, and arrived at Salem, Massa- 
chusetts, on June 29 that year. A congregation was established at 
Salem, of which he was chosen teacher; Samuel Skelton, his com- 
panion on the voyage, was pastor. They consecrated each other 

226 



BEGINNINGS OF NEW ENGLAND 

by the laying on of hands, assisted by several of the gravest men. 
Subsequently Higginson drew up "a confession of faith and church 
covenant according to Scriptures," which was assented to by thirty 
persons who associated themselves as a church. He continued to 
discharge the duties of his office, when he was attacked by a hectic 
fever of which he ultimately died, August 6, 1630. He wrote "New 
England's Plantations, or a short and true description of the Com- 
modities and Discommodities of the Country," London, 1630, and 
an account of his voyage, which is preserved in Hutchinson's collec- 
tion of papers. 

John Cotton, called the Patriarch of New England, was born in 
Derby, England, December 4, 1585. At the age of thirteen he en- 
tered Trinity College, and was afterwards a fellow of Emmanuel 
College, employed as a lecturer and tutor. He became vicar of St. 
Botolph's Church in Boston, Lincolnshire, in 1612, where he re- 
mained twenty years, noted as a preacher and controversialist, and 
inclining in his doctrine and practice toward the Puritan worship. 
He was informed against for not kneeling at sacrament, and cited 
to appear before Archbishop Laud in the High Commission Court. 
He sought safety in flight, and after spending some time in London 
he went to America, arriving at Boston, September 4, 1633. The 
following October he was ordained on a day of fasting, by imposi- 
tion of hands, teacher of the church in Boston, and a colleague of 
Mr. Wilson, the pastor. Here he found his life's work, and in this 
connection he remained until his death, December 23, 1652, which 
was brought on by exposure in crossing the ferry to Cambridge, 
where he was going to preach. 

Cotton was a critic in Greek, wrote Latin with elegance, and could 
discourse in Hebrew. He spent twelve hours in reading, his favorite 
author being John Calvin. His pulpit eloquence was famous for 
its simplicity and plainness, and his discourses were exceedingly 
effectual in exciting attention to religion. He was very regular in 
religious observances, and through his custom of keeping the Sab- 
bath holy from evening to evening, that form of observance became 
universal throughout New England. Among his numerous works 
the most important are those published in the course of his contro- 
versity with Roger Williams, "Milk for Babes," a religious book 
for children, and "The Power of the Keys," on the nature of church 
government. He defended the interference of the civil power in 

227 



BEGINNINGS OF NEW ENGLAND 

religious matters for the support of the truth, maintaining the duty, 
for the good of the church and of the people, of putting away those 
who, after repeated admonitions, persist in rejecting fundamental 
power of doctrine or worship. 

The founder of the Colony of Connecticut, Thomas Hooker, was 
born in Markfield, Leicestershire, England, in 1586. He is supposed 
to have been a cousin of the noted divine, Richard Hooker, author 
of the great work, "Ecclesiastical Polity." Hooker, after graduat- 
ing from Emmanuel College, Cambridge, took orders, preached in 
London, and in 1626 was chosen lecturer at Chelmsford. Having 
been silenced for nonconformity by Archbishop Laud, he establish- 
ed a grammar school at Chelmsford, in which John Eliot was usher. 
The persecution continuing, he emigrated to Holland, where he 
preached at Delft and Rotterdam as an assistant to Doctor Ames, 
who said to him, "he never met with his equal, either in preaching 
or in disputation." He came to New England with John Cotton 
in 1633, and was settled at Newtown (now Cambridge) being or- 
dained by the brethren of the church. The settlements in Massa- 
chusetts becoming too congested, with a jealousy arising amongst 
the clergy owing to their close proximity to each other, led Hooker • 
and his associate Stone, with about one hundred of their Hock, in 
1636, to seek a new home. This resulted in the formation of the 
settlement at Hartford, Connecticut, where Hooker and Stone were 
the first ministers of the church. He died in Hartford, Connecticut, 
July 7, 1647. 

Another pioneer founder of Connecticut was John Davenport, 
born at Coventry, England, in 1598. He was educated at Oxford 
University, and became an eminent preacher among the Puritans, 
and minister of St. Stephen's Church, London. He became engaged 
in 1630 in purchasing church lands of laymen for the benefit of poor 
congregations; he was making great progress when he was inter- 
rupted by Archbishop Laud, who feared it would turn to the profit 
of the nonconformists. 

Davenport himself soon became a nonconformist, and resigning 
his charge, in 1633 went to Holland. There he became involved in 
a controversy, taking sides against a general baptism of children. 
and returned to London in two years. He had been interested in 
the Massachusetts Colony, and seeing a letter from Mr. Cotton 
giving a favorable account of it, he determined to emigrate, and 



BEGINNINGS OF NEW ENGLAND 

arrived in Boston, June 26, 1637. On his arrival he received an 
invitation to sit in a session of a synod, and, owing to the sharp 
religious controversies of Massachusetts, he determined with a com- 
pany of settlers to sail on March 30, 1638, to Quinnipiack, to found 
a new colony which was named New Haven. The first Sabbath after 
arival he preached under a spreading oak. He was minister at New 
Haven for thirty years, and was active in the organization of the 
civil government. The Bible was made the basis of civil law, and as 
trial by jury is not mentioned in the Bible, no place was given it 
in the colony. The constituted assembly held in a barn, June 4, 
1639, resolved that church members only should be burgesses. The 
carefulness of Davenport in regard to the admission of members to 
the church, gave him also the keys of political power. His reputa- 
tion abroad was such that he was invited to sit with the Westminster 
Assembly of divines, but he could not be spared from his church. 

The regicides, Goffe and Whalley, while flying from pursuit, hid 
in his home, and he exhorted his people not to betray them. A sharp 
discussion arose in New England in regard to the general baptism 
of children ; Davenport took the same ground he had taken in Am- 
sterdam. He was called to Boston, December 9, 1668 ; some who dis- 
approved of his controversial position left the church when he took 
charge and formed a congregation that afterwards was known as the 
Old South Church. He died at Boston, Massachusetts, March 15, 
1670. 

The "Apostle of the Indians," John Eliot, born at Nasing, County 
Essex, England, in 1604, was educated at Jesus College, Cambridge 
University, where he took his bachelor's degree in 1623. He there 
displayed a partiality for philology, which may have had some in- 
fluence in stimulating the zeal he afterwards displayed in acquiring 
the language of the native Indians. After leaving the university 
he was employed as an usher in a school near Chelmsford, under 
the Rev. Thomas Hooker. While in the family of this reverend 
gentleman he received serious impressions, and resolved to devote 
himself to the work of the Christian ministry. As there was no field 
for nonconformist preachers in England, he resolved to emigrate 
to America, and arrived in Boston, Massachusetts, November 3, 
1631. After officiating for a year in the first church in Boston, he 
was in November, 1632, appointed pastor of the church in Roxbury, 
where he continued until his death, May 20, 1690. 

229 



BEGINNINGS OF NEW ENGLAND 

When Eliot began his mission work there were about twenty 
tribes within the bounds of the plantation of Massachusetts, and he 
was assiduously employed for a long time in learning their lang- 
uages. With the assistance of a young Indian taken as prisoner, he 
translated the Lord's Prayer and many Scripture texts, and was 
able on October 28, 1646, to preach to the Indians in their own 
language. This meeting was held at Nonantum, now a part of New- 
ton, and Eliot was strongly opposed by the sachems and conjurers, 
who threatened him with violence if he did not desist from his 
labors; but his answer was : "I am about the work of the Great God, 
and he is with me, so I neither fear you nor all the sachems in the 
country. I will go on ; do you touch me if you dare. ' ' 

Mainly through the instrumentality of Eliot, Natick or "Place of 
Hills," was founded by Christian Indians, for whom he drew up a 
set of civil and economical regulations. He also in 1653 published 
a catechism for their use, the first work published in the Indian 
language; no copy is known to exist. Eliot was an extensive trav- 
eler, planted a number of churches, visited all the Indians in Massa- 
chusetts and Plymouth colonies ; he induced large bodies of Indians 
to give up their savage customs and form themselves into civilized 
communities, led many persons to engage in missionary work among 
them, twenty -four of whom became preachers to their own tribes. 

The founder of Rhode Island, Roger Williams, the son of William 
Williams, was baptized at Gwinsea, Cornwall, Wales, July 24, 1600. 
In early life he went to London, where his skill as a reporter com- 
mended him to the notice of Sir Edward Coke, who sent him to Sut- 
ton's Hospital (Charter House School). He was admitted to Pem- 
broke College, January 29, 1623, and a matriculated pensioner, July 
7, 1625. He took the degree of B. A. in January, 1627. There is a 
tradition he studied law; but, if so, it could only have been for a 
short time; for it is certain that he had been a clergyman of the 
Church of England when at the close of 1630 he embarked for Amer- 
ica, arriving at Boston, Massachusetts, February 3, 1631. 

Williams was a Puritan of the extreme wing, and of that section 
of the wing where tendencies toward the views of the Baptists were 
the immediate occasion of the rapid rise of that denomination in 
England. On his arrival at Boston he incurred the hostility of the 
authorities, chiefly by denying that the magistrates had right to 
punish for any but civil offences. He removed to Salem, Massa- 

230 



BEGINNINGS OF NEW ENGLAND 

ehusetts, to become the assistant of Parson Skelton; the General 
Court remonstrated against his settlement there and complained 
that he had refused ''to join with the congregation at Boston be- 
cause they would not make a public declaration of their repentance 
for having communion with the churches of England, while they 
lived there;" and besides, that he "had declared his opinion that 
a magistrate might not punish a breach of the Sabbath, nor any 
other offence, as it was a breach of the first table." 

Persecution obliged him after a brief ministry at Salem to retire 
to Plymouth, where for two years he was assistant of Pastor Ralph 
Smith. Here he formed acquaintance with leading Indian chiefs 
and gained a knowledge of their language. He was invited to return 
to Salem, first as an assistant and afterwards as the successor of 
Parson Skelton. In one year's time he filled that place with prin- 
ciples of Separatism tending to Anabaptism. The General Court, 
in the autumn of 1635, banished him from the colony, ordering him 
to depart in six weeks, because he had called in question the authori- 
ty of magistrates in respect to two things: one, relating to the 
right of the King to appropriate and grant lands of the Indians 
without purchase ; and the other, to the right of civil power to im- 
pose faith and worship. On the first of these points, Williams made 
explanation deemed satisfactory ; on the other, the divergences were 
hopeless, the ministers who gave their advice at the request of the 
court, declaring that opinions which would not allow the magistrate 
to intermeddle, even to restrain a church from heresy or apostasy, 
were not to be endured ; and he, on the other hand, maintaining with 
inflexible rigor the absolute and eternal distinction between the 
spheres of the civil government and the Christian church. In de- 
fense of his views he published a pamphlet entitled, "Mr. Cotton's 
Letter Examined and Answered." 

The period of his departure was extended to the coming spring; 
but his doctrines were spreading and his purpose of founding a 
colony embodying his principles becoming known, it was determined 
to send him to England. Williams was forewarned, and abandoning 
his friends and family in midwinter, he went through the wilderness 
to the country of the Narragansetts. He purchased land of the 
Indians, and after planting his own corn found that it was within 
the bounds of the Plymouth Colony. With five companions in a 
canoe he started on a new exploration, and finally landed and called 

231 



BEGINNINGS OF NEW ENGLAND 

the place Providence. Here was established a true democracy ; and 
persons admitted to the corporation were required to sign the fol- 
lowing: "We whose names are hereunder, desirous to inhabit in 
the town of Providence, do promise to subject ourselves, in active 
or passive obedience, to all such orders or agreements as shall be 
made for public good of the body, in an orderly way, by the major 
consent of the present inhabitants, master of families, incorporated 
together in a town of fellowship, and others whom they shall admit 
into the same, only in civil things." 

The history of Roger Williams for the succeeding half century is 
the history of Providence and of Rhode Island. The colony was for 
some years a pure democracy, transacting its public busines in town 
meetings. As Massachusetts began to claim jurisdiction of Massa- 
chusetts Bay, Williams in 1643 was sent to England to procure a 
charter. He obtained an independent charter, March 14, 1644, and 
in 1649 he was chosen deputy president. He again visited England 
in 1651 to obtain a more explicit charter, and remained there until 
1654, enjoying the friendship of Milton, Cromwell, and other prom- 
inent Puritans. On his return to Rhode Island in 1654 he was chosen 
president or governor of the province, and remained in office until 
1658. 

Williams' writings were numerous, mostly on religious subjects. 
He was a proficient scholar in Greek, Latin, French, Dutch, and 
Hebrew. He refused to persecute the Quakers, and his influence 
with the Indians enabled him to render signal services to the col- 
onies around him by averting from them the calamities of savage 
warfare ; but they refused to admit Rhode Island into the New Eng- 
land league, and even put obstacles in the way of her procuring the 
means of defense. He died in 1683, in his eighty-fourth year, and 
was buried in his family burying ground in Providence, near the 
spot where he landed. 

The first governor of Massachusetts Bay Colony, John Endicott, 
was born in Dorchester, England, in 1589. He was sent out by the 
Massachusetts Company to carry on the plantation at Naumkeag or 
Salem, where he arrived September 6, 1628. The following April 
he was chosen governor of the "London Plantation," but in Au- 
gust of the same year, on the determination to transfer the gov- 
ernment and charter to New England, he was relinquished of his 
office. With Captain John Underhill, Endicott conducted a sangui- 

232 



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BEGINNINGS OF NEW ENGLAND 

nary but ineffectual expedition in 1635 against the Block Island and 
Pequot Indians. 

Endicott was deputy governor of the Massachusetts Colony from 
1641 to 1644 and 1650 and 1654; and was governor in 1644 and 1649, 
from 1651 to 1654, and 1655 to 1665. He was bold and energetic, a 
sincere and zealous Puritan, rigid in his principles, and severe in 
the execution of the laws against those who differed from the re- 
ligion of the colony. So adverse was he to anything savoring of 
popery that he cut out the cross from the military standard. He 
was opposed to long hair, insisted that women should wear veils in 
public assemblies, and did all in his power to establish what he 
deemed a pure church. During his administration as governor, 
four Quakers were put to death in Boston. He died in Boston, 
Massachusetts, March 15, 1665. 

The Winthrops, father and son, have been justly looked upon as 
the flower of American Puritanism. The elder John Winthrop was 
born at Groton, County Suffolk, England, January 12, 1588. He 
graduated at Trinity College in 1605, and was bred to the law. He 
was a man of substance and education, and in religious belief be- 
came a Puritan. He was made in 1629 governor of the Massachu- 
setts Bay Colony, and the next year he headed the great emigration 
to Massachusetts, and was selected governor. The expedition sailed 
from Yarmouth, England, April 7, 1630, and first landed in Salem, 
Massachusetts, but it being sickly there, they went to the peninsula 
of Shawmut, where there was a spring of pure and wholesome w T ater, 
and seated themselves, and called that place Trimountain, on ac- 
count of three hills. It was afterw-ards named Boston, and became 
the principal city of New England. 

Winthrop was re-elected governor until 1634, when Sir Henry 
Vane became governor, and he served as deputy-governor. The 
following year occurred the celebrated controversy in regard to 
Mrs. Hutchinson and her doctrines. Vane and Winthrop were on 
opposite sides, and in the election of 1637 the latter was chosen 
governor. He was elected every year till 1640, and again in 1642 
and 1643. He was deputy-governor in 1644 and 1645, and again 
governor in 1646 until his death, March 26, 1649. The tenderness 
and gentleness of Winthrop 's nature was beyond dispute ; even such 
political opponents as Vane retained their personal friendship for 
him. These qualities, however, were supplemented by a decided 

233 



BEGINNINGS OF NEW ENGLAND 

antipathy to democracy in every form, which made him the best civil 
leader for the supporters of the ecclesiastical system of Massachu- 
setts. 

The younger John Winthrop was born at Groton, England, Feb- 
ruary 12, 1606. He graduated at Trinity College, Dublin, Ireland; 
studied law at the Inner Temple, London ; and then traveled on the 
continent. He was a member of the expedition of 1627 for the relief 
of the Huguenots at La Eochelle, France. He was attached to the 
English Embassy at Constantinople, Turkey, in 1628, and followed 
his father to America in 1631, and was chosen a magistrate of Mas- 
sachusetts in 1633, but returned to England. He returned to Amer- 
ica in 1635 with a commission from Lord Say and Seal to build 
a fort at the mouth of the Connecticut river, and of which planta- 
tion he was constituted governor. He obtained in 1645 title to lands 
in southeastern Connecticut, and founded the present city of New 
London, Connecticut. He became a magistrate of Connecticut in 
1651, and was elected in 1657 governor, and was re-elected annually 
until his death, while attending the Congress of the New England 
Confederacy at Boston, Massachusetts, April 5, 1676. 

The first American born governor of Massachusetts was William 
Phips, the son of John Phips, a gunsmith by trade, who emigrated 
from Bristol, England. He had a family of twenty-six children, of 
whom William, one of the youngest of the family, was born at Wool- 
wich, Maine, February 2, 1651. 

The death of his father left him at an early age to the exclusive 
management of his mother. The lowness of his parents' situation 
and the ravages of frontier hardships did not admit of much op- 
portunity for obtaining an education. At the age of eighteen years 
we find him tending sheep, but a sailor's life appealed to his active 
temperament. Unable to procure a situation on board a vessel, he 
became a ship carpenter, which work was diversified by occasional 
coasting trips. Here he remained for four years, but dreaming he 
was born for greater matters, he removed to Boston in 1673. Here 
he worked at his trade for a year, and married a widow several 
years his senior, a daughter of Captain Roger Spencer. His wife 
brought him some pecuniary means that enabled him to contract 
with merchants at Boston to build a vessel which was launched on 
Sheepshead river, a little to the eastward of the Kennebec river. 

When in the summer of 1689, an Indian war was raging on 

234 



BEGINNINGS OF NEW ENGLAND 

the frontier, he offered his services to Governor Bradford. In 
the winter of 1690 he was placed in command of an expedition 
against Nova Scotia and L'Acadie. Port Royal was captured and 
he took possession of the country from Port Royal to the Penobscot 
river in the name of the English government. On his return from 
Port Royal, Sir William, took his seat in the Board of Assistants, 
to which he had been elected two days before. A naval expedition 
against Quebec was undertaken in 1690, Sir William being appoint- 
ed commander-in-chief. The fleet sailed August 9, 1690; smallpox 
broke out amongst the crew, unnecessary delays were encountered, 
and it was not until October 5 that the expedition appeared before 
Quebec. After several attempts to make a landing, cold weather 
compelled the return of the fleet. One vessel was never heard of, 
another was wrecked, and a third, a fire ship, was burned at sea. 

In September, 1691, Increase Mather obtained a new charter for 
Massachusetts. Under this charter he had the power to appoint a 
governor, and the fact that Sir William Phips was a native of New 
England, possessed a high rank and considerable estate, had already 
served the Crown in several capacities and obtained the favor of the 
King without forfeiting his popularity at home, picked him out as 
the most logical and eligible person for the office. He was therefore 
nominated at the Council Board and was appointed Captain-general 
and Governor-in-chief of the Province of Massachusetts Bay in New 
England. Sir William was in England at the time of his appoint- 
ment, and on his return to Boston the witchcraft persecutions were 
at their height ; his last act as governor was to issue a general par- 
don to all those who had been convicted or accused of the offense. 
At the opening of 1693, the people grew dissatisfied with Phips' 
administration. The King ordered him to England to defend him- 
self against the attacks of his enemies. He was deprived of his 
office by the King and, unable to remain idle, Sir William engaged 
in the prosecution of two designs — to supply the English navy with 
lumber and naval stores from the eastern part of New England; 
the other, returning to his old business of seeking for shipwrecked 
treasure. The execution of these designs was cut short. About the 
middle of February he was attacked with a cold, which resulted in a 
malignant fever which caused his death on February 18, 1695, in the 
forty-fifth year of his age. He was interred in the Church of St. 
Mary, Woolnoth, England. He left no children. 

235 



BEGINNINGS OF NEW ENGLAND 

The first governor of New Haven Colony was Theophilus Eaton. 
He was born in Stony Stratford, Oxfordshire, England, about 1591. 
His father was a clergyman, and it was the hope of his friends that 
he would study theology, but he became a merchant in London. Here 
he arose to opulence, and attracted the notice of the government and 
was sent on a diplomatic mission to the court of Denmark, and on 
his return to London again engaged in mercantile life, gaining high 
reputation. 

Eaton was one of the seven pillars that formed a government for 
the colony, was chosen the first governor and continued in that office 
until his death, January 7, 1658. He was one of the commissioners 
that formed the United Colonies of New England, and in 1646 pro- 
posed to Governor Kieft, of the province of New Amsterdam, to 
settle all differences with him by arbitration; the Dutch governor 
soon after this was displaced by Peter Stuyvesant, and nothing 
came of his suggestion. 

William Pynchon, born in Springfield, County Essex, England, in 
1590, was scion of an ancient family, and well educated. In the 
charter of the Colony of Massachusetts granted by Charles I, he is 
named as a patentee. He came to America with Governor Winthrop 
in 1630, and was one of the first settlers of Roxbury, Massachusetts. 
Being a man of means, he engaged in the fur trade with the Indians 
and was made treasurer of the colony. 

Pynchon with seven others from Roxbury joined Rev. Thomas 
Hooker's party and, proceeding westward, on arriving at what is 
now Springfield, Massachusetts, selected a beautiful site and re- 
mained there. This settlement was first called Agawam, but the 
name was changed in 1640 to Springfield, in honor of Pynchon 's 
birthplace. The town remained under the jurisdiction of Connecti- 
cut until 1641, when it was recognized by the Massachusetts authori- 
ties as falling within their bounds. Pynchon in 1643 became one 
of the Board of Assistants of the Massachusetts Bay Colony. He 
had the office of chief magistrate until 1651. He succeeded in pre- 
serving friendly relations between the Indians and his colony, by 
a conciliatory policy. He treated them independently as far as their 
relations with one another were concerned. The Indians had con- 
fidence in him and were ready to be guided by his wishes. 

On the assembling of the Massachusetts General Court in October, 
1650, they were horrified at the sight of a book lately published in 

236 



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London, England, the author being William Pynchon, entitled, "The 
Meritorious Price of Our Redemption, Justification, etc., Clearing 
it from some Errors." The work maintained : 1. "That Christ did 
not suffer for us those unutterable torments of God's wrath that 
was commonly called hell-torments. 2. That Christ did not bear 
our sins by God's imputation, and therefore he did not bear the 
curse of the law for them. 3. That Christ had redeemed us from the 
curse of the law not by suffering the said curse for us," etc. This 
opposed the Calvinistic view of the atonement, and created a great 
excitement in Boston. The General Court pronounced the book 
heretical, and directed that it "be burned by the executioner in the 
market place in Boston on the morrow immediately after the lec- 
ture." Pynchon was called to appear before a tribunal of min- 
isters, but his recantation of his errors was not satisfactory. Cited 
again before the court, he did not appear; he was enjoined to be 
present at the next session of the General Court under a penalty 
of one hundred pounds. In consequence of this violent action of the 
authorities and the ill-treatment to which he had been subjected, he 
decided to return to England in September, 1652, leaving his chil- 
dren in New England, as permanent settlers. 

The triumvirate of the revolutionists of New England were Sam- 
uel Adams, James Otis and John Hancock. They were a founda- 
tion of a new New England conscience which fostered a condition 
of betternment of life and type of character. The old New Eng- 
land conscience, strengthened by a fight against the wilderness, 
proscribed from contact with it all idleness, ungodliness, and friv- 
olity. It was narrow as avarice, morbid as egotism. It exalted 
harsh unlovely deeds into heaven inspired acts, and was blind to all 
human purposes but death. Their spiritual life was a ceaseless 
ceremonial, their pious observances were rigid rules of etiquette, 
without which one could obtain neither favor nor even audience of 
the Almighty. The spirit of caste kept our ancestors "not pro- 
vincial, but parochial." It performed its work soundly, peopled 
an exceptional region, and therefore has no necessity of being. The 
modern type of conscience has developed new concepts of religion, 
and has emancipated New England from that reign of selfish in- 
dividualism which sought only its own salvation. The modern con- 
science is straightforward and business-like, and the highest civil- 

237 



BEGINNINGS OF NEW ENGLAND 

ization is synonymous with the purest simplicity. The new con- 
science, if it is to do great deeds, must meet the complex problems 
of the twentieth, with the single-heartedness of the eighteenth 
century. 

Samuel Adarns has been properly called "The New England Dem- 
ocrat." The historian John Fiske says that Adams should stand 
second only to Washington as the greatest of Americans. He led 
the movement against the arbitrary rule of Great Britain, and stir- 
red up Massachusetts and the other colonies to resist taxation. It 
was not by eloquence and fiery speech-making — for he was no 
orator, but by letters to newspapers ; by correspondence, voluminous 
and fiery ; most of all by resolutions passed in the greatest political 
institution, the New England town-meeting. It was in the old town 
of Boston, in the town-meetings where everybody felt free to speak, 
that Samuel Adams played his great part as an advocate of the 
people's rights and a leader of the Revolution. 

Samuel Adams was born in Boston, Massachusetts, September 27, 
1722. He was prepared for college at the Boston Latin School. Af- 
ter receiving private tuition, in 1736 he entered Harvard College; 
he was graduated as A. B. in 1710. His father, Captain Samuel 
Adams, urged his entering the ministry, but the son having no 
taste for the calling, began the study of law. This afterwards he 
relinquished and accepted employment in the counting house of 
Thomas Cushing, where though active and industrious enough, he 
displayed conspicuous inaptitude for trade. Subsequently he began 
trade for himself but was unsuccessful, and he then became a part- 
ner with his father in a brewery. 

Not succeeding in business, Adams obtained the post of tax collec- 
tor for the town of Boston. This brought him into contact and ac- 
quaintance with all the inhabitants and gained him the cognomen 
from his political opponents of "Samuel the Publican." He was a 
member of the Caucus Club of Boston, which was a corruption prob- 
ably of "Caulkers' Club," as it was originally composed of ship- 
building mechanics. This club, in which Adams was an active mem- 
ber, met and agreed on candidates they would support for town 
offices. Adams served on many town committees, as moderator of 
town meetings, but did not really become prominent in politics until 
he was forty-two years old. At that age men were considered 
venerable, and Adams moreover carried out that idea, as his hair 

238 








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SAMUEL ADAMS 






BEGINNINGS OF NEW ENGLAND 

was quite gray and he had a trembling of the head and hands which, 
while it added impressiveness in Ms public speaking, made him seem 
much older than he was. 

In 1764 he was elected one of the three representatives from Bos- 
ton to the Provincial Assembly, a position which he held nine years. 
Upon his entry into the General Court he accepted the position of 
clerk, which enabled him to exercise a certain influence over the 
course of proceedings. It devolved upon him to prepare the largest 
portion of the papers of the house in its controversies with the royal 
governors Bradford and Hutchinson. This admirably fitted his 
fluent and eloquent pen and the mixture of his character of caution 
with fire, courage and decision. Adams is described at this time by 
one of his contemporaries as being zealous, ardent and keen in the 
cause; was always for softness, delicacy and prudence when they 
would do; but as staunch, stiff, strict, rigid and inflexible in the 
cause. Another says that he believed that Adams had a most thor- 
ough understanding of liberty and her resources ; in the temper and 
character of the people, though not in the law and constitution, as 
well as the most habitual, radical love of it, also the most earnest, 
genteel and artful pen. He is described as a man of refined policy, 
steadfast integrity, exquisite humanity, fair erudition, and obliging 
and engaging manners, real as well as professed piety, and a uni- 
versal good character. While Adams thus devoted himself to poli- 
tics, it was chiefly the industry and economy of his wife that sup- 
ported the family. He married, in 1749, Elizabeth, daughter of 
Reverend Samuel Checkley, of Boston. She died in 1767, and his 
second wife was Elizabeth Wells, a daughter of an English mer- 
chant who had settled in Boston in 1723. 

Adams, though poor, was incorruptible ; it was proposed to silence 
him by the gift of some place under the government, but the royal 
governor declared that he was of such an "obstinacy and inflexible 
disposition" that no gift or office would conciliate him. 

Meanwhile the Stamp Act had been repealed. The people of Bos- 
ton in 1769 devoted their time to abusing the importers of English 
goods, and the English soldiers. This culminated in the Boston 
Massacre. At a town meeting where there was some objection to 
a motion pending, that it savored of independence, Adams wound 
up a speech in defense of it with the bold declaration, ' ' Independent 
we are, and independent we will be." After the Boston Massacre, 

239 



BEGINNINGS OF NEW ENGLAND 

he was appointed chairman of. a committee to wait upon the gov- 
ernor and council to demand the withdrawal of the British troops 
from Boston. The energy of Adams prevailed, and the troops were 
sent to Castle Island. 

Adams and Democracy had for the moment triumphed, but the 
next two years were years of reaction. New York, which had agreed 
on the non-importation of British goods, revoked this agreement; 
the King's government grew more and more determined; the Whigs 
of Boston became disconsolate, the Tories, jubilant. In this crisis, 
Adams conceived the idea of establishing a committee of corre- 
spondence to strengthen the cause of independence and to bring the 
force of all the Massachusetts town meetings to bear upon the some- 
what wavering policies of the Boston town meeting. Most of his 
friends thought the plan absurd, but the response that came from 
the towns showed that he was right. This action of Massachusetts 
spread to other colonies; in 1773, Virginia proposed that there 
should be a committee of correspondence between all the colonies. 
These committees of correspondence were the germ of the Federal 
Union. 

Together with John Adams, in 1780, he took an active part in the 
formation of the State Constitution of Massachusetts." He was an 
influential member of the Massachusetts Convention in 1788, called 
to ratify the Federal Constitution; though opposed to many of its 
features, he finally gave it his support. The following year he was 
chosen lieutenant-governor of Massachusetts, which office he held 
until 1791, when he was elected governor. He was a warm admirer 
of the French Revolution, and in natural politics leaned decidedly 
to the Republican or Jeffersonian party. The Federal party being 
predominent in the State, also his increasing age and infirmities, 
induced him in 1797 to decline serving longer as governor and to 
retire to private life. He, however, remained a conspicuous figure 
until his death, October 2, 1803. His only son, Samuel, graduated 
from Harvard College in 1771, studied medicine with Dr. Joseph 
Warren, served as a surgeon throughout the Revolution, but his 
health was impaired during the war, and he died in 1788. 

James Otis, the Patrick Henry of New England, was born at 
Great Marshes, now W'est Barnstable, Massachusetts, February 5, 
1725. He graduated at Harvard College in 1743, studied law in 
Boston, and was admitted to practice in Plymouth in 1748. Two 

240 



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JAMES OTIS 



BEGINNINGS OF NEW ENGLAND 

years later he removed to Boston, where he soon obtained a high 
rank as a lawyer and advocate at the bar. He married, in 1775, Miss 
Ruth Cunningham. 

Fond of literary pursuits and a thorough classical scholar, he 
wrote and published "Rudiments of Latin Prosody." He entered 
public life as a zealous patriot and gifted orator. He appeared for 
the merchants as an attorney against the writs of assistance that 
had dealings with an illicit trade with the West Indies, and warrants 
were executed to search ships and dwellings for smuggled goods. 
The legality of the writs was questioned, and the advocate for the 
crown argued that as parliament was the supreme legislature for 
the whole British realm, no subject had the right to complain. To 
this James Otis answered with great power and effect. The fire of 
patriotism glowed in every sentence. "To my dying day, I will 
oppose, with all the power and faculties God has given me, all such 
instruments of slavery on one hand and of villainy on the other." 
He thus gave the keynote to the concerted action of the English 
American colonies, in opposing the obnoxious acts of the British 
Parliament. "Then," said John Adams, who heard Otis speak, 
"the independence of the colonists was proclaimed." 

The people could not brook such a system of petty oppression. At 
a town meeting when this government measure was discussed by 
Mr. Gridley, the calm advocate of the crown, James Otis, one of 
Gridley's pupils, addressed the multitude. Referring to the ar- 
bitrary powers of the writs, he said, "A man's house is his castle; 
and while he is quiet, he is as well guarded as a prince in his castle. 
This writ, if it shall be declared legal, would totally annihilate this 
privilege. Custom house officers may enter our homes when they 
please; we are commanded to permit their entry. Their menial 
servants may enter, may break everything in their way; and whether 
they break through with malice or revenge, no man, no court, may 
inquire. I am determined to sacrifice estate, ease, health, applause, 
even life, to the sacred calls of my country, in opposition to a kind 
of power the exercise of which cost one King his head and another 
his throne." Though the judge secretly granted the writs at the 
next term of court, they were never executed. The next year Otis 
was elected a representative to the Massachusetts Assembly, where 
his eloquence soon placed him at the head of the popular party, and 

241 



BEGINNINGS OF NEW ENGLAND 

justified his claim to the title of the "great incendiary of New Eng- 
land.'' 

In 1764, he published a pamphlet entitled "The Rights of the 
Colonies Vindicated," which attracted great attention in England 
for its finished diction and its masterly arguments. He proposed 
in 1765 the congress of delegates to consider the Stamp Act. He 
was chosen a delegate and was one of the committee to prepare an 
address 'to the English House of Commons. A committee of cor- 
respondence was appointed to hold coimnunications with other co- 
lonial assemblies, and the political postulate, "Taxation without 
representation is tyranny," was boldly enunciated in a pamphlet 
by James Otis, entitled "The Eights of the British Colonies As- 
serted." 

Otis was chosen in May, 1767, speaker of the provincial house; 
the governor negatived the election, but he could not silence him. 
When the English ministry required the Massachusetts of Assembly 
to rescind the circular letter and requested the colonies to unite in 
measures for redress, Otis made a speech which his adversaries 
proclaimed as "the most violent, abusive and treasonable declara- 
tion that perhaps was ever uttered." The House refused to rescind 
by a vote of ninety-two to seventeen. 

In the summer of 1769 he published an article in the "Boston 
Gazette" which greatly exasperated the custom house officers. The 
next evening he met Robinson, one of the officers ; an altercation en- 
sued in which Otis was overpowered by numbers and severely in- 
jured. He received a cut on the head, and his subsequent derange- 
ment is attributed to the wound. He obtained a verdict against the 
inflictor of the wound, but the amount of money he received for dam- 
ages he returned on receiving a written apology. He withdrew in 
1770 to the country on account of ill-health, but was called into 
public life as a representative the following year, but was unable to 
perform the duties. After the War of Independence which his 
trumpet voice had heralded, he attempted to resume the practice of 
his profession. His last two years were spent at Andover, Massa- 
chusetts; he had often expressed the wish that his death might be 
by a stroke of lightning. Standing in his doorway on May 23, 1783, 
during a thunder storm, he was instantly killed by a lightning-stroke. 

The autocrat of the triumvirate was John Hancock, born in 
Quincy, Massachusetts, January 12, 1737. He received a college 

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JOHN HANCOCK 



BEGINNINGS OF NEW ENGLAND 

education at Harvard, graduating in 1754. Shortly afterwards lie 
entered the counting house of his uncle, Thomas Hancock, who was 
a prominent merchant of Boston. In 1764 occurred the death of his 
uncle, who left him a large fortune, and he soon became identified 
with the mercantile business of Boston. 

Hancock was first chosen to the Massachusetts House of Repre- 
sentatives in 1766. The seizure of his sloop, the Liberty, in 1768, 
occasioned a riot when the royal commissioners of customs narrow- 
ly escaped with their lives. After the Boston Massacre he was a 
member of the committee to demand of the governor the removal of 
the British troops from the city; and at the funeral of the slain he 
delivered an address so glowing and fearless in its reprobation of 
the conduct of the soldiery and their leaders, that it greatly offended 
the chief magistrate. Samuel Adams and Hancock were active in 
the Sons of Liberty, and were members of the Provincial Assembly 
in 1774, the latter being president. At the session held in Concord, 
Massachusetts, in April, 1775, one of the objects that led to the 
first battle of the Revolution was to seize these two noted patriots, 
who had tarried at Lexington, Massachusetts. They were, how- 
ever, warned of the movement for their capture, and escaped in the 
night, followed by Dorothy Quincy, to whom Hancock was affianced, 
and whom he married in September, 1775. In a proclamation made 
by General Gage in June, 1775, he denounced those engaged in the 
Lexington affair as "rebels and parricides of the Constitution," 
and offered a free pardon to all who would return to their allegiance 
excepting Adams and Hancock, who were outlawed, and for whom 
he offered a reward as arch traitors. 

Hancock was a delegate in the first Continental Congress and was 
chosen president of that body ; he was the first to place his signature 
to the Declaration of Independence. Returning from Congress in 
1777 on account of ill-health, he was in February, 1778, appointed 
first major-general of the Massachusetts militia, and took part in 
Sullivan's campaign in Rhode Island in the following August. He 
was a member of the convention for framing a constitution for the 
State of Massachusetts, and was in 1780 chosen first governor, to 
which office with an interval of two years, he was annually elected 
until his death at Quincy, Massachusetts, October 8, 1793. He was 
president of the State Convention that adopted the National Con- 
stitution. 

243 



When and Where Some of the First Ships Were 
Built in New England 

By Lhcy Porter Higgins, Boston, Mass. 




|p3TJjHE call for ships and yet more ships during the recent 
World War, awoke the long slumbering spirit of ship- 
building in old Massachusetts. The products of Fore 
River and Squantum — an ever-increasing-wonder and as- 
tonishment — has left that spirit undisturbed, but the spirit and the 
genius of other days was roused by the World War from its long 
sleep. Wareham is now coming into line, and the vision of white 
sails and hulls of wood is already taking shape. A ten-acre lot has 
been secured in this quiet town, which is straightway to be a ship- 
yard, where tugs, barges, and schooners up to 1,500 tons can be built, 
where five shipways can send their ships into a channel 62 feet 
deep at low water, and ever-increasing facilities will materialize. 
For more than half a century the building of wooden ships has been 
a romantic and fascinating dream of the past, now again becoming 
a reality in many places.* 

In old Duxbury (the first incorporated town of the State, that 
event occurring June 17, 1637) for nearly two hundred years the 
clink of heavy hammers echoed from early morning till dewy eve, 
as in her numerous shipyards the proud trees of the forest grew into 
new forms of beauty, and glided gracefully into the welcoming 
waves; but where the smooth green grass has been unruffled by a 
single ship for many a year. 

We are told that the first vessel launched in Duxbury was a small 
sloop, or "pinnace," made of wild cherry, and built about the year 
1700 by Thomas Prince, whose yard was on the western shore of 
the "nook," or "the Captain's nook," as it was then called; the 



*The frontispiece of this Magazine, and the plates accompanying this article, are 
from "History of New Bedford, Mass," by Zephaniah W. Pease, of that city, (Lewis 
Historical Pub. Co., New York, 1918). They are after old-time paintings and engravings 
in the Bourne Whaling Museum, New Bedford, Mass. 

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WHERE THE FIRST SHIPS WERE BUILT IN NEW ENGLAND 

"Captain" of course being Myles Standish, whose grant of land, 
several hundred acres, included the nook, and also Captain's Hill, 
now surmounted by the Standish Monument. On a knoll a little to 
the south and west of this hill, was his home. It overlooked the 
Plymouth settlement, and was surrounded and almost hidden by 
trees. Here he could guard both settlements from hostile Indians, 
a service which he most faithfully rendered. This house was burned 
not long before his death, and he spent the remainder of his days 
with his son Alexander, whose house was a little farther to the south 
and west, still standing and known as the Standish House. The little 
knoll has been a mecca to countless pilgrims, and many interesting 
souvenirs of the brave Captain have been taken from the spot. 
Though a digression, this statement of facts is not uninteresting. 

In the early days, canoes were often used by the colonists, but 
other accommodations were much needed, and the building of this 
first little sloop was an important matter. Should it be a success, 
many more would follow. Skill was not wanting, but tools were 
scarce, and the enterprising builders were, perforce, compelled to 
resort to many substitutes for necessary materials. Some of the 
workmen had learned their trade in "Merrie England," now, alas, 
a dream. Others, whose wits were sharpened by necessities, lent 
welcome aid, while all who could spare time from other toils looked 
on, curious if not doubtful, and with ever-ready criticism. The mas- 
ter builder himself may ha /e had misgivings, but at length the 
product of their labors is completed and waiting to be launched. 
Friends and neighbors gather to witness the triumph of skill and 
ingenuity over discouraging conditions. Having secured places of 
vantage on the side of the hill, and other outlooks through open- 
ings in the trees, they wait in eager expectation. And the boys — 
they are perched at the highest possible points, and now even they 
are still. A hush of expectation is in the air. A moment, and the 
tiny craft glides gracefully down into the blue waters of the bay; 
a glad shout goes up from the neighbors and friends and the boys, 
and a weight is lifted from the master builder's heart. We should 
be so glad to know the name of this first little boat, this leader in 
the van of a mighty and almost endless procession that was to 
follow. 

But shipbuilding in Massachusetts had an earlier date than this. 
The first vessel built in Massachusetts colony was launched July 

245 



WHERE THE FIRST SHIPS WERE BUILT IN NEW ENGLAND 

4, 1631, into the "Mistick" river at Medford. This was a "bark," 
the Blessing of the Bay, of 30 tons, and owned by Governor Win- 
throp. Five years later, in 1636, she was valued at £160. A ship of 
300 tons was launched at Salem in June, 1641. At Gloucester, a ship 
was built in 1643. In Scituate, at what became known as Hobart's 
Landing, as early as 1650, Thomas Nichols, shipwright, owned land 
and built ships. He was succeeded by his son-in-law, Samuel House, 
Jr., who married his daughter, Rebecca, in 1664. Jeremiah and 
Walter Hatch built at this landing at a later period. In 1676, Israel 
Hobart, son of the Rev. Peter Hobart, of Hingham, settled here; 
from him the landing took its name, and here he carried on the 
business for many years. James Briggs, born in 1719, who came 
to Hobart's Landing, and began to build ships in 1750, was the 
first of the Briggs ship-builders. He was descended from Walter 
Briggs, who was in Scituate as early as 1643, and whose name was 
given to the Cove within the Glades as early as 1650, now known as 
Briggs' Harbor. In 1773, James Briggs built the famous ship 
Columbia, for whom the Columbia river was named. Walter Briggs 
was constable in Duxbury for a time, being appointed in June, 1665. 

Ship-building made great progress, both in Duxbury, of which 
little has been written, and all along the North river. In Duxbury, 
Mr. Prince established his yard around 1700. Others soon followed. 
There were many difficulties in the way, but all were eventually over- 
come. The roads — if roads they could be called, excepting a few 
highways built with great labor — were simply Indian trails or paths. 
Riding on horseback, about the only means of riding, was a very 
difficult procedure through the thick woods and underbrush. These 
same Indian trails were, however, remarkably direct, the "Massa- 
chusetts Paythe" of those days from Plymouth to Boston becoming 
known as "The Old Boston Road," travelled by stage coaches be- 
tween these points for many years. Today it is the "State Road." 

Among those who came to work for Mr. Prince was a young ap- 
prentice, toiling on patiently, like so many others, becoming at 
length skilled in all the details of the business, whose name was 
destined to be handed down through nearly two hundred years in a 
line of distinguished men. Alexander Weston was the apprentice, 
and his son Eliphas was father to the first Ezra Weston, called 
"King Caesar," a street at the present time bearing the latter name 
in his honor. The first Ezra Weston was born some time about 

246 




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WHERE THE FIRST SHIPS WERE BUILT IN NEW ENGLAND 

1750, and died in 1836. He was a man of great wealth and many- 
industries. He owned the rope-walk in Duxbury, was an extensive 
farmer, had large interests in the fishing business, was extensively 
engaged in foreign commerce, and was called the largest ship-owner 
in New England, some have even said in the United States. 

His son Ezra inherited his father's wealth and added much there- 
to. He also became a great ship-builder. His first ship-yard was 
at Harden Hill, called "The Navy Yard." He had others, one at 
the Point. He had frequently three, four, and sometimes five vessels 
on the stocks at one time, building ships of all sorts and sizes, many 
of the largest. Among these were the Onico, of nearly seven hun- 
dred tons; the Manito, the Vandalia, the St. Lawrence, the Undine, 
the Admittance, the Joshua Bates, lost at sea; the Lagoda, Mattakee- 
set, Margaret, and Warivick — all from four to live hundred and fifty 
tons, large ships for those days. The last ship he built was the 
Hope, of about eight hundred tons, the largest but one at that time 
in the United States. "The brig Smyrna, built at Duxbury by Ezra 
Weston and Sons, registering one hundred and sixty-nine tons, was 
the first American vessel to take the national flag into the Black 
Sea after it was opened to our commerce, arriving at the port of 
Odessa on July 28th, 1830." A painting of this vessel can be seen 
in the Duxbury Public Library. Mr. Weston was called "Young 
King Caesar." He was born about 1771, and died in 1842. He was 
father to the Hon. Gershom Bradford Weston, for many years 
representative, born in 1799, and Ezra (3d), born in 1809. 

It is regrettable that with all these names, we fail to find the name 
of that first little sloop built so long ago. Two of the earliest names 
we can trace are the Seaflower and the Dolphin, sloops owned by 
Joshua Soule in 1728. The whaling business was an early venture 
here, as we read that in 1729 "a whale veig was begunn." This 
also was the year that Thomas Prince was married, November 25, 
to Judith Fox. He had a son Thomas, and daughter Hannah. He 
died in 1754. 

The second shipyard (in Duxbury) of which we learn was owned 
by Mr. Israel Sylvester, who occupied the site where at a later date 
he was succeeded by Mr. Frazar. A sloop was built at "Bartlet's 
yard" in 1732. The third yard was that of Benjamin Freeman at 
Harden Hill, the fourth was Perez Drew's, the fifth, Samuel Win- 
sor's. Mr. Winsor lived at one time on Clark's Island, and built 

247 



WHERE THE FIRST SHIPS WERE BUILT IN NEW ENGLAND 

ships there. Mr. Isaac Drew built the first large vessels west and 
south of* Captain's Hill. He was a noted builder for fifty years. 
His house is still standing; south of the hill, and is one of the oldest 
houses in town. The first wharf in town was built in 1779, but has 
not survived the ravages of time and weather. About 1790 a wharf 
was built at the west of this hill by a Mr. Walker. Mr. Isaac Drew 
had a ship of three hundred tons lying there in 1820. Mr. Drew died 
in November, 1835, of palsy, aged 87. His wife was Welthea Brad- 
ford, a great grand-daughter of Governor Bradford. 

One of the noted ship-builders of about 1800 was Mr. Joshua 
Cushing, who was engaged in the business for thirty years or more. 
He built vessels of the largest size, the Pocahontas, etc. Capt. Syl- 
vanus Drew, Joseph Drew, and Mr. Levi Sampson commenced build- 
ing about 1S00. Mr. Sampson built the brig Sampson in 1812, also 
the full rigged ship Clematis, commanded by Captain David Low of 
Charlestown, sailing from Boston to Havre with passengers, and 
called the pack jt between Boston and France. She was succeeded by 
the Napoleon of New York, the Boston agent, Thomas Lamb, fitting 
her for freight, cotton, etc. Mr. Sampson built the Rosanna, the 
Rhoshoris, and others of about three hundred tons. He also built 
the Eliot, which when partly built took fire and was about half burn- 
ed. He built seventy-five or more vessels, mostly brigs, many of 
them for Boston and Duxbury. Mr. Sampson retired about 1850. 

Mr. Levi Sampson's son, Augustus, about 1847 built the Ionic, a 
packet which sailed up the straits, and was owned by Daniel Sharp. 
He built the "Fidelis" for Sampson & Knowles, who sold her to 
California in the days when the California gold fever raged. He 
built the Mozart and the John Allen, which also went to California, 
and the brigs Toncan and "Eialus." Mr. Weston about this time 
had the ship St. Lawrence on the stocks, which caught fire and was 
nearly half consumed. The fire spread in the yard and the work- 
shops, and all the tools and all the models were destroyed, but Mr. 
Augustus Sampson succeeded in finishing the ship, modeling the 
new part from what remained of the old. 

Joseph Barstow, about 1800, had a yard near the Nook, southeast 
from the New Road, now Border street, where he built several 
schooners. Benjamin Porter had a yard at Harden Hill before 1812. 
Isaiah Bradford built at Island Creek some time before 1820, his 
work-house still standing at that time. Joseph Wadsworth and 

248 



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WHERE THE FIRST SHIPS WERE BUILT IN NEW ENGLAND 

James Southwortk both built west of Captain's Hill. James Soule 
built schooners and market-boats from 1815 until about 1810. Mr. 
Joseph Drew's work-house was standing in 1820. Samuel Hall, a 
noted ship-builder, began about 1837, and built some of the largest 
ships, among which was the Naraganset, seven hundred, and the 
Constantine, seven hundred and forty tons, the largest cotton 
freighting ship at that time in the United States. Mr. Hall went 
from Duxbury to Medford and from there to East Boston, and es- 
tablished the first shipyard on that island. Many of the Duxbury 
men went with him. 

John Oldham and Jacob Weston built at Duck Hill. Jacob Wes- 
ton was burned in his own house, which took fire in the night and 
was utterly consumed. It was supposed he was reading a paper, 
which caught fire from his lamp, as he was known to be careless in 
that respect, but his burned and charred remains only were left to 
tell the tale. I 

Hon. Seth ^prague, Deacon George Loring, Samuel Delano, 
Joshua Cushman, Zenas Wadsworth, Reuben Drew, Charles Drew, 
George Cushing, Samuel A. Frazar and David Turner are some of 
the names of builders prominent less than a hundred years ago. 

Mr. William Paulding was an apprentice to Charles Drew in 1823, 
afterwards becoming himself a ship-builder, in which business he 
was engaged for thirty-two years, building fifty-two market boats, 
schooners, and barks. The Forest King and Equity were the first 
two launched by him. In 1819 he launched the bark Bay State, 
commanded by Captain Dill, of Chatham, for the Philadelphia line. 
In 1858 he built the bark Smyrniot, Captain John Weston. She 
sailed for Smyrna, making the quickest passage on record, being but 
twenty days to Smyrna, and thirty-two home. She cost $21,500, and 
paid for herself before the war. During the war she was bought 
by the government for $25,000, and at the close sold for $12,000 to 
New York for a packet. Mr. Paulding also built the Applet on, 
Medora, Celestia, E. E. Yarrington, the Mystery, Emblem, Andrew 
Carney, and the Jennie Fletcher, all barks. The Olive G. Tower was 
one of his schooners. While being launched, the chain, which was 
too short, became broken, the way slipped out, and she fell over on 
her side directly across the street. With much labor she was finally 
righted and set afloat. 

We are told of seventeen yards that were in full operation at one 

249 



WHERE THE FIRST SHIPS WERE BUILT IN NEW ENGLAND 

time, some have said nineteen, many of them turning out two or 
three vessels every year. It is said that in the busiest time they 
"built in every little creek." 

About the year 1800 there were ninety sail of fishing vessels be- 
longing to the town, carrying fish to the West Indies, and bringing 
back sugar, coffee, and molasses, with salt to complete the cargo. At 
one time there were sixty Bank fishermen belonging to the town, 
and owned in Duxbury. Many of the inhabitants have been large 
ship owners. 

In 1830 there were forty-three master-mariners resident in the 
place, and as late as 1868 there were forty. Captain Alexander 
Wadsworth sailed as master in fifteen different ships, nine of which 
were Duxbury built. In 1833 he went in the Favorite to Trieste with 
coffee from Boston, returning with currants, etc., etc. In 1835 
he went in the Falco, built by Nathaniel Gushing, to Rio Janeiro 
for hides and horns, in the Ceylon to Smyrna, in the Minerva to 
London, Cadiz, etc., in the Vandalia to New Orleans and Liverpool, 
in the Vespacian to Havana and Kronstadt, in the Matakeset, the 
Baltimore, etc. His last voyage was in the William Wirt to Havre 
in 1861. 

Porter Keen was the last builder of large vessels in Duxbury, 
commencing in 1866. Among his schooners were the Mary D. Leach, 
Mary Chilton, and Augustus Wilson. He built the bark Samuel G. 
Reed, and the last large vessel launched in Duxbury, a three-masted 
schooner, the Henry J. Lippett, one thousand tons, in 1879, remov- 
ing to Weymouth soon after. Merrit Bros, and Standish built 
small vessels for a short time, the last one being the Addie R. Warn- 
er in 1874. 

Want of material at hand, and the difficulty and expense of pro- 
curing it from the east and south, had much to do with the decline. 
Most of the business was carried on later at Bath and other eastern 
ports. In the old busy days of ship-building here, timber was 
brought from Halifax to Kingston Landing by oxen, and rafted from 
there to Blue river in Duxbury. Timber was brought from most of 
the adjoining towns, from Bridgewater, and even from New Hamp- 
shire by oxen direct to the points where it was needed. Not infre- 
quently a long line of teams could be seen at different places waiting 
their turn to be unloaded. There was abundant employment for 
all, and little opportunity for idleness. Young men were ambitious 

250 



WHERE THE FIRST SHIPS WERE BUILT IN NEW ENGLAND 

to possess land and homes of their own, and young women to make 
those homes bits of Eden to the ones who should choose them. It 
was all so simple, so sweet, and beautiful in those days. 

Another potent factor has to be reckoned with ; namely, the ever- 
increasing demand for steel and iron ships. The super-dread- 
naughts, growing larger and more powerful every year, the entrance 
of the submarine upon the scene of action, the ever-increasing size 
and capacity of airships, make all these stories of the early days 
seem like fairy tales. Yet we turn from the horrors of the World 
War — from our own Charlestown Navy Yard bristling with battle- 
ships — to linger a little longer amid these old days of peace and 
happiness. 

Duxbury with its ships and ship builders and ship-masters. We 
are told that "Duxbury vessels were noted for durability, superior 
models, and excellent workmanship." It was a sufficient recom- 
mendation in the market to know that a ship was Duxbury-built. 
The name (Duxbury) on the stern ensured a sale, and any seaman 
who hailed from that town could ship at any port, on any craft, 
without other credentials. Many of the people have held high rank 
as merchants, and a considerable number have been Atlantic ship- 
owners. 

The Hon. George B. Loring said in his address at the two hundred 
and fiftieth anniversary exercises of the town, June 17, 1887 : "The 
names of Sampson and Weston, Drew, Frazar, Loring, Winsor, will 
outshine in my mind all the McKays and Curriers and Halls that 
ever launched a ship on the Merrimac, the Mystic, or the shores 
of Noddles' Island, and will share with John Roach the fame of the 
American ship-builders, whose vessels defied the storms of ocean 
and resisted the destructive teeth of time." 

At the landing of the French cable exercises Mrs. Loring gave this 
toast: "In memory of the past generation of ship-masters and ship- 
builders ; may the electric spark now kindled, so animate the coming 
generation that it may worthily fill the places of the past, is the wish 
of an old settler." 

The Hon. Stephen N. Gifford called upon Dr. Loring to respond, 
which he did in the following words : 

"The old ship-masters and ship-builders of Duxbury! What 
memories do their names awaken ! Their lives form a part of that 
history of this town, which make it a remarkable illustration of the 

251 



WHERE THE FIRST SHIPS WERE BUILT IN NEW ENGLAND 

advancement and progress for which this age is distinguished. 
They gave Duxbury a name in all the great markets of the world, 
and made it a familiar and household word in Antwerp, Hamburg, 
Liverpool, and London, long ago in the vigorous periods of com- 
merce. And who need be reminded of the Sampsons, that stalwart 
race, whose axes swung the brightest and the sharpest, and whose 
hammers as they drove the treenails, wakened me at dawn even in 
the long summer days. And the Frazars, the Smiths, the Drews, 
the Soules, and Westons. The old ships may be gone, the Cherokee, 
the Chacklaiv, the Susan Drew, but the good names of their masters 
still remain." 

The shipyards have indeed been long silent, and a season of quiet 
settled over the beautiful old town. The young people have scat- 
tered otherwhere in pursuit of vocations made possible by the com- 
ing of the railroad, which is now a many-year-old story. But the old 
homes were made glad by the home-coming of the young people on 
the holidays and other occasions, looked forward to by all with 
eagerness and delight. For somehow, the old place is the dearest 
spot in all the world to those who have ever called it home. Vaca- 
tions are longer, and more and more they come, and more and more 
come. Many strangers to her former greatness have looked upon 
her broad fields and wide expanse of water, her beautiful old groves, 
shall we say with covetous eyes! Yes — and with thoughts big with 
the wonderful possibilities in view. Progress is written on all her 
fair domain. The stories of her ancient glory are a dream. The 
fishing vessels and all the others are a tale that is told. But white 
sails still glide over the blue expanse of her beautiful bay. The 
half-mile-long bridge to her white beach, well made state-roads, 
electric lights, town water, — long needed — a most beautiful me- 
morial library — free to all, are some of the attractions undreamed 
in "ye olden tyme." Let the good work go on, and after this dread- 
ful war, let pleasant, happy homes, homes and schools, and church 
spires, fill all her hills and valleys. Let telephones and wireless 
messages reach far-off friends, and all her waste places be filled with 
gladness and delight ; so that her ancient loyalty to all that is high 
and noble, her spotless record, and proud name, be preserved un- 
tarnished — she will be content. 



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Chapters in the History of Halifax, Nova Scotia 

By Arthur "Wentworth Hamilton Eaton, M. A., D. C. L. 

No. XIV 
Halifax Harbour and Its Famous Traditions 




"Within a long recess there lies a Bay, 
An island shades it from the rolling sea 
And forms a Port secure for ships to ride. 
Broke by the jutting land on either side." 

— Dryden's Virgil. 

"In addition to its physical beauty, Halifax Harbour is a grand commercial asset, 
not only for its residents but for the Province and the whole Dominion as well." 
— A. Martin Payne in the New England Magazine for November, 1906. 

HE noble harbour of Halifax," says Judge Haliburton, 
in his volume "The Old Judge," published long ago, 
"is one of the best, perhaps, in the world: its con- 
tiguity to Canada and the United States, its accessi- 
bility at all seasons of the year, and its proximity to England (it 
being the most eastern part of this continent) give it a decided ad- 
vantage over its rival [Bermuda] ; while the frightful destruction of 
stores at Bermuda, from the effects of the climate, its insalubrity, 
and the dangers with which it is beset, have never failed to excite 
astonishment at the want of judgment shown in its selection, and the 
utter disregard of expense with which it has been attended." From 
Judge Haliburton 's opinion of the relative advantages Halifax 
harbour there has never been any dissent, it is in every respect one 
of the finest harbours in the world. "During fifty years service," 
said, once, a distinguished naval officer, "I have seen all the great 
harbours of the world, Sydney (New South Wales), Rio de Janeiro, 
Naples, Queenstown, and Halifax, and in my opinion among them 
Halifax should be placed first, taking into consideration its ease of 
access from the open ocean, its long stretches of deep water close 
to the land on both sides, and the perfect shelter it gives ships. 
From the view-point of a naval base and the requirements of a great 

253 



CHAPTERS IN THE HISTORY OF HALIFAX, NOVA SCOTIA 

commercial skipping post it is unrivalled around the globe." Says 
a more recent writer: 

"Halifax Harbour is described in nautical works as one of the 
best in the world, affording space and depth of water sufficient for 
any number of the largest ships with safety. It is easier of access 
and egress than any other large harbour on the coast. . . . Unlike 
New York, Halifax has no intricate entrance channel such as that 
at Sandy Hook, impassible by Atlantic liners at some conditions of 
the tide, especially in bad weather." "We have the same broad, 
open harbour that delighted Colonel Cornwallis on his first ap- 
proach to our shores, the same wide-mouthed entrance through 
which the Cunarders in the pioneer days of steamships came and 
went year after year without accident, let, or hindrance, the same 
great depth and broad expanse of water that was required to float 
that huge, clumsy hulk the 'Great Eastern,' the same magnificent 
roadstead, which the entire British Navy could manoeuvre in. We 
have also along the harbour's shores light-houses, buoys, and signal 
stations, and if anything more is needed to make it the most perfect 
harbour in the world we can have that too." 

Halifax harbour proper is a magnificent sheet of water, from eight 
to twelve fathoms deep, from one to two miles wide, and from the 
entrance, fifteen miles long, the island known as McNab's giving 
it the shelter of a natural breakwater. With its forty-two miles 
of shore line it may be described "as a group of harbours, the main 
-harbour of commerce being flanked on the Dartmouth side by the 
Eastern Passage and on the city side by the picturesque Northwest 
Arm." 

The importance of the part the harbour has played in the recent 
world-war, now happily ended, cannot be overestimated, and this 
in a future chapter we shall hope as adequately as possible to de- 
scribe. In later chapters we shall also give some account of the hor- 
rible tragedy that in the course of the war occurred on the shore of 
the harbour, visiting with death and destruction much of the north 
end of the city, and also of the wonderful series of docks that the 
Dominion Government is now at great cost constructing on the lower 
harbour for the accommodation of future maritime trade. In the 
present chapter we shall run back over the seventeen decades during 
which the harbour has been conspicuously used for human enterprise 
and sketch briefly the chief maritime — commercial and striking his- 

254 



CHAPTERS IN THE HISTORY OF HALIFAX, NOVA SCOTIA 

torical naval events that are the outstanding features of the varied 
history of this beautiful bay. 

The first striking episode in the history of the harbour was the 
sailing into its quiet shelter in the autumn of 1746 of the forlorn 
remnant of the fleet of the Due d'Anville, which had proudly left 
Rochelle, in France, for America, on the 22d of June of that year. 
D'Anville 's fleet consisted of twenty-one war-ships, twenty other 
frigates and privateers, and several transports, which carried be- 
sides a sea force no less than three thousand one hundred and 
fifty soldiers, militia troops, and marines. The commission the 
fleet's commander bore ambitiously authorized the retaking and dis- 
mantling of Louisburg, effecting a junction with the French troops 
collected at Baie Verte and expelling the British from Nova Scotia, 
consigning Boston to flames, ravaging New England, and wasting 
the British West Indies. 1 Fate, however, had decided against the 
success of this far reaching policy of the French King, the voyage 
across the ocean was made difficult and dangerous by contrary 
winds, and on the 2nd of September, the fleet having reached the 
dreaded shoals of Sable Island, the whole squadron was there dis- 
persed by a fierce storm, and four ships of the line and a transport 
were probably sunk. At last, between the 8th and the 16th of Sep- 
tember, six or seven ships of the line and a few transports sought 
refuge in Halifax harbour, and there the Due d'Anville and his com- 
panion officer Vice-Admiral D'Estournelle both died. On the pas- 
sage scorbutic fever and dysentery had been fatal to twelve or thir- 
teen hundred of the men, and these diseases now continued their 
ravages until no less than 1,130 more, it is said, had died and been 
buried on the shore of Bedford Basin, at the upper end of the har- 
bour. The Due d'Anville himself died of "apoplexy, sickness, or 
poison," and was probably buried on George's Island, while Vice- 
Admiral d'Estournelle, "agitated, feverish, and delirious." is re- 
ported to have fallen on his sword and as a result died within 
twenty-four hours after. 

Less than three years had passed after d'Anville 's mournful few 
ships steered into the harbour when Colonel Edward Cornwallis 



'See C. Ochiltree MacDonald's "The Last Siege of Louisburg." pp. 23, 24; and 
many other authorities. By the terms of the treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle, which was 
concluded and signed in October, 1748, Louisburg so almost miraculously captured, 
chiefly by New England troops, in 1745, had been restored to France, a blunder that 
cost England another siege of the place in 1758. 

255 



CHAPTERS IN THE HISTORY OF HALIFAX, NOVA SCOTIA 

brought hither his fleet, laden with English emigrants to found Hali- 
fax, thus opening for the harbour an era of incessant shipping 
activity which is destined to continue as long as time lasts. In June 
or July, 1749, as a consequence of the restoration of Louisburg to 
France, the English and New England civilian residents of the 
French town in the island of Cape Breton, as well as the troops that 
had occupied the fortress, came up to Halifax, partly in transports 
that had been lent them for the passage by Desherbiers, the newly 
appointed governor of Cape Breton; 2 and these, in addition to the 
steady stream of schooners and sloops that came directly from Bos- 
ton, bringing settlers from Massachusetts for Halifax, and also 
laden with supplies for the civilians and soldiers at the new capital, 
made the harbour a busy place. 

In July, 1757, Admiral Holburne with a fleet of fifteen ships of the 
line and one vessel of fifty guns, carrying at least twelve thousand 
men, arrived at Halifax from England, with the intention of re- 
capturing Louisburg, but hearing that the French had a larger force 
at Cape Breton than he had been led to believe, he abandoned his 
purpose. The next year, however, the harbour was the rendezvous 
for another fleet, with the same object in view, the chief commander 
of this enterprise being Admiral Boscawen. Soon after the middle 
of May (1758) twenty-three ships of the line, eighteen frigates and a 
hundred and sixteen transports and small craft sailed into the har- 
bour, General Jeffery Amherst and General Wolfe and the troops 
they commanded being also with the fleet. On Sunday, May 28th, 
this formidable armada left for the French stronghold, and the suc- 
cess of the expedition is graphically described by Sir Gilbert Parker 
and Mr. Claude G. Bryan in their picturesque volume entitled "Old 
Quebec." 3 "The years since 1745," says these writers, "had been 



'In his first letter from Chebucko to the Duke of Bedford, dated June 22, 1749, 
Colonel Cornwallis says that he finds that Governor Hopson of Louisburg, who had 
been under orders to transport the English troops stationed there to Chebucto, had 
no transports in which to bring them. As he does not know when he himself can send 
transports he thinks it absolutely necessary to send the slcrap by which Hopson has sent 
messages to him, to Boston "with orders to Apthorp amS Hancock, who Mr. Hopson 
has recommendd as the persons that have been always employed on the part of the 
Government to hire vessels with all expedition for the transportation of these troops 
from Louisburg to Chebucto." A few days later, however, Cornwallis rescinded the 
order to Apthorp and Hancock, but before his second order could get to Boston these 
enterprising merchants had engaged the transports, so Cornwallis had to pay something 
for them. The troops at Louisburg seem to have been conveyed to Halifax partly by 
English transports which had brought the Cornwallis settlers, partly by French ships 
which had come out with Deshrbiers. 

'Sir Gilbert Parker and Claude G. Bryan, in "Old Quebec, the Fortress of New 
France" (1903), pp. 253-255. 

256 



CHAPTERS IN THE HISTORY OF HALIFAX, NOVA SCOTIA 

years of growing strength for Louisburg, and in 175S it almost 
equalled Quebec itself in importance. Its capable commandant, the 
Chevalier de Drucour, counted 4,000 citizens and 3,000 men-at-arms 
for his garrison; while twelve battleships, mounting 544 guns, and 
manned by 3,000 sailors and marines, rode at anchor in the rock- 
girt harbour, the fortress itself, with its formidable outworks, con- 
taining 219 cannon and seventeen mortars. Bold men only could 
essay the capture of such a fortress, but such were Wolfe, Amherst, 
and Admiral Boseawen, whose work it was to do. 

"The fleet and transports sailed from Halifax, bearing eleven 
thousand, six hundred men full of spirit and faith in their com- 
manders. All accessible landing-places at Louisburg had been forti- 
fied by the French ; but in spite of this precaution and a heavy surf, 
Wolfe's division gained the beach and carried the redoubts at Fresh- 
water Cove. A general landing having been thus effected, Wolfe 
marched round the flank of the fortress to establish a battery at 
Lighthouse Point. The story may only be outlined here. First the 
French were forced to abandon Grand Battery, which frowned over 
the harbour, then the Island Battery was silenced. On the forty- 
third day of the siege, a frigate in the harbour was fired by shells, 
and drifting from her moorings, destroyed two sister ships. Four 
vessels which had been sunk at the mouth of the harbour warded 
Boseawen 's fleet from the assault, but did not prevent six hundred 
daring blue-jackets from seizing the Prudent and Bienfaisant, the 
two remaining ships of the French squadron. 

"Meanwhile, zigzag trenches crept closer and closer to the walls, 
upon which the heavy artillery now played at short range with 
deadly effect. Bombs and grenades hissed over the shattering ram- 
parts and burst in the crowded streets; roundshot and grape 
tore their way through the wooden barracks ; while mortars and 
musketry poured a hail of shell and bullet upon the brave defenders. 
Nothing could save Louisburg, now that Pitt's policy of Thorough 
had got headway. On the 26th of July, a white flag fluttered over 
the Dauphin's Bastion; and by midnight of that date Drucour had 
signed Amherst's terms enjoining unconditional surrender. 

"Then the work of demolition commenced. The mighty fortress, 
which had cast a dark shade over New England for almost half a 
century, 'the Dunkirk of America,' must stand no longer as a 
menace. An army of workmen labored for months with pick and 
spade and blasting-powder upon those vast fortifications ; yet noth- 
ing but an upheaval of nature itself could obliterate all traces of 
earthwork, ditch, glacis, and casemate, which together made up the 
frowning fortress of Louisburg. To-day grass grows on the Grand 

257 



CHAPTERS IN THE HISTORY OF HALIFAX, NOVA SCOTIA 

Parade, and daisies blow upon the turf — grown bastions; but who 
may pick his way over those historic mounds of earth without a 
sigh for the buried valour of bygone years." 

As every resident of Halifax or visitor to the city knows, the long 
water-front of the town is flanked by a succession of nearly fifty 
wharves for the accommodation of ships and the pursuit of maritime 
trade. 4 Writing the lords of trade the day after his arrival at 
Chebucto, his impressions of the place selected for the new settle- 
ment, Governor (Jornwallis says : "All the officers agree the harbour 
is the finest they have ever seen," to this adding in a later letter that 
it is "the finest perhaps in the world." Along the beach, he says, 
wharves may easily be built, one already having been finished 
sufficiently ample to accommodate ships of two hundred tons. In 
February, 1750, it was proposed in council that a quay should be 
built along the shore in front of the town, but several merchants, 
among whom were Messrs. Thomas Saul and Joshua Mauger, hav- 
ing applied for water lots and liberty to build individual wharves 
along the beach, the question of the quay was referred to the pro- 
vincial surveyor, Mr. Charles Morris, and the government engineer, 
Mr. John Bruce, for their decision. 5 The expense of the quay prom- 
ised to be so heavy and the time required to build it so long that 
these officials reported unfavorably on it, and licenses to build 
wharves were accordingly granted. 6 At this period, says Dr. Akins, 
the line of the shore was so irregular as in some places to afford only 
a footpath between the base line of the lots which now form the 
upper side of Water Street and high water mark. At the Market 



4 "There are forty-seven docks, piers, and wharves along the water-front of Hali- 
fax proper, nine of which, at Richmond and the deep water terminus, have connections 
at the ships' side with the Intercolonial railway." A. Martin Payne, in the Boston 
Christian Science Monitor for November 29, 191 1. 

*A list of men in the "south suburbs" who sometime in 1750 received permission 
from Governor Cornwallis to build wharves "on the beach before the town of Halifax, 
agreeable to order of Council" is the following: Terence Fitzpatrick, John Shippy, 
John Alden and Jonathan Trumble, Rundle and Crawley, Captain Trevoy, Samuel 
Cleveland, William Wheeler, Joshua Mauger, Henry Ferguson, and Samuel Sellon. 
Most of these were New England men. 

"At a Council meeting at the Governor's house on Saturday, February 24, 1750, 
the Council announced that merchants and others might build wharves where they judged 
proper, and spoke in favour of their doing so. The members, however, prescribed 
certain conditions for prospective builders, one of which was that no storehouses should 
be built on wharves "in front of the town." "When once this harbour is secure, well 
» peopled, and a certain fishery established," wrote Cornwallis to the Lords of Trade, 
March 19, 1750, "people will come from all parts without any expense to the public, 
and it will be easy to extend to other parts of the Province." 

258 



CHAPTERS IN THE HISTORY OF HALIFAX, NOVA SCOTIA 

the tide flowed up nearly to where the [old] City Court House stood, 
forming a cove, into which flowed a brook which came down a little 
to the north of George Street. Near the Ordnance Yard another 
cove made in and this part of the shore was low and swampy many 
years after the batteries were built. 

From the business advertisements in the earliest modest news- 
paper of Halifax in the first year of its publication, the year 1752, 
we find mention of at least four wharves that were already built, — 
Barnard's, Captain Cook's, Fairbanks', and Grant's, and there were 
certainly others like Mauger's, which lay at the foot of Jacob Street. 
Gerrish's wharf, afterwards known as Marchington's, lay immedi- 
ately north of the Ordnance Yard, Proctor's is said to have been 
situated near the spot where the Cunard wharf was in time built, 
Frederick's later became Beamish 's, Fillis's, afterward Mitchell's, 
was a little south of the King's Wharf, Terence Fitzpatrick's was 
situated almost or quite on the spot where Esson and Boak's later 
was built, Crawley's was south of this, and Collier's occupied the 
spot where the later Pryor's was built. In 1753, as we learn from 
the Halifax Gazette, there was still another wharf known as Bourn 
and Freeman's. 

On Colonel Desbarres' plan of Halifax, made in 1781, Gerrish's 
wharf, afterward known as Marchington's, is shown as immediately 
north of the five gun battery, which was slightly north of the Ord- 
nance wharf; Joshua Mauger's is at the foot of Jacob Street; Proc- 
tor's seems to be near where Cunard 's old wharf now is; Freder- 
icks 's, afterward Beamish 's, is the present market wharf; Fillis's 
seems to be the present Mitchell's, a little south of the Queen's 
Wharf; Terence Fitzpatrick's is situated about where Esson and. 
Boak's now is; Crawley's is slightly south of Fitzpatrick's; and 
Collier's is identical with the present Pryor's. 7 

The Boston merchants whose enterprise in sending ships to Hali- 
fax, for more than a decade after the settlement of the town, was 
greatest, were Messrs. Charles Apthorp and Thomas Hancock. For 
some years before Cornwallis came, indeed, these important Boston 
traders apparently had enjoyed almost a monopoly in supplying, 
by contract with the Nova Scotia government, the garrisons at 
Annapolis Boyal and Chignecto, and indeed Louisburg when it was 
-*»rn British hands. Some time in 1750, Cornwallis complains to the 



'See Dr. Akin's Chronicles of Halifax, p. 221. 

259 



CHAPTERS IN THE HISTORY OF HALIFAX, NOVA SCOTIA 

lords of trade that Messrs. Apthorp and Hancock, "the two richest 
merchants in Boston, who have made their fortunes out of govern- 
ment contracts," because they could not entirely monopolize the 
supplying of Halifax had given him a great deal of trouble. ' ' They 
distress and domineer," he says, "and now wanton in their insolent 
demands." For some years longer, however, as we have said, 
Apthorp and Hancock continued to be the chief Boston merchants 
sending supplies to the town. 8 

The comparative wealth of Halifax up to late in the nineteenth 
century is recognized by all historians of the economic and social 
condition of the Maritime Provinces to have been in great measure 
due to the trade her merchants carried on with the West Indies. 
This trade, however, did not well begin until some years after the 
signing of the articles of peace between Great Britain and the 
United States at Versailles in January, 1783. In the British Parlia- 
ment in May, 1784, the question of commercial intercourse between 
the British West Indies and the United States was earnestly dis- 
cussed. England had hitherto strictly limited the trade of her West 
Indian colonies to herself and her other colonies, now peace having 
been established between Great Britain and the United States the 
West Indian planters remonstrated at such limitation and petitioned 
to have it removed. Canada, Nova Scotia, and Prince Edward Is- 
land, however, made strong efforts to convince the home authorities 
that the West Indies would still find sufficient markets in British 
possessions and would have their own needs adequately supplied 



"Thomas Hancock, who built the noted Hancock house on Beacon Hill, Boston, died 
August i, 1764. His partner, Charles Apthorp, died November n, 1758. In the obituary, 
Mr. Apthorp, in the Boston Newsletter, he is calld "the greatest and most noted mer- 
chant on this Continent." For a brief sketch of his life and a portrait of him, see 
"Annals of King's Chapel," Vol. 2, p. 144. Thomas Hancock's business, as is well known, 
was inherited by his nephew (Governor) John Hancock, who continued to trade 
with Nova Scotia until at least 1773. In Council, July 6, 1750, Governor Cornwallis 
says that "there having been some difficulty in raising the supplies of money necessary 
for the service of the Colony, he has agreed to proposals sent him by Messrs. Apthorp 
and Hancock of Boston, who engaged to provide him with dollars upon condition that 
they should likewise have the furnishing all stores and materials, which his Excellency 
understood as meaning all such as might be wanted from that Province, but that these 
gentlemen had since explained their terms so as to oblige him to take everything what- 
ever wanted for this Province from them and not to leave it in his power to buy any- 
thing whatever here or in any of the northern colonys, which terms he could not agree 
to without first consulting the Council." Delancey & Watts of New York, he says, have 
written him that provided his Excellency could assure them of the bills being duly 
honoured there could be no difficulty in being provided with dollars from New York. 
The Council unanimously agreed that to accede to the proposals of Apthorp and Hancock 
would be very disadvantageous to the new settlement. See Nova Scotia Archives, vol. 
.1. See also the "Correspondence of William Shirley." 

260 



-* 



CHAPTERS IN THE HISTORY OF HALIFAX, NOVA SCOTIA 

from British sources, except indeed in the matter of rice. In dis- 
cussing the question, the West Indian sugar planters admitted that 
"on every principle of honour, humanity, and justice," the Loyalist 
refugees of Canada and Nova Scotia were entitled to a preference 
in their trade, provided that Canada and Nova Scotia had the prod- 
ucts to supply the West Indies, but they contended that before any 
permanent regulations governing their trade should be made, exact 
information should be sought as to how much of the annual con- 
sumption of American staples in the West Indies these provinces 
had hitherto supplied and how much they might be expected in the 
future to supply. 

When the matter was thoroughly examined by means of custom 
house records, it was found that of 1,208 cargoes of lumber and pro- 
visions imported from North America into the British sugar-raising 
colonies in the year 1772, only seven of the cargoes were from Can- 
ada and Nova Scotia, and that of 701 topsail vessels and 1,681 sloops 
which had been cleared from North America to the British and 
foreign West Indies in the same year, only two of the topsail vessels 
and eleven of the sloops were from those provinces. Respecting 
Nova Scotia, it was stated that this province had never at any one 
period produced enough grain for its own people, and had never 
exported lumber "worthy the name of merchandise," and that a 
considerable amount of the lumber it was then producing was being 
used to build houses for the Loyalists in the town of Port Roseway. 

Between April 3, 1783, and October 26, 1784, no flour, ship-biscuit, 
Indian corn or other meal, horses, cattle, sheep, hogs, or poultry 
came into the island of Jamaica from Canada, Nova Scotia, or 
Prince Edward Island, the only provisions were 180 bushels of 
potatoes, 751 hogsheads and about 500 barrels of salted fish, with 
also some manufactured lumber. Previous to the war of the Rev- 
olution, in the years 1768-1772, the whole imports into Jamaica from 
Canada, Nova Scotia, and Prince Edward Island were seven hogs- 
heads of fish, eight barrels of oil, three barrels of tar, pitch, and 
turpentine, 36,000 shingles and staves, and 27,235 feet of lumber. 

In the year 1807, however, as is shown by Judge Haliburton in his 
statistical account of Nova Scotia, fifty ships aggregating 5,013 
tons, arrived at Halifax from the West Indies, while eighty ships* 
with a tonnage of 9,269 left this port for the West Indies. Twelve 
years later, in the year 1828, a hundred and sixty-seven ships, with a 

261 



CHAPTERS IN THE HISTORY OF HALIFAX, NOVA SCOTIA 

tonnage of 17,062 arrived at Halifax, while a hundred and seventy- 
seven ships, with a tonnage of 18,739, were cleared for the West 
Indies. From other sources than Haliburton we further learn that 
the value of imports to Halifax from the West Indies between Janu- 
ary 5, 1819, and January 5, 1823, was £348,175, while the value of 
exports to these islands in the same period was £621,491. During 
the six months ending September 30, 1866, there arrived at Halifax, 
from the British West Indies, fifty vessels with a tonnage of 7,S44, 
and from the Foreign West Indies sixty-five vessels with a tonnage 
of 7,446, these ships bringing rum (as the most valuable import), 
sugar, molasses, brandy, gin, salt, and coffee. The total value of 
imports from the British West Indies in this period was $238,143, 
from the Spanish West Indies $233,246, from the French $11,017, 
from the Danish $5,326. Exports from Halifax to these islands 
included all agricultural products, gypsum, lime, plaster, cattle, 
apples, hides, fish oil and fish. 9 

In all records of the early shipping activities and general com- 
merce of Halifax, the names conspicuously appear of Joshua Maug- 
er and Thomas Saul, the latter of whom, a member of the Council, 
Dr. Akins says, was the wealthiest and most enterprising merchant 
of the town from 1749 to 1760. The career of Joshua Mauger we 
have elsewhere in this history sketched; he was the son of a Jewish 
merchant in London, who in early life began to trade between certain 
West Indian ports, later extending his activities to the French town 
and garrison of Louisburg. At the founding of Halifax he took up 
his residence in this town, establishing truck-houses in the interior 
of the province, setting up three distilleries of rum in the capital, 
and also securing there the position of agent-victualler to the gov- 
ernment. Of Thomas Saul we know less than we do of Mauger, 
but there can be no doubt that he also was an English-born man. 
Precisely when he first came to Halifax we have not discovered, but 



'See "The History, Civil and Commercial, of the British Colonies in the West 
Indies," by Bryan Edwards, Esq., 3rd edition, volume 2, Book 6. Chapter 4. See also 
Haliburton's "Historical and Statistical Account of Nova Scotia" (2 volumes, 1829), 
volume 2; Murdoch's "History of Nova Scotia," vol. 3, pages 445, 503; and "Various 
Statements connected with Trade and Commerce of the Province of Nova Scotia for 
the Twelve Months ended 30 September, 1886" (Halifax, 1866). Of moderate sized 
manufacturing plants, Halifax has had and has a considerable number, most if not all 
of which have had their beginning since 1815. These comprise sugar refineries, flour- 
mills, bakeries, canneries, cordage-factories, carriage-factories, cabinet works, soap, 
candle, glue, linseed oil, comb, brush, tobacco, paper, and confectionery factories, dis- 
tilleries of rum, gin, and whiskey, and breweries of ale and porter. 

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CHAPTERS IN THE HISTORY OF HALIFAX, NOVA SCOTIA 

his trading ventures like Manger's must have begun soon after 
the town was established. About 1753, says Dr. Akins, he built the 
most elegant private residence in the town. Having made a fortune 
in Halifax, about the same time as Mauger he also probably returned 
to England to spend the rest of his days. " Among the principal 
merchants in Halifax in 1769," says Dr. Akins, "the Hon. John 
Butler, uncle to the late Hon. J. Butler Dight, Robert Campbell on 
the Beach, John Grant, Alexander Brymer, and Gerrish and Gray 
appear most prominent. Among the shopkeepers and tradesmen who 
advertised during this year were Robert Fletcher on the Parade, 
bookseller and stationer, Andrew Cunod, grocer, Hammond and 
Brown, auctioneers, and Robert Millwood, blockmaker, who adver- 
tised the best Spanish River Coal at thirty shillings a chaldron." 
Among the New England born merchants of most note in the early 
history of the town were Joseph Fairbanks, John Fillis, Benjamin 
Garrish, Malachy Salter, and Robert Sanderson. As the town 
progressed we find among the leading merchants, Michael Francklin, 
from England, Thomas Cochran and Charles Hill, from the North 
of Ireland, Michael and James Tobin and Edward Kenny from 
farther south in Ireland, and a good many enterprising men directly 
from Scotland, who and whose descendants have always borne a 
conspicuous part in the social as well as commercial activities of 
the place. 

In a valuable monograph on Nova Scotia privateers at different 
periods, written by Mr. George Nichols of Halifax, and published in 
the Collections of the Nova Scotia Historical Society, we find im- 
portant facts concerning the ships fitted out at Halifax at different 
periods to prey on the sea commerce of hostile countries. In the 
autumn of 1756, Messrs. Malachy Salter and Robert Sanderson 
together fitted out a schooner of a hundred tons burden, called the 
Lawrence, and on the 16th of November started her on a privateer- 
ing voyage against the French. This vessel, Mr. Nichols says, was 
the first privateer to be fitted out at Halifax. She was armed with 
fourteen carriage four-pounder guns, and twenty swivel guns, be- 
sides small arms and ammunition sufficient for a six months cruise, 
and had a crew of a hundred men, and her captain carried a letter 
of marque authorizing him to capture if he could any French trading 
ship with her cargo that he might come upon afloat. At the same 
time two other trading vessels owned in Halifax, the Hertford and 

263 



CHAPTERS IN THE HISTORY OF HALIFAX, NOVA SCOTIA 

the Musketo, the first, owned partly by John Hale, a vessel of three 
hundred tons, armed with twenty carriage guns, and carrying a 
crew of 170 men, the second, owned by Joshua Mauger and John 
Hale, of a hundred and twenty tons, manned by a crew of eighty men. 

"During the Seven Years War," says Mr. Nichols, "which lasted 
from 1756 to 1763, 1 can learn of at least fifteen privateers that were 
armed and fitted out at this port. The names of these vessels and 
their commanders have been preserved to us, together with the 
particulars of their tonnage and armament and the number of their 
crews. These privateers were larger and more heavily armed than 
their successors of the Revolutionary period. Several of them were 
ships of three and four hundred tons burthen, carrying upwards of 
a hundred and sixty men, and armed with as many as twenty car- 
riage guns and twenty-two swivels. The tonnage of these vessels 
seems to be no indication of their armament, for the small schooner 
Lawrence of a hundred tons carried fourteen carriage guns and 
twenty swivels, while the Wasp, another vessel of the same size, 
carried twenty guns and a hundred and fifty men. The majority of 
the cruises starting from Halifax were directed against the French 
in southern waters, and the commissions authorizing them generally 
named six months as the period during which they might lawfully 
be prosecuted." Several of the privateers sailing from Halifax at 
this period, however, were not owned in Nova Scotia, but in other 
British Provinces or in England. The Halifax shipping merchants 
that were most conspicuous in these privateering expeditions of the 
Seven Years War, and so that may properly be considered the lead- 
ing ship-owners here at this period, were Messrs. Michael Francklin, 
Joshua Mauger, Malachy Salter, Robert Sanderson, Thomas Saul, 
and William Ball. 

In the early period of the American Revolution all the waters 
about the Nova Scotia shores were infested with privateering vessels 
sent from the revolting colonies, and their crews committed many 
serious depredations at various ports. By an act of the Imperial 
Parliament any British sympathizer could obtain leave from the 
provincial government to arm and man any vessel he owned to resist 
and capture the enemy, and under this act a considerable number of 
privateer schooners were sent out from various ports, notably Hali- 
fax and Liverpool, to seize any booty they could from hostile vessels 
anywhere on the seas. "Of their success," says Mr. Nichols, "there 

264 



CHAPTERS IN THE HISTORY OF HALIFAX, NOVA SCOTIA 

is no doubt, for while records are meagre, no less than forty-eight 
prizes and four recaptures arrived in Halifax alone between the 4th 
of January and the 20th of December, 1778, among the captures be- 
ing six ships, seven brigs, and nine brigantines. " "Between 1779 
and 1781," he further says, "we have records of forty-two prizes 
and recaptures brought into this port, among them being three ships, 
six brigs, and twelve brigantines." By this time, it is clear, many 
of the vessels employed either in peaceful commerce or in privateer- 
ing by Nova Scotia traders were built at Nova Scotia ports, but con- 
cerning the number and extent of ship building enterprises at or 
near Halifax then we are not at present informed. 

By 1793, England and France had once more begun active hos- 
tilities, and under the authority of the Imperial Government, letters 
of marque could be obtained by all owners of armed vessels to seize 
French ships and their cargoes wherever they could find them. 
The Nova Scotia privateering at this period was conducted by mer- 
chants and captains chiefly from the two ports of Liverpool and 
Halifax, the greater activity, however, being at the southern port. 
In the war of 1812, one of the first hostile measures taken by the 
United States against England was to issue letters of marque 
against British ships, and within a month after war was declared 
Nova Scotians under the personal authority of the governor of the 
province, Sir John Coape Sherbrooke, were likewise exercising 
the privateering right. Between 1812 and 1S15, Nova Scotia vessels 
brought into the various leading ports of the province more than 
two hundred prizes, exclusive of a number of recaptures, Halifax 
of course having her due share of these prizes. 10 

His Majesty's Dockyard at Halifax, the "Naval Yard," as this 
famous inclosure on the shores of the harbour was originally called, 
has a long and varied history that links closely with Britain's naval 
history at large since the Dockyard was founded. The initial site 



""At this period of the war [of 1812] the English ships of war did not molest the 
unarmed coasting and fishing vessels of the Americans, but the American privateers were 
not of the same mind. Our coasters, fishermen, and colliers were captured, pillaged, and 
sometimes used cwi&ily. On the 8th of October a boat's crew from an American priva- 
teer landed on Sheep Island, at the mouth of Tusket river, where lived a poor man 
named Francis Clements, and his family. Without provocation they shot the man 
dead, ransacked his house, carried off stock, and went away. This privateer was shortly 
after captured by the Shannon, and the homicide was identified among the prisoners 
as the first lieutenant of the privateer. Clements left a widow and nine orphan chil- 
dren, the oldest only seventeen, the second daughter a helpless cripple." Murdoch's 
"History of Nova Scotia," vol. 3, p. 333. 

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CHAPTERS IN THE HISTORY OF HALIFAX, NOVA SCOTIA 

for the Naval Yard was secured under deed on the 7th of February, 
in the year of our Lord 1759. The trustees to whom the deed was 
given were Admiral Philip Durell, and Messrs. Joseph Gerrish and 
William Nesbitt, Esquires, and the purpose for which the two lots 
the site comprised, "in the north suburbs of Halifax," were granted, 
was specified to be "for the use and uses of a Naval Yard for the 
use of His Majesty's Navy or such other uses as His Majesty shall 
direct and appoint and to or for no other use, intent, or purpose 
whatever." On the 4th of January, 1765, a third lot was obtained 
for the extension of the yard, and henceforth for well on towards 
a century and a half the Halifax Dockyard was the official head- 
quarters of business in connexion with the British navy on the 
North American coast. Soon after the first deed of land for the 
Dockyard site was secured, buildings necessary for carrying on the 
navy's official business were begun, including storehouses for masts, 
sails, coal, oil, and provisions, and residences for the commissioner 
of the yard and his clerks and other employees. In 1770 the first 
conspicuous gate to the Dockyard was built, and this stood until 
1844, when another was erected to take its place. In 1883 the gate 
was rebuilt again. 

In 1783 a naval hospital outside the yard was added to the estab- 
lishment, and in 1814 a piece of land high up on the hill overlooking 
the yard was purchased for the erection of a large stone dwelling 
house for the Admiral on the station, when he should be here, and 
the locally famous residence known as "Admiralty House" was 
begun. At some early date, we do not know precisely when, a small 
tract near the Dockyard was set apart for a naval cemetery. In his 
"History of Nova Scotia," published in 1829, Judge Haliburton 
wrote : 

"Of Government establishments [in Halifax] the most important 
is the King's Dockyard. This was commenced about the year 1758 
and has been not only of infinite service to the navy during the late 
war, but by its very great expenditure of money, of most essential 
advantage to the Province. It is enclosed on the side towards the 
town by a high stone wall, and contains within it very commodious 
buildings for the residence of its officers and servants, besides stores, 
warehouses, and workshops of different descriptions. It is on a 
more respectable footing than any in America, and the vast number 
of ships refitted there during the last twenty years, and the prodi- 
gious labour and duty performed on them are strong proofs of its 

266 



CHAPTERS IN THE HISTORY OF HALIFAX, NOVA SCOTIA 

regulation and order. In the rear of the Dockyard and on an ele- 
vated piece of ground that overlooks the works and the harbour, is 
the Admiral's house, which is a plain stone building erected partly 
by funds provided by Government and partly by a grant of the 
Provincial Legislature. This house was completed in 1820, and 
as its name denotes is designed for the residence of the Admiral 
or senior Naval Officer commanding on the Station. ' ' 

In his "Old Judge" this same author writes: 

"The Dockyard at Halifax is a beautiful establishment, in ex- 
cellent order, and perfect of its kind, with the singular exception of 
not having the accommodation of a dock from which it derives its 
name." Nova Scotia, he writes, is the principal naval station of 
Britain on this side of the Atlantic, but it shares this honour with 
Bermuda, the Admiral residing in summer at the former place, in 
winter at the latter. The arrival of this high official at Halifax in 
the spring "is always looked forward to with anxiety and pleasure, 
as it at once enlivens and benefits the town. Those common dem- 
onstrations of respect, salutes, proclaim the event, which is soon 
followed by the equally harmless and no less noisy revels of sailors, 
who give vent to their happiness in uproarious merriment. The 
Admiral is always popular with the townspeople, as he often renders 
them essential services, and seldom or never comes into collision 
with them. He is independent of them, and wholly disconnected 
with the civil government. 'Lucky fellow!' as Sir Hercules Samp- 
son, the Governor, once said; 4 he has no turbulent House of Assem- 
bly to plague him.' " "On an eminence immediately above the 
Dockyard," he adds, "is the official residence, a heavy, square, stone 
building, surrounded by massive walls, and resembling in its solidity 
and security a public asylum. The entrance is guarded by two 
sentinels, belonging to that gallant and valuable corps, the marines, 
who combine the activity of the sailor with the steadiness and dis- 
cipline of the soldier, forming a happy mixture of the best qualities 
of both, and bearing a very little resemblance to either. 'These 
ambitious troops,' my old friend Sir James Capstan used to say, 
'are very much in the way on board of a ship, except in action, and 
then they are always in the right place. ' ' ' 

A complete list of the war ships that have anchored in Halifax 
harbour since 1759 would include most of the great ships of Eng- 
land's majestic fleet; the naval commanders-in-chief who in suc- 
cession have ordered their flag-ships into these smooth waters, and 
for the time being have occupied Admiralty House, have included 

267 



CHAPTERS IN THE HISTORY OF HALIFAX, NOVA SCOTIA 

many of the greatest Admirals, Rear Admirals, and Vice Admirals 
of the noblest navy of modern times. 11 

No single event in connexion with Halifax harbour has greater 
dramatic interest than the arrival in its waters of the British frigate 
Shannon with the captured United States frigate Chesapeake in 
June, 1813. The war of 1812 was the culmination of a gradually 
increasing animosity on the part of the United States against Eng- 
land for the frequent exercise of the latter 's claim that she had a 
right to impress British seamen or seamen asserted to be British 
from on board United States merchant vessels wherever they might 
be found. This alleged right the United States strongly disputed, 
and England not yielding, at last the inevitable conflict came. One 
of the United States vessels from which seamen had been taken was 
the Chesapeake, the command of which at Boston in May, 1812, had 
been given to Captain James Lawrence, who the year previous had 
earned distinction as commander of another American ship, the 
Hornet. Dn the 31st of May, 1813, on the Chesapeake, Lawrence 
received a challenge from Captain Broke of the British frigate 
Shannon, which was then cruising in Boston harbour, and although 
the Chesapeake was poorly fitted for an engagement, chiefly owing 
to the fact that she had an unreliable crew, the challenge was ac- 
cepted and the next day the fight took place. The engagement be- 
gan with fierce volleys of shots fired from the opposing ships simul- 
taneously, the injury from which to the vessels themselves was 
slight, but which caused on both a considerable loss of life. On the 
Chesapeake, both Lawrence and his lieutenant, Augustus Ludlow, 
were severely v/ounded, Lawrence having received his wound in the 
leg. The anchor of the American ship fouling on one of the after 
ports of the Shannon, the crew of the latter was able to board the 
Chesapeake, and the sailors of this vessel "could not be made to 
repel" the British crew. In the skirmish that ensued, Captain 
Lawrence was mortally wounded by a musket shot and had to be car- 
ried to the wardroom. While passing the gangway he cried to his 



"Other interesting facts in this connexion than those we have here given including 
a list of the naval commanders-in-chief who temporarily resided on this station between 
1767 and 1891 will be found in an interesting article entitled "Dockyard Mem- 
oranda," by Charles H, Stubbing, Esq., a former clerk in the Dockyard, published in the 
Collections of the Nova Scotia Historical Society, vol. 13, pp. 103-109. Some time 
before 1759 Mr. Joseph Gerrish, formerly of Boston, older brother of Benjamin Ger- 
rish, likewise of Halifax, was appointed naval storekeeper at the Dockyard, and this 
position he held for a number of years. He received a salary for his work, of a hundred 
pounds a year, and he had a clerk who received fifty pounds. 

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CHAPTERS IN THE HISTORY OF HALIFAX, NOVA SCOTIA 

men " Don't give up the ship!" but the fate of the battle was de- 
cided, and Lieutenant Ludlow, himself desperately and as it proved 
mortally wounded, who had assumed command, quickly surrendered. 
The Shannon with her prize then made for Halifax, but before she 
could reach port Captain Lawrence died. In the engagement, sixty 
men, including Captain Lawrence, of the American frigate's crew, 
were killed, and eighty-three were wounded. Of the British frigate's 
crew twenty-six were killed and fifty-seven, including Captain 
Broke, were wounded. The ships arriving at Halifax, the Ches- 
apeake's commander was buried with military honors in the burying 
ground on Pleasant Street, his funeral taking place on the 8th of 
June. On the 13th of June Lieutenant Ludlow died at Halifax, and 
he too received military burial. Early in August both bodies were 
disinterred and carried by Captain George Crowninshield, Jr., in 
his own vessel, at his own expense, under a flag of truce to Salem, 
Massachusetts, where on the 23rd of August they were given an- 
other funeral. They were then carried over land to New York City 
and buried in Trinity churchyard again with all the honors of war. 
When the two ships reached Halifax Captain Lawrence's body was 
landed under a discharge of minute guns at the King's Wharf, 
whence it was carried probably directly to the burying ground on 
Pleasant Street. On its way it was attended by the Chesapeake's 
surviving officers, the officers of the British army and navy on ser- 
vice at Halifax, and many of the leading inhabitants of the town. 
The pall was borne by six captains of the Royal navy, a military 
band was in attendance, and three hundred men of the Sixty-fourth 
regiment followed in the procession. The burial service was ren- 
dered by the Rector of St. Paul's, the Reverend Robert Stanser, 
D. D., after which three volleys were fired over the grave. Law- 
rence's ship the Chesapeake was kept at Halifax until October, 1813, 
when she was taken to England and probably put in commission in 
the British service. In 1820 her timbers were sold to a miller of 
Wickham, in Hants, by whom they were used in the construction of 
a flour mill. 12 

"Captain James Lawrence was the youngest son of Judge John Lawrence, of Bur- 
lington, New Jersey, and was born at Burlington, October i, 1781. He entered the navy 
as a midshipman in 1798, received his lieutenancy in 1802, and was promoted captain and 
assigned to the Hornet in 181 1. He died on board the Chesapeake, June 6, 1813. 
Lieutenant Ludlow, as we have said, died at Halifax, June 13, 1813. On the 10th of 
August, under a flag of truce Captain Crowninshield arrived at Halifax from Salem, and 
with the bodies of the two officers left very soon. An interesting account of the battle 
between the Shannon and the Chesapeake will be found in the late Theodore Roosevlt's 
"The Naval War of 1812," New York, 1882. 

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CHAPTERS IN THE HISTORY OF HALIFAX, NOVA SCOTIA 

In Trinity Churchyard, New York City, a little to the left of the 
main entrance from Broadway stands a large granite sarcophagus, 
on which the following inscription may be read : 

"In Memory of Captain James Lawrence, of the United States 
Navy, who fell on the 1st day of June, 1813, in the 32nd year of his 
age, in the action between the frigates Chesapeake and Shannon. 
H> was distinguished on various occasions, but especially when com- 
manding the sloop of war Hornet he captured and sunk his Bri- 
tannick Majesty's sloop of war Peacock, after a desperate action of 
fourteen minutes. His bravery in action was equalled only by his 
modesty in triumph and his magnanimity to the vanquished. In 
private life He was a Gentleman of the most generous and endear- 
ing qualities, the whole Nation mourned his loss and the Enemy con- 
tended with his Countrymen who should most honour his remains." 

On the east end of the sarcophagus is inscribed the following: 
"The Heroick Commander of the frigate Chesapeake, whose re- 
mains are here deposited, expressed with his expiring breath his 
devotion to his Country. Neither the fury of battle, the anguish of 
a mortal wound, nor the horrors of approaching death could subdue 
his gallant spirit. His dying words were: 'Don't Give Up The 
Ship.' " 

On the South side of the sarcophagus is inscribed: "In Memory 
of Lieutenant Augustus C. Ludlow, Born in Newburgh, 1792, Died 
in Halifax, 1813. Scarcely was he 21 years of age, when like the 
blooming Euryalus he accompanied his beloved Commander to bat- 
tle. Never could it have been more truly said 'His amor unus erat, 
pariterque in bella ruebant.' The favorite of Lawrence and sec- 
ond in command, he emulated the patriotic valour of his friend on 
the bloody decks of the Chesapeake, and when required, like him 
yielded with courageous resignation his Spirit to Him who gave it." 

In the War of 1812, says Mrs. William Lawson, several United 
States naval officers were taken prisoners and sent to Halifax for 
safe keeping. These were generally quartered on the eastern side 
of the harbour, and those of them who were on parole were lodged 
in the farm houses in or near Preston and Dartmouth. They were 
allowed perfect liberty of action, except in the matter of crossing 
the ferry to Halifax, the town being the only point from which they 
could hope to escape. They were all quiet, gentlemanlike men, and 
were cordially entertained and much liked by the farmers and their 

270 



CHAPTERS IN THE HISTORY OF HALIFAX, NOVA SCOTIA 

families, and they were not slow in making love to the girls, in 
some cases engaging to marry them. Naturally, however, they 
chafed at their internment, and when peace was declared were glad 
to leave. The Preston farmers' daughters waited in vain for them 
to return to marry them; the faithless foreigners never fulfilled the 
promises they had made "in the rosy twilight or under the glow of 
the inconstant moon." 

A year after the arrival at Halifax of the Shannon and Ches- 
apeake, on the 5th of July, 1814, a British expedition was secretly 
dispatched from Halifax harbour for the capture of Eastport, 
Maine. Either lower down the harbour or at some point without, a 
fleet six days from Bermuda joined the expedition, and together all 
sailed for the Maine coast. The whole fleet now comprised the 
Ramilies, having on board the commodore, Sir Thomas Hardy, the 
Martin, a sloop-of-war, the big Borer, the Breame, the Terror, a 
bomb ship, and several transports, on board of which was a very 
considerable military force. On the 11th of July the ships anchored 
abreast of Eastport and the commodore at once demanded the sur- 
render of the fort. The officer in command was Major Perley Put- 
nam, of Salem, Massachusetts, and he at first refused the demand 
and prepared to meet the assault. Through the earnest persuasion 
of the inhabitants, however, he was reluctantly induced to order his 
flag struck without resistance, and the British took possession of 
the fort. 

On the 26th of August of the same year, another expedition left 
Halifax to seize Penobscot and Machias, Maine. The ships in this 
fleet were three 74 's, the Dragon, the Spenser, and the Bulwark, 
two frigates, the Burhante and the Tenedos, lately from the Medi- 
terranean, two sloops of war, the Sylph and the Peruvian, an armed 
schooner, the Pictu, a large tender, and ten transports. The number 
of troops they carried was about 3,000, the land forces among which 
were directly commanded by Major General Gosselin, with Lieuten- 
ant-General Sir John Coape Sherbrooke, then and for nearly two 
years longer lieutenant-governor of Nova Scotia (under the gov- 
ernor general of all the British provinces), in highest command. 
The naval squadron was under command of Rear Admiral of the 
White Edward Griffith. September 1st the fleet rode into the har- 
bour of Castine and anchored in sight of the fort. The troops in the 
garrison, seeing resistance entirely vain, then blew up the fort and 

271 



CHAPTERS IN THE HISTORY OF HALIFAX, NOVA SCOTIA 

fled for safety into the interior. For eight months the British held 
this military post, but on the 25th of April, 1815, a treaty of peace 
between England and the United States having been signed at 
Ghent the previous December, they finally evacuated Castine, and 
English power ceased forever in the whole of eastern Maine. 13 

The commanding officer of the Shannon when she came with her 
prize the Chesapeake into Halifax harbour was a Halifax man. In 
January, 1812, young Provo William Parry "Wallis, who was born at 
Halifax April 12, 1791, was appointed second lieutenant of the 
Shannon, then commanded by Captain Philip Bowes Vere Broke. 
Captain Broke being dangerously wounded in the Shannon's en- 
gagement with the Chesapeake, and his first lieutenant being killed, 
Wallis, although only a little over twenty-two, was left in command. 
Admiral Sir Provo William Parry Wallis, G. C. B., as he afterwards 
became, earning for himself in his long distinguished naval career 
the title of "Father of the Fleet," was the son of an Englishman, 
Provo Featherstone Wallis, who was chief clerk to the naval com- 
missioner in Halifax, and his wife Elizabeth (Lawlor), grand- 
daughter of Thomas Lawlor, one of the Bostonians who had settled 
at Halifax in or shortly after 1749. 

In the "Dictionary of National Biography" will be found a sketch 
of Admiral Sir Edward Belcher, K. C. B., another Haligonian, who 
was born in Halifax in 1799. Admiral Belcher's parents were the 
Hon. Andrew and Marianne (Geyer) Belcher, his paternal grand- 
father having been the first Chief Justice of Nova Scotia. In 1812 
Belcher entered the navy as a midshipman, and six years later he 
was made a lieutenant. A great part of his active life was spent in 
making naval surveys, but in 1852 he was appointed to command an 
expedition to the arctic in search of Sir John Franklin. For such 
a peculiarly difficult command he is said to have had "neither temper 
nor tact," and in the enterprise, which was fruitless, he inspired 
great dislike among his men. In making surveys he spent much 
time in the Pacific and at Behring Straits, on the west and north 
coasts of Africa, at Borneo, the Philippine Islands, and China, in 
the Irish Sea, and on the west coast of both North and South Amer- 
ica. He was made commander in 1829, advanced to post rank in 
1841, received knighthood in 1843, attained his flag in 1861, and be- 
came vice-admiral in 1866, and admiral in 1872. In 1867 he was 



3 See Williamson's "History of Maine," 2 vols., 1832. 

272 



CHAPTERS IN THE HISTORY OF HALIFAX, NOVA SCOTIA 

further honoured with a K. C. B. The last part of his life he spent 
quietly in scientific and literary occupations. Belcher published in 
1835 ''A Treatise on Nautical Surveying," in 1843 "Narrative of a 
Voyage round the World in H. M. Ship Sulphur during the years 
1836-1842;" in 184S "Narrative of the Voyage of H. M.^Ship Sam- 
arang," in 1855 "The Last of the Arctic Voyages," and in 1856 a 
three volume novel entitled "Horatio Howard Brenton, a Naval 
Novel." In 1867 he edited Sir W. H. Smyth's "Sailors' Word 
Book." He died March 18, 1817. 

Two other famous British naval officers were born near Halifax. 
These were Admiral Philip Westphal and Captain Sir George Au- 
gustus Westphal, sons of George Westphal, Esq., a retired German 
army officer, one of the first grantees of and settlers in the township 
of Preston. Admiral Philip Westphal, the elder of these men, was 
born at Preston in 1782, and entered the British navy in 1794. Prom 
1794 to 1S02 he served successively on the Oiseau, the Albatross, the 
Shannon, the Asia, and the Blanche, one of the frigates with Nel- 
son at Copenhagen. For his share in this action he was promoted 
to a lieutenancy and placed on the Defiance. In May, 1802, he was 
appointed to the Amazon, with Nelson, off Toulon. After much 
more service, in June, 1815, he was made commander. From the 
Kent, on July 22, 1830, he was advanced to post rank. In 1847, he 
was retired on a Greenwich Hospital pension, rising in due course, 
on the retired list, in 1855 to be rear-admiral, in 1862 to be vice- 
admiral, and in 1866 to be admiral. He died at Byde, March 16, 
1880. 

Admiral Sir George Augustus Westphal, younger brother of Ad- 
miral Philip Westphal, was born at Preston either March 27 or 
July 26, 1785. He entered the navy on board the Porcupine frigate 
on the North American station in 1798. He afterward served on the 
home station and in the West Indies, in March, 1803, joining the 
Amphion, which carried Nelson out to the Mediterranean. Off 
Toulon he was moved into the Victory, in which ship he was wound- 
ed at the battle of Trafalgar. While he was lying in the cockpit 
after receiving his wound, Nelson's coat, hastily rolled up, was put 
under his head for a pillow. It is related that some of the bullions 
of the epaulettes got entangled in his hair, and that the blood from 
his wound as it dried fastened them there so that several of them 
had to be cut off before the coat could be released. These bullions 

273 



CHAPTERS IN THE HISTORY OF HALIFAX, NOVA SCOTIA 

Weslphal long treasured as mementoes of Nelson. After much dis- 
tinguished service in many places, he was in 1819 advanced to post 
rank. In May, 1822, he was appointed to the Jupiter, in which he 
carried Lord Amherst to India. On his return to England, in 1824, 
he was knighted. He was advanced in regular gradation to be 
rear-admiral in 1851, vice-admiral in 1857, and admiral in 1863. He 
died at Hove, Brighton, January 11, 1875. He married in 1817, 
Alicia, widow of William Chambers. 14 

The Cunard Steamship Company, as is well known, was founded 
by Sir Samuel Cunard, Bart., a Halifax merchant, and for a long 
time Halifax was the first stopping place for the Cunard ships on 
this side of the Atlantic. The story of the Cunard enterprise will 
appear in another chapter of this history. 



"For the brothers Westphal, see Mrs. William Lawson's "History of Dartmouth, 
Preston, and Lawrencetown," Halifax County, pp. 201-205. 




274 




Bassett and Allied Families 

Bassett Arms — Or, three piles meeting in the base of the escutcheon gules, a can- 
ton argent charged with a griffin sergeant sable. 

Crest — Out of a ducal coronet, or a boar's head, gules. 

^TjHE American Bassetts have every reason to be proud 
of their descent, as well as of the family record in mod- 
ern da) 7 , for they trace ancient lineage through several 
lines, — Bassett, Dymoke, Brewster (Elder William 
Brewster, of Mayflower fame), and others. The later 
generations have filled worthy place in professional callings and in 
the industrial world, one distinguished member having been Richard 
Bassett, a signer of the Constitution of the United States. 

7. The founder of the line herein traced in America was William 
Bassett, a descendant of the great house of Sapcote, and through 
them of Chief Justice Ralph and of Thurstan and Osmund, the Nor- 
man, a maternal line springing from the houses of Tehidy and 
Umberleigh. The family has descent from the English kings from 
Henry I. through Maud Fitz-Henry, while the most ancient lineage 
is from Maud Ridel, wife of Richard Bassett, who was a direct de- 
scendant of Walgrinces, of the family of King Charles the Bald, and 
who was created by him Duke of Angoleme and Perigord as early as 
A. D. 886,- 

The ship Fortune brought William Bassett to America in 1621, 
among the little band whose arrival so rejoiced those of their 
comrades who had come to the Plymouth Colony in the previous 
year. Until his death in 1667 he held a position for which his birth 
and talents fitted him, and was close in the councils of the dignitar- 
ies of the colony. He was three times married, his third wife, Eliz- 
abeth Tilden, and he was the father of the following children : Wil- 
liam, of whom further ; Elizabeth, born 1626, died 1670 ; Nathaniel, 
born 1628, died 1709; Joseph; Sarah, married, in 1648, Peregrine 
White, the first English child born in Cape Cod; Jane. 

II. William (2) Bassett, eldest child of William (1) and Elizabeth 
(Tilden) Bassett, was born in 1624, and died in 1670, bequeathing 
to his children a large estate. Like his father, he filled important 
place in local affairs, and upon his death at a comparatively early 
age, appointed his friends, Governors Winslow and Hinckley, joint 
guardians of his children. His home at the time of his death was 
in Sandwich, and he is noted on the records with the complimentary 

275 



. > 



BASSETT AND ALLIED FAMILIES 

title of "Mr." He married Mary, daughter of Hugh Burt, of Lynn, 
and had children: Mary, born 1654; William (3), of whom further. 

III. William (3) Bassett, son of William (2) and Mary (Burt) 
Bassett, was born in 1656, and died in 1721. He was marshal of Ply- 
mouth Colony at the time of its union with Massachusetts, and also 
filled the offices of judge of the Court of Common Pleas and Reg- 
istrar of Probate. William (3) Bassett married Rachel Willison, of 
Taunton, and had children: Mary, born 1676; Nathan, born 1677; 
Rachel, born 1679, died 1744; William, of whom further; Jonathan, 
born 16S3 ; Thankful, born 1687, died 1777. 

IV. William (4) Bassett, son of William (3) and Rachel (Willi- 
son) Bassett, married Abigail, daughter of Elisha Bourne.* They 
were the parents of : Mary, born 1709 ; William, born 1711 ; Captain 
Elisha, born 1713; John, born 1716; Deacon Thomas, born 1717, 
died 1809; Nathaniel, of whom further; Jonathan, born 1721; Abi- 
gail, born 1722 ; Elizabeth, born 1724 ; Nathan, born 1727, died 1728 ; 
Hannah, born 1730. 

V. Nathaniel Bassett, son of William (4) and Abigail (Bourne) 
Bassett, was born October 15, 1719, and died in Falmouth, in 1814. 
His home was for a long time in Sandwich, and he married, July 4, 
1745, Hannah, born about 1723, died at Sandwich, June 22, 1790, 
daughter of Joseph and Rebecca (Sears) Hall, and granddaughter 
of Deacon John Hall. Rebecca (Sears) Hall was the daughter of 
Paul and Mercy (Freeman) Sears, granddaughter of Paul Sears, 
born in 1637, and great-granddaughter of Richard and Dorothy 
(Thatcher) Sears, founders of the family in America. It is in the 
marriage of Nathaniel Bassett with Hannah Hall that the Bassett 
line forms its connection with the family of Elder William Brewster, 
Hannah Hall being seventh in descent from that Pilgrim father. 
Children of Nathaniel and Hannah (Hall) Bassett: 1. Rebecca, 
born 1747. 2. Joseph, born Sept. 3, 1749, died 1817. He was a 
participant in the famous act of patriotic protest that lives in his- 
tory under the quaintly humorous title of "Boston Tea Party." 
3. Abigail, born in September, 1751. 4. Edmund, born in July, 1753. 
5. Hannah, bora in May, 1755. 6. Nathaniel, born Jan. 26, 1758, 
died 1846; married Bethia Smith. 7. Elisha, born 1761. 8. Stephen, 
born 1763. 9. Jonathan, born 1765. 10. Anselm, of whom further. 
11. Isaac, born Oct. 28, 1770, died 1779. 

*She was a descendant of Richard Bourne, of Plymouth Colony, who exercised an 
influence over the Massachusetts Indians similar to that of Sir William Johnson over 
the Six Nations of New York. Barnstable Records, page 107, say that he did more 
by the moral force which he exerted to defend the old colony than Major William 
Bradford did at the head of the army. 



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BASSETT AND ALLIED FAMILIES 

VI. Anselm Bassett, son of Nathaniel and Hannah (Hall) Bassett, 
was born at Sandwich, July 20, 176S, and died at Lee, Massachusetts, 
July 14, 1837. He married, April 11, 1793, Hannah, only child of 
Sylvanus and Thankful (Hatch) Dymoke, of Falmouth. 

VII. Ephraim Dymoke Bassett, son of Anselm and Hannah (Dy- 
rnoke) Bassett, was born in 1798, and died in 1832. He married 
Eunice Ingersoll. 

VIII. Anselm Bassett, son of Ephraim and Eunice (Ingersoll) 
Bassett, was born September 28, 1825, and died in 1907. He mar- 
ried, in 1849, Elizabeth Johnson, bom in 1831, died 1912. They 
were the parents of Charles Franklin Bassett, of principal mention 
in this record. 

IX. Charles Franklin Bassett, son of Anselm and Elizabeth 
(Johnson) Bassett, was born at Lee, Mass., October 9, 1862, and was 
educated in the public and high schools of his native town. He was 
bom and reared on a farm, and took from his labors there lessons 
in industry and strength in physique that stood him in excellent 
stead in later years. In September, 1879, he came to New York 
and entered the employ of H. C. Hulbert & Company as office boy, 
at a salary of $150 per annum, this firm one of the largest paper 
and supply houses in the country. In 1890 he was admitted to part- 
nership, and went to Europe to represent the firm in the making of 
important contracts and the establishment of agencies. He was 
made attorney in liquidation, coupled with an interest in the long 
established firm of M. Plummer & Company, in 1900. In the same 
year he took over the business, and in association with his brother- 
in-law, Joseph H. Sutphin, joined it with the firm of H. C. Hulbert, 
under the name of Bassett & Sutphin. This firm purchased the busi- 
ness of B. & O. Myers in 1910. 

In addition to the above activities, Mr. Bassett was deeply in- 
terested in many other enterprises. He was vice-president and 
chairman of the finance committee of the East River Savings In- 
stitution of New York, director of the Importers' and Traders' Na- 
tional Bank, trustee and member of finance, trust, and credit com- 
mittee of the Franklin Trust Company of Brooklyn and New York, 
director and member of finance and executive committee of the 
Celluloid Company, director in the United States Life Insurance 
Company, and several other large corporations. Mr. Bassett was 
a member of the New York Chamber of Commerce, the New Eng- 
land Society in New York, and also of the Society of Colonial Wars. 
He was a member of the Union League Club of New York ; Hamilton 
Club, of Brooklyn ; Baltusrol Golf Club, Canoe Brook Country Club, 
Hyde Manor Golf Club, of which he was president, and the Down 

277 



RASSETT AND ALLIED FAMILIES 

Town Association. He found recreation in riding, driving-, and 
golf. In politics he was a Republican, and in religious belief an 
Episcopalian. His death occurred December 20, 1916, at "Fair 
View," Summit, New Jersey. 

Mr. Bassett married, in Brooklyn, June 14, 1893, Carolyn Beards- 
ley Hulbert, youngest daughter of Henry Carlton Hulbert, a de- 
scendant from the same Bassett and Dvmoke ancestry as her hus- 
band. Children : 1. Hulbert Dymoke, born Oct. 17, 1894 ; left Har- 
vard University, where he was a student in the class of 1918, to 
enlist in April, 1917, in the United States Army, and until his honor- 
able discharge from the service (Feb. 15, 1919), was a lieutenant in 
the Ordnance Officers' Reserve Corps, stationed in the United States 
Arsenal at Rock Island, Illinois. 2. Elizabeth Hulbert, born Mav 
3, 1902. 

(The Hulbert Line.) 

Hurlbut (Hulbert) Arms — Quarterly argent and sable, in the sinister chief and 
dexter base a lion rampant or, over all a bend gules charged with three annulets of 
the third. 

The English ancestor of this line was Lieutenant Thomas Hulbert, 
who accompanied Leon Gardner to America in 1635, for the purpose 
of erecting a fort at Saybrook. Attacked by the Pequots while ab- 
sent from the fort, it is narrated that he made a most gallant fight, 
and, though severely wounded, fought his way back to the fort inch 
by inch. Gardner, in his account, writes : "But in our retreat I kept 
Thomas Hulbert, Robert Chapman, and John Spencer still before 
us, we defending ourselves with our naked swords or else they had 
taken us all alive." Thomas Hulbert afterward settled in Wethers- 
field, where he died in 1673. (It is worthy of mention that the de- 
scendants of Thomas Hulbert and Robert Chapman, principals in 
the above encounter, were united by the marriage of Henry Carlton 
Hulbert and Susan R. Cooley, a direct descendant of Robert Chap- 
man, in 1854). 

II. John, the second son of Lieutenant Thomas, was born March 
8, 1642, died August 30, 1690, having settled in Middletown, Connec- 
ticut.* 

III. Ebenezer, third son of John Hulbert, was born in January, 
1683, died in 1766. 



♦Through the marriage of John Hulbert, of the second generation of the Hulbert 
line, to Honor Treat Deming, affiliation was made with the family founded by Rich- 
ard Treat, father of Governor Robert Treat, of Connecticut. John Deming and Rich- 
ard Treat were two of the patentees named in the Connecticut Charter, granted by 
Charles II, the famous document of "Charter Oak" notoriety. 

278 



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BASSETT AND ALLIED FAMILIES 

IV. Ebenezer (2), sou of Ebenezer Ilulbert, was born May 6, 
1725, and died in 1777. 

V. Amos, born in Chatham, Connecticut, in 1752, died in Lee, 
Massachusetts, in 1835, son of Ebenezer (2) Ilulbert. 

VI. Amos Geer Ilulbert, son of Amos Hulbert, was born in 
Wethersfield, Connecticut, in 1799, died in Lee, Massachusetts, Au- 
gust 6, 1884. He inherited to the full the hardy resolute character 
of his New England ancestry. His early boyhood was spent in 
Suffield, Connecticut, and he served his apprenticeship as carriage 
maker in Salisbury and Canaan, Connecticut. In 1820 he moved to 
Lee, Massachusetts, where he became prominent as a successful 
manufacturer, and became thoroughly identified with the growth 
and progress of the town. His chief characteristics were cordiality, 
frankness, a, spirit of investigation, indomitable perseverance, and 
great thoroughness in all his undertakings. "In every thought, 
fibre, and movement," it is related to him, "he was an enthusiastic 
business man, yet the perfect system with which he arranged his 
affairs gave him ample leisure for reading and self improvement. ' ' 
He was in person above the medium height, but of a robust nature 
and erect form that gave dignity to his presence. He was remark- 
ably vigorous for a man of his age. At the age of seventy-four 
he visited England and the Continent, with all of the enjoyment of 
middle age and with no more regard for inconveniences. He was 
a member of the Congregational church and led an exemplary 
Christian life. He married Cynthia Bassett, daughter of Anselm 
and Hannah (Dymoke) Bassett, uniting his line with those of such 
impressive lineage recorded in the foregoing pages. 

VII. Henry Carlton Hulbert, only son of Amos Geer and Cynthia 
(Bassett) Ilulbert, was born in Lee, Massachusetts, December 19, 
1831, died April 24, 1912. 

He was educated in the public schools of his native town, and com- 
pleted his studies at Lee Academy, Lee, Massachusetts. Of a strong 
individuality and pronounced principles, he was a leader among his 
comrades, and at an age when most youths are enjoying school and 
pleasures he sought the business world, at sixteen years becoming a 
clerk in the store of William Taylor. A short time afterward he 
was offered a position in the dry goods house of Plunkett & Hulbert, 
of Pittsfield, and upon submitting the matter to his parents he was 
told that thereafter "self reliance must be his capital." His faith 
in his ability to succeed was justified by his rise, within three years, 
from errand boy to the cashiership. His ambition demanded wider 
fields of effort and he determined to try his fortunes in the metro- 
polis of N-sw York. He was cautioned by his father, with whom he 

279 



BASSETT AND ALLIED FAMILIES 

consulted, that not more than ten in one hundred were able to wrest 
success from the city, and his replv was "I propose to be one of the 
ten." 

In February, 1851, at the age of nineteen years, he went to New 
York, provided with letters of recommendation to several firms, 
among them Cyrus W. Field & Company and White & Sheffield. Mr. 
Field was an old acquaintance of his father, and received the young 
man cordially, informing him that he had no position open at the 
time, but that he might use the firm's name as a city reference. He 
then presented his letters to White & Sheffield, importers of and ex- 
tensive dealers in paper manufactures. The firm were very favor- 
ably impressed with the young man and his conduct during the 
interview, and Mr. Sheffield asked him what he proposed to do. His 
prompt reply was characteristic, and decided the interview in his 
favor: "If you give me a position, I propose to make myself so 
useful that you will give me an interest in your business. ' ' History 
shows how his word was kept. His salary for the first year was $400. 
His previous training had been thorough and exacting, and he had 
been submitted to the severest discipline as errand boy, salesman, 
bookkeeper, and cashier, all of which was excellent equipment for his 
new work. He was always on the alert, and near the close of the 
year an opportunity presented of which he was quick to avail him- 
self. It was the firm's custom to send account sales at the close of 
each quarter to the manufacturing concerns they represented, but 
the illness of the bookkeeper and cashier whose duty this was, made 
it apparently impossible that quarter. At this juncture young Hul- 
bert offered to fill the place of the absent employee until he should 
be able to resume his duties, stating that he had been trained in 
similar work, and, being entrusted with the mission, he fulfilled it 
in the most efficient manner. This incident did much to impress 
the heads of the business with his usefulness, versatility, and will- 
ingness. Shortly afterward, another event strengthened this im- 
pression materially. There was an unfortunate rupture between 
the firms of White & Sheffield and Cyrus W. Field & Company, in 
which their relations became so strained that the letters of the 
former firm were returned unanswered. The matter was placed in 
the hands of Mr. Hulbert and he was given full powers in its settle- 
ment, which was effected in an amicable and satisfactory manner 
through his wise discretion and diplomacy. 

In the great panic of 1857, Mr. Hulbert was sent on a western trip 
for the purpose of settling old and, at his discretion, opening new 
accounts. His experience in the main office had familiarized him 
with the financial conditions of the trade, knowledge he used so ad- 
vantageously that full collection followed every sale he made. He 
had fulfilled his promise made to the firm at the time he entered 
their employ, and in less than four years he was given an interest in 

280 



BASSETT AND ALLIED FAMILIES 

the profits in lieu of salary. One year later, at the age of twenty- 
four years, he was admitted to full partnership and the firm name 
changed to J. B. Sheffield & Company. On the expiration of the 
articles of partnership, January 1, 185S, Mr. Hulbert was offered 
fifty per cent, advance on his interest to remain, but declined. Form- 
ing an association with Milan Hulbert, of Boston, a cousin, under the 
firm name of H. C. & M. Hulbert (with Otis Daniell, of Boston, as 
special partner for $30,000) he at once started independent opera- 
tions as an importer and dealer in paper makers' supplies, on a 
capital of forty thousand dollars. After completing the organiza- 
tion of the business, Mr. Hulbert sailed for Europe, where he se- 
cured a number of valuable exclusive agencies, some of which have 
been retained by his successors. Upon his return in 1858, the firm 
opened offices at No. 83 John Street, entering upon a career success- 
ful and profitable from the outset. Until the time of Mr. Hulbert 's 
retirement the firm had only one reorganization, although there 
were several changes in the personnel. In 1862 special partner Otis 
Daniell sold his interest to the general partners, without security, 
giving them three years in which to make payment. In 1872, general 
partner Milan Hulbert withdrew, when the firm was reorganized 
as H. C. Hulbert & Company, Mr. Hulbert admitting as partners 
Joseph H. Sutphin and George P. Hulbert, both of whom had served 
a thorough apprenticeship in the business as clerks in the establish- 
ment. Mr. George P. Hulbert died in the autumn of the same year, 
and in 1890, Charles F. Bassett, who had grown up in the business 
from a boy, was admitted as a partner, and the business continued 
under the same firm name until May 1, 1900, when II. C. Hulbert 
retired and Bassett and Sutphin became his successors. 

While controlling the principal interests of his own firm, Mr. Hul- 
bert 's business ability and influence have been sought in other 
directions. He was from 18S2 to January, 1900, (when the Pullman 
Company purchased the assets of the Wagner Company, and when 
J. P. Morgan, W. K. Vanderbilt, and other Wagner directors were 
added to the Pullman Company board) the only New York director 
of the Pullman Palace Car Company, of Chicago, Illinois, and at Mr. 
Pullman's death, Robert Lincoln, Marshall Field and Mr. Hulbert 
constituted the executive committee of the company. Mr. Hulbert 
was also trustee and member of the finance committee of the New 
York Life Insurance and Trust Company, and also of the Celluloid 
Company. He was one of the trustees and first vice-president of the 
South Brooklyn Savings Institution, and for more than thirty years 
was a director of the Importers' and Traders' National Bank of 
New York, also of the United States Life Insurance Company, and 
one of the trustees of the Franklin Trust Company, of Brooklyn. 
He was a member of the New York Chamber of Commerce, life mem- 
ber of both the New York and Brooklyn New England Societies, 

281 



BASSETT AND ALLIED FAMILIES 

member of the Society of the Colonial Wars, and a member and 
chairman of the executive committee of the Brooklyn Society for the 
Prevention of Cruelty to Children. He was for many years a mem- 
ber of the South Congregational Church of Brooklyn, a trustee of 
the society and superintendent of the Sabbath school. Upon the 
call of his cousin, Kev. Edward P. Ingersoll, to the pastorate of the 
Middle Reformed Church of Brooklyn, he changed his affiliation 
to that church, later becoming superintendent of the Sabbath school. 
With the call of Dr. Ingersoll to the Puritan Church in 1882, Mr. 
Hulbert united with Christ Church, on Clinton Street, where he was 
a member of the vestry until his death. 

Henry Carlton Hulbert married (first) in September, 1854, Susan 
R. Cooley, step-daughter of William Porter, a prominent lawyer of 
Lee, Massachusetts. For seven years Mrs. Hulbert was an invalid, 
but, regaining her health, was active in benevolent work, and for 
many years treasurer of the Brooklvn Industrial School and Home 
for Destitute Children. She died August 22, 18S2. Mr., Hulbert 
married (second) on October 16, 1884, Fannie Dwight Bigelow, 
daughter of Asa Bigelow, Jr., of Brooklyn. Children of Henry 
Carlton Hulbert : 1. Susie Cooley, married, in 1879, Joseph H. Sut- 
phin. 2. Carolyn Beardsley, married in 1893, Charles Franklin Bas- 
sett. 

(The Dymoke Line.) 

Dymoke Arms — Sable, two lions passant argent, crowned or. 
Crest — A sword erect argent, hilt and pommel or. 
Motto — Pro rege diviico (For the King I battle). 

The alliance between the Bassett and Dymoke families was formed 
in the sixth generation of the former's residence in America, and in 
the seventh generation of the hitter's. The ancient Cavalier family 
of Dymoke, by marriage with the heiress of the house of Marmion, 
became hereditary Champions of the Kings and Queens of England, 
it being the knightly duty of the head of the family on Coronation 
day to challenge to mortal combat anyone who disputed the right of 
the sovereign to the throne. This much-prized privilege did not 
necessarily descend from father to eldest son, but was granted to 
that member of the family who had his home at the ancient seat of 
the family at Scrivelsby. The honor remained in the family long 
after combats between armored knights had ceased, and until the 
custom, in more peaceful days, was omitted from the coronation 
ceremony. 

7. Elder Thomas Dymoke, American founder of the following 
line was probably born in Pinchbeck, England, whence he came to 
America, dying at Barnstable, Massachusetts, in 1657-8, the date of 
his baptism October 7, 1604. In 1635 he was a selectman of Dor- 
chester, Massachusetts, and in 1639 the town of Barnstable, was set 

282 



BASSETT AND ALLIED FAMILIES 

off to him and others. He was a lieutenant of militia, the highest 
military commission in the colonies at that time, and on August 26, 
1611, he was one of the witnesses with the Serunk Indian chief in 
what was called "The First Purchase." Three years later he was 
again a witness to a transaction with the Indians, this time as a 
signer to the Second Purchase with Chief Nepoystym. 

Elder Thomas Dymoke married Ann Hammond, granddaughter 
of Admiral William Penn. Children : 1. Timothy, born 1639, died 
1610. 2. Mehitable, baptized April 17, 1612, died August 18, 1676 ; 
married, March 30, 1662, Richard Child, of Watertown. 3. Shubail, 
of whom further. 

II. Ensign Shubail Dymoke, youngest child of Elder Thomas and 
Ann (Hammond) Dymoke, was baptized September 15, 1611, and 
died at Manslield, Connecticut, October 29, 1732, at the age of 
ninety-one years. He married, in April, 1663, Joanna, daughter of 
John Bursley. She died at Mansfield, May 8, 1727, aged eighty- 
three years. Children : 1. Thomas, born in April, 1661, died 1697. 
2. John, of whom further. 3. Timothy, born in March, 1668. 1. 
Shubail, born in February, 1673, died 1728. 5. Joseph, born in Sep- 
tember, 1675. 6. Mehitable, born in September, 1677, died 1775. 
7. Benjamin, born in March, 16S0. 8. Joanna, born in March, 1682. 
9. Thankful, born in November, 1681. 

III. John, second son and child of Ensign Shubail and Joanna 
(Bursley) Dymoke, was born in January, 1666, and married, No- 
vember 16, 16S9, Elizabeth Lumbert. Children: 1. Sarah, born in 
December, 1690. 2. Anna (Hannah), born in July, 1692; married 
Jabez Davis, the marriage being published March 5, 1719. 3. Mary 
Jane, born in 1695 ; married, in 1726, Benjamin Davis. 1. Theo- 
philus, of whom further. 5. Timothy, born in July, 1698. 6. Ebe- 
nezer, born in February, 1700, died April 13, 1775. 7. Thankful, 
born in April, 1702. 8. Elizabeth, born April 20, 1701. 9. David, 
baptized in May, 1706. 10. Shubail, baptized June 22, 1707. 11. 
Temperance, born Jan. 10, 1710. 12. Benjamin, born in 1712-13. 

IV. Theophilus, eldest son and fourth child of John and Eliza- 
beth (Lumbert) Dymoke, was born in September, 1696, and died 
in 1760. He married, October 1, 1722, Sarah Hinkley. Children: 
1. John, born about 1723. 2. David, born about 1725; married 
Thankful, widow of James Hatch, and had a daughter, Thankful, 
who married her cousin, Sylvanus Dymoke, of whom further. 3. 
Theophilus (2), of whom further. 4. Thomas, born 1729. 5. Ebe- 
nezer, born 1731. 6. Joseph, born 1733, died Sept. 21, 1822. He 
held the rank of general in the military, and married, April 17, 1759, 



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BASSETT AND ALLIED FAMILIES 

Mary Meigs. 7. Lot, born about 1737, died 1816, having held the 
rank of captain. 8. Sarah, born about 1740. 9. Temperance. 

V. Theophilus (2), son of Thcophilus and Sarah (Hinkley) Dy- 
moke, was born in 1727, and died May 31, 1765. He married, No- 
vember 7, 1751, his cousin, Zerviah, daughter of Jabez and Anna 
(Hannah) (Dvmoke) Davis. Zerviah (Davis) Dymoke was born 
July 18, 1730,' and died March 19, 1824. Children: 1. John, born 
about 1752. 2. Sylvanus, of whom further. 3. Anna, born in 1756, 
married Elnathan Nye. 4. Jabez, born in 1759, died May 22, 1825. 
5. Ephraim, born about 1761. 6. Theophilus. 

VI. Sylvanus, second son and child of Theophilus and Zerviah 
(Davis) Dymoke, was born in 1754, and died at Lee, Massachusetts, 
March 16, 1837. His father's death occurring when he was but a 
boy, he was reared in the home of his uncle, General Joseph Dymoke. 
He married Thankful, born in 1754, daughter of David and Thank- 
ful (Hatch) Dymoke, of Falmouth, the banns published March 14, 
1775. 

VII. Hannah, only child of Sylvanus and Thankful (Dymoke) 
Dymoke, was born January 5, 1778, and died at Lee, Massachusetts, 
July 26, 1853. She married, April 11, 1793, Anselm, son of Nathaniel 
and Hannah (Hall) Bassett, their marriage connecting two ancient 
and honorable family lines. 




284 




Deming and Allied Families 

Denting Arms — Gules, between three bucks' heads couped at the neck argent, a 
crescent of the last for difference. 
Crest — A lion's head erased or. 

positive proof of the origin of the surname Deming has 
ever been advanced. Different explanations of its source 
have been found, of which the most logical is that it is a 
corruption of the surname Damon, itself a corruption 
of D 'Hammond, the name of "an ancient and illustrious 
family which has flourished in Surrey, and Buckinghamshire in 
England, and at Blois and Cherbourg in France." Careful search 
of English registers and records failed to reveal any mention of 
Deming, which shows that the surname as now spelled in this coun- 
try is a distinctively American rendition of an early English sur- 
name. Deming, Demmon, Demon, Deman, Dement, Deminge, 
Demyng, and numerous other variations appear in New England 
Colonial records. The Demings in America trace from several 
progenitors, between whom no relationship has been discovered. 
John Deming, founder of the family herein under consideration, is 
of record in Wethersfield, Connecticut, in 1641. Other founders 
were Thomas Deman, of Hartford; Thomas Demond, of Fairfield; 
and John Demmon, of Killingsworth, Connecticut. The family has 
figured honorably in the history of several parts of New England, 
and the name is an honored one in this section of the country. 

7. John Deming, immigrant ancestor, was a native of England. 
The exact date of his coming to America is not known. Some au- 
thorities advance the belief that he was one of the pioneer settlers 
of Wethersfield, Connecticut, when the colony was founded in 1635. 
Proof exists, however, that he was there in 1641, when he recorded 
his homestead as a house, a barn, and five acres of land, bounded 
by Higft street, west, the Great Meadow, east, Thomas Standish's 
homestead, north, and Richard Crabbe's homestead, south. John 
Deming became a man of much prominence in the community, and 
on March 2, 1642, was one of the jury of the "particular court." On 
December 1, 1645, he was among the deputies chosen to represent 
Wethersfield, as Jo. Demon. In 1656 he again filled the office, and 
his name this time is entered as John Dement. In the same year he 
was appointed one of a committee, "to give the best safe advice they 
can to the Indians." On May 21, 1657, he was a deputy to the Gen- 
eral Court as John Deming, and the next year as John Dement. He 

285 



DEMING AND ALLIED FAMILIES 

was deputy at different courts until 1667, and was also a litigant in 
several lawsuits. He is one of those named in the famous charter 
granted by King Charles to the original founders and to those who 
should afterwards become associated with them in the lands of 
Connecticut, "in free and common socage." He was among the first 
to obtain a lot across the river from W ethersiield, and within the 
boundaries of the town, on the "Naubuc Farms," afterward in- 
corporated into the town of Glastonbury. Pie obtained it in the year 
1640, when he appears in the records as John Demion. It is highly 
probable that he never lived there, for he had a house in Wethers- 
field in 1641, and sold the land on the cast side of the river to Samuel 
Wyllis before 166S. John Deming also owned land in Eastbury, for 
which he was taxed in 1673. He became a freeman in 1669, with 
John Deming, Jr., and Jonathan Deming. He bought much land in 
Wethcrsfield at different times, and disposed of it largely by deed 
to his sons before his death. On February 3, 1692, he signed a codicil 
to his will, and this is the last recorded act of his life. He died soon 
afterward, though his will was not proved until November 21, 1705. 
There is no record of the dates of birth of his children, whose names 
have been taken from his will. His home lot with everything on it 
he bequeathed to his son Samuel. To his son David he left all the 
materials and tools in his shop. To other children he left money and 
movable property. He appointed his son Samuel executor. His will 
shows that John Deming was a man of considerable property and 
that he also had a trade. David Deming, who received his father's 
tools, was a rope maker, but it does not necessarily follow that the 
father pursued the same trade. Eunice and Sarah Standish, men- 
tioned in his will as cousins, were the daughters of Thomas Stand- 
ish, whose land adjoined Deming's. The connection of this family 
with that of Captain Miles Standish has not been found. 

John Doming was undoubtedly a prominent figure in the affairs 
of the Connecticut Colony. Trumbull speaks of him as one of "the 
fathers of Connecticut," and Hinman says that "he held the office 
of constable in AVethersfield in 1654," which shows that he possessed 
the full confidence of the governor. His name appears on the rec- 
ords of the colony with the prefix Mr., a courtesy paid only to men of 
considerable prominence. It is said that he was a representative at 
fifty sessions of the General Court. John Deming married Honor 
Treat, daughter of Richard Treat. 

77. Joyiathan Deming, son of John and Honor (Treat) Deming, 
was born about 1639, in Wethersfield, Connecticut, and there died 
after a lifelong residence in the town, on January 8, 1700, aged about 
sixty-one years. He was a prosperous farmer, and respected mem- 
ber of the community. Jonathan Deming married (first) November 
21, 1660, Sarah Graves, daughter of George Graves, who died June 

286 



DEMING AND ALLIED FAMILIES 

5, 166S, in Wethersfield. He married (second) December 25, 1673, 
in Wethersfield, Elizabeth Gilbert, daughter of Josiah and Eliza- 
beth Gilbert, born March 28, 1654, and died September 8, 1714. 

///. Charles Deming, son of Jonathan and Elizabeth (Gilbert) 
Doming, was born in Wethersfield, on January (or June) 10, 16S1. 
Captain Charles Deming was a shipmaster, or "mariner," as he is 
called in the early records. His home was in Needham, near Boston, 
and he left a valuable estate. His will, dated February 1, 1740, 
names his children, with the exception of Elizabeth, who had per- 
haps died before that time. Captain Deming married (first) Sep- 
tember 5, 1706, in Wethersfield, Anna Wiekham, daughter of Thom- 
as and Mary Wiekham; she was born January 2, 1684, and died in 
June, 1711, in Wethersfield. He married (second) November 5, 
1713, in Boston, Massachusetts, Sarah Meers. 

IV. Jonathan (2) Deming, son of Charles and Sarah (Meers) 
Deming, was born in Boston, Massachusetts, January 27, 1723, and 
died there May 26, 1791. He married, November 1, 1770, Esther 
Edes, who was born June 18, 1739, died August 30, 1792, daughter 
of Hon. Peter and Esther (Hall) Edes. (See Edes IX). 

V. Charles (2) Deming, son of Jonathan (2) and Esther (Edes) 
Deming, was born March 6, 1774, in Needham, Massachusetts. In 
early life he was a resident of Needham, later removing to Brighton, 
Massachusetts, where he conducted "The Bull's Head Tavern." 
In middle life he removed to Marlboro, New Hampshire, and at a 
later date to Fitzwilliam. He became a leader in the Masonic order 
in Fitzwilliam, and was one of the foremost citizens of the town in 
his day. He died in Needham, Massachusetts, December 27, 1817. 

On July 24, 1792, he married in Needham, Massachusetts, Mehit- 
able Fuller, who was born June 5, 1777, and died September 5, 1867, 
daughter of Moses and Elizabeth (Newell) Fuller. Their children 
were: 1. Jonathan Edes, born Nov. 11, 1793, died Nov. 7, 1S15; 
unmarried. 2. Esther, born June 29, 1795 ; married Charles Dana, 
and died April 25, 1879. 3. Charles, born Aug. 21, 1796, died Aug. 
27, 1796. 4. Anne, born Feb. 17, 1798 ; married, Jan. 31, 1830, Sam- 
uel Foss Barker, of Lubec, Maine, and died Nov. 21, 1876. 5. Charles, 
born June 13, 1799; married Elizabeth Sawyer, and died May 8, 
1857. 6. Mary, born Dec. 18, 1800; married, Nov. 19, 1826, John 
Gardiner Faxon, and died June 11, 1883. 7. Elizabeth Fuller, born 
May 23, 1802, died Sept. 15, 1831, unmarried. 8. William, born Feb. 
21, 1804. 9. Isaac, born Sept. 2, 1805. 10. Adeline, born April 14, 
1808, died Aug. 30, 1809. 11. Adeline Townsend, born July 5, 1S10 ; 
married, Sept. 8, 1824, Cyrus Balkam, and died March 8, 1883. 12. 
Sarah Fuller, mentioned below. 13. Francis, born April 20, 1814; 

287 



DEMING AND ALLIED FAMILIES 

married Elizabeth Noble, and died March 5, 1858, in Naples, Italy, 
leaving one daughter, Elizabeth Deming, who married Stephen 
Fuller, of Charlestown, Massachusetts. 

VI. Sarah Fuller Deming, daughter of Charles (2) and Mehitable 
(Puller) Deming, was born in Needham, Massachusetts, August 24, 
1812. She married, on May 27, 1835, Amos De Forest Lockwood. 
(See Lockwood VII, in "Americana," April, 1919). 

(The Fuller Line.) 

The American Fullers spring from several unrelated progenitors. 
Samuel Fuller, with his brother, Edward Fuller, was a passenger on 
the Mayflower, and among the pioneer settlers of Plymouth. Mat- 
thew Fuller, their brother, followed at a later date. Still later came 
others of the name, among them Thomas Fuller, of Dedham, founder 
of the family herein under consideration, and Thomas Fuller, of 
Woburn. All of these early founders were Englishmen of substance, 
and a large proportion of them took active and prominent parts in 
the early affairs of the towns in which they settled. 

The surname Fuller is of the occupative class, and of very ancient 
date. It signifies literally "the fuller," i. e., the cloth-bleacher or 
felter, and appears in medieval English records first with the prefix 
le, which later fell into disuse. Various persons named Fuller have 
won distinction in England and in America. Nicholas Fuller, born 
in 1557, was a distinguished Oriental scholar ; another Nicholas 
Fuller, a noted lawyer and member of Parliament, died in 1620; 
Isaac Fuller, noted painter, died in 1672; Andrew Fuller, born in 
1754, was an eminent Baptist minister and writer; Thomas Fuller, 
English divine and author, born in 1608, was chaplain extraordinary 
to Charles II., and a prolific writer. It was said of him: "Fuller 
was incomparably the most sensible, the least prejudiced great man 
of an age that boasted a galaxy of great men." Sarah Margaret 
Fuller, marchioness of Ossobi, born in 1810, was a prominent Ameri- 
can teacher, editor and author. Melville W. Fuller, born in 1833, 
distinguished as a jurist, served as chief justice of the United States. 

I. Thomas Fuller, immigrant ancestor and founder of the Need- 
ham family of the name, was born in England, but the exact date of 
his coming to America is not known. He was a resident of Dedham 
at an early date, and evidently was a man of considerable prom- 
inence in the early settlement. He represented Dedham in the Mas- 
sachusetts General Court in 1673, 1679 and 1686, and died Septem- 
ber 28, 1690. Thomas Fuller married Hannah Flower, who was born 
in England. Among their children was John, mentioned below. 

II. John Fuller, son of Thomas and Hannah (Flower) Fuller, 

288 



DEMING AND ALLIED FAMILIES 

was born December 28, 1645, and died October 10, 1718. He owned 
lands in what is now Needham, at Purch Plain and Purch Meadow. 
On January 18, 1672, he married Joanna Gay, who was born April 

23, 1649, in Dedham, daughter of John and Joanna Gay, who came 
to America about 1630, settling first at Watertown; John Gay was 
later one of the founders of Dedham. 

III. Robert Fuller, son of John and Joanna (Gay) Fuller, was 
born in Dedham, Massachusetts, August 11, 1685. He inherited 
lands in Needham from his father, and lived on what is now Forest 
street. In 1735 he built a new house on Forest street, which was 
the home of his grandson, Moses, and was among the oldest houses 

in the town. Robert Fuller married (first) Mary , who died 

March 7, 1719. He married (second) July 6, 1721, Sarah Mills. 

TV. Lieutenant Robert (2) Fuller, son of Robert (1) and Mary 
Fuller, was born in Needham, Massachusetts, June 6, 1714. He was 
a life-long resident of the town, prominent in local affairs, and 
active in the militia, in which he held the rank of lieutenant. He 
married Sarah Eaton, who was born August 24, 1713, and died July 
10, 1797, daughter of William and Mary (Starr) Eaton. Lieuten- 
ant Robert Fuller died in Needham, May 12, 1788. 

V. Moses Fuller, son of Lieutenant Robert (2) and Sarah (Eaton) 
Fuller, was born April 29, 1750, in Needham, Massachusetts, and 
lived there all his life in the house built by his grandfather, Captain 
Robert Fuller, in 1735. He was a well known citizen of Needham, 
active in public affairs in the town. 

On April 14, 1774, he married Elizabeth Newell, who was born 
February 22, 1754, daughter of Ebenezer and Elizabeth Newell. 
She died on November 29, 1834, in Weston, Massachusetts, aged 
eighty years. Their children were: 1. Elizabeth, born 1775, died 

1778. 2. Mehitable, mentioned below. 3. Elizabeth, born July 13, 

1779. 4. Moses, born March 21, 1785. 5. Mary, born March 25, 
1788. 6. Hervey, born Oct. 16, 1790. 7. Stephen Palmer, born Feb. 
10. 1794. 8. Louisa, born June 25, 1798. Moses Fuller died in 
Needham, Feb. 13, 1823, aged seventy-two years. 

VI. Mehitable Fuller, daughter of Moses and Elizabeth (Newell) 
Fuller, was born June 5, 1777, at Needham, Massachusetts. On July 

24, 1792, she married Charles Deming, of Needham, and died Sep- 
tember 5, 1867. They were the parents of Sarah Fuller Deming, 
who became the wife of Amos De Forest Lockwood. (See Deming 
V and VI). 

289 



DEMING AND ALLIED FAMILIES 
(The Edes Line.) 

The surname Edes is of baptizmal origin, signifying literally 
"Ede's son." Although the feminine fontname Ede is now obso- 
lete, it has made a most remarkable impression on the directories 
of English speaking peoples. Until the seventeenth century it ling- 
ered in England as a personal name. Every imaginable variant of 
the surname is found. Beyond doubt, the name occasional^' had its 
eource in a nickname of Edward or Edmund, but the first derivation 
must be looked upon as absolutely decisive in the case of the great 
majority. 

Edes families have flourished in England for six centuries. The 
American family of the name is a branch of an ancient English fam- 
ily of County Essex. John Edes, the immigrant ancestor and pro- 
genitor, was a lineal descendant of Henry Edes, Gentleman, a large 
land owner of Booking, County Essex. The family in America, 
though small, has figured honorably in the history of several towns 
of Massachusetts. 

I. Henry Edes, of Booking, County Essex, England, must be re- 
garded as the English progenitor, since it is not possible to trace 
beyond him accurately. 

II. Henry (2) Edes, son of Henry (1) Edes, was the administra- 
tor of his father's estate. He was the grandfather of Rev. John 
Edes, mentioned below. 

IV. Rev. John Edes, great-grandson of Henry (1) Edes, was 
graduated at St. John's College, Cambridge, in 1610, with the degree 
of Bachelor of Arts. In 1614 he took his master's degree. For 
forty-one years he was rector of the church at Lawford, where 
he died April 12, 1658. A monument to his memory was erected by 
the town. 

V. John (2) Edes, son of Rev. John (1) Edes, was the father of 
the American emigrant. He was a resident of Lawford. 

VI. John (3) Edes, son of John (2) Edes, was born in Lawford, 
County Essex, England, March 31, 1651. He came to America be- 
fore 1674, when he married Mary Tufts, daughter of Peter Tufts; 
she was born June 15, 1655, and was the mother of John, mentioned 
below. John Edes served in the Indian Wars of 1675. He was a 
resident of Cambridge, Massachusetts. 

VII. John (4) Edes, son of John (3) and Mary (Tufts) Edes, 
vas baptized at Cambridge, Massachusetts, June 26, 1680, and died 
of smallpox, January 16, 1721. He was a resident of Cambridge, 

290 



DEMING AND ALLIED FAMILIES 

and married there, April 13, 1698, Grace Lawrence, daughter of 
George and Elizabeth Lawrence, who was admitted to the Cambridge 
church, July 20, 1718, and died August 9, 1758. Grace (Lawrence) 
Edes was born June 3, 1680. Her father, George Lawrence, was 
born about 1637, and settled in Watertown, Massachusetts, where 
he died March 21, 1709. He married (first) September 29, 1657, 
Elizabeth Crispe, daughter of Benjamin Crispe, founder of the fam- 
ily in America, who was born in 1611, and came to America in 1629; 
he was one of the original proprietors of Watertown, Massachu- 
setts; Elizabeth (Crispe) Edes died May 2S, 1681, and George Law- 
rence married (second) August 16, 1691, Elizabeth Holland. 

VIII. Peter Edes, son of John (4) and Grace (Lawrence) Edes, 
was born September 15, 1705, probably in Charlestown, Massachu- 
setts, and lived there and in Cambridge, where he followed the 
occupation of hatter. On December 18, 1729, he married Esther 
Hall, who was born December 27, 1700, daughter of Stephen and 
Grace (Willis) Hall. Stephen Hall was the son of Widow Mary 
Hall, who came to this country with her two sons ; he lived at Con- 
cord, Stowe and Medford, Massachusetts, and later at "Qucens- 
bucke," Connecticut. Stephen Hall, Sr., married on December 3, 
1663, Ruth Davis, daughter of Dolor and Margery (Willard) Davis; 
her father was in Cambridge in 1634, and was one of the signers of 
the petition for the setting apart of the town of Groton in 1656. He 
had previously resided at Barnstable, where he died in 1673. He 
married Marjory, sister of Major Simon Willard. Their eldest 
child became the wife of Stephen Hall, Sr., and mother of Stephen 
Hall, Jr., who was born in 1667, died November 7, 1749. He married 
(first) about 1692, Grace Willis, daughter of Thomas and Grace 
(Pay) Willis, who was admitted to the church at Watertown, Febru- 
ary 8, 1713, and died of smallpox, November 19, 1721. Their daugh- 
ter, Esther Hall, became the wife of Peter Edes. Peter Edes was a 
prominent figure in the affairs of Massachusetts prior to the Ameri- 
can Revolution, and was a member of the committee of correspond- 
ence at Harvard in 1773. Esther (Hall) Edes died June 14, 1756, 
and he married (second) November 26, 1761, Anna Haskell. He 
died at Harvard, January 25, 1787. 

IX. Esther Edes, daughter of Peter and Esther (Hall) Edes, was 
born June 18, 1739. On November 1, 1770, she married Jonathan 
Deming. (See Deming TV). 



291 




Duer and Allied Famifcs y 

Duer Arms — Ermine, a bend gules. 
Crest — A dove and olive branch argent 
Motto — Esse et vider. 

HE Duer family has been prominent in the judicial, naval 
and military history of the Middle Atlantic States since 
the year 1768, when the immigrant ancestor, Colonel 

William Duer, came to America from England. 

i 

I. Colonel William Duer was born in England, March 18, 1747, 
the son of John and Frances (Frye) Duer. After having served 
under Lord Clive in India, Colonel Duer returned to England, and 
shortly afterwards departed for the colonies in America. He pur- 
chased land on the Hudson river, where he established himself, and 
became one of the Indian Commissioners just before the outbreak 
of the American Revolution. He was also commissary for New 
York, and a member of the Committee of Safety previous to the out- 
break of hostilities between the colonies and the mother country. 
When war came, however, he joined the colonists and entered the 
army, in which he held the rank of colonel. He died May 17, 1799. 

Colonel Duer married Catherine Alexander, daughter of Maj.- 
Gen. William and Sarah (Livingston) Alexander. Maj.-Gen. Alex- 
ander was a member of the King's Council for the Colony of New 
York and New Jersey before the Revolution, after which he became 
a major-general in the American army. The wedding was perform- 
ed at Baskingridge, New Jersey, the home of the bride. General 
George Washington gave the bride away, and the ceremony was 
performed by his own chaplain, the Rev. Mr. Armstrong. Colonel 
Duer was a brother-in-law of the Hon. George Rose, the friend and 
correspondent of Pope, and whose eldest son, Lord Strathnairne, 
was one of the heroes of the Crimean War. The children of Col- 
onel Duer and Catherine Alexander were : 1. William Alexander 
Duer, one of the first midshipmen of the United States Navy. He 
left the sea at an early age and studied law. He assisted Edward 
Livingston in the framing of the famous State Constitution, known 
as the Louisiana Code, and since that time used as the frame and 
standard for the constitution of each State entering the Union. He 
was appointed judge of the Third Circuit Court of New York, and in 
1830 was elected to the presidency of Columbia College of New 
York. 2. John Duer, judge and eminent jurist; his books are even 
now recognized and used as text books on the laws of New York 

292 



DUER AND ALLIED FAMILIES 

State. 3. Francis Duer. 4. Sarah Henrietta. 5. Catherine Alex- 
ander. 6. Maria Theodora. 7. Henrietta Elizabeth. 8. Alexander. 

77. William Alexander Duer, LL. D., son of Colonel William and 
Catherine (Alexander) Duer, was born September 8, 1780, and died 
May 30, 1858. He married, September 11, 1806, Hannah Maria 
Denning;, daughter of William and Amy (Hawxhurst) Denning. She 
died July 17, 1862. Their children were : 1. Henrietta, born 1808 ; 
died September 18, 1S24. 2. Frances Maria, born December 24, 
1809 ; married April 7, 1836, Henry Sheaf Hoyt. 3. Catherine Theo- 
dora, born Dec. 24, 1811 ; died June 3, 1877. 4. William Denning, 
mentioned below. 5. Eleanor Jones, born Feb. 6, 1S14 ; married, 
May 17, 1838, George Templar Wilson; died Nov. 11, 1892. 6. Ed- 
ward A., born 1815; died in 1831. 7. Sarah Henderson, born Jan. 
28, 1817 ; died August 5, 1856. 8. Lieutenant-Commander John 
King, born Dec. 26, 1818; died June 14, 1859; married, Sept. 21, 
1841, George Anna Huyler. 9. Elizabeth Denning, born July 25, 
1821 ; married, Mav 8, 1845, Archibald Gracie King ; died March 21, 
1897. 10. Charlotte Lucretia, born May 28, 1828; died Jan. 8, 1832. 

777. William Denning Duer, son of William Alexander and Han- 
nah Maria (Denning) Duer, was born December 6, 1812. He mar- 
ried, May 8, 1837, Caroline King, daughter of James Gore King. 
Their children were : 1. Sarah Gracie. 2. Edward Alexander; mar- 
ried, April 26, 1 870, Anna Van Buren, daughter of John Van Buren. 
3. James G. K., married, June 2, 1864, Elizabeth, daughter of Or- 
lando Meads. 4. Lieutenant Commander Kufus King Duer, United 
States Navy, died at sea, June 28, 1869. 5. Amy Hawxhurst. 6. 
William Alexander, married, May 24, 1877, Ellin Travers, daughter 
of William Travers. 7. Denning Duer (2nd), mentioned below. 

IV. Denning Duer, the son of William and Caroline (King) Duer, 
was born September 15, 1850, in Weehawken, New Jersey. He re- 
ceived his early education in the public schools of Weehawken, and 
after completing the course of study offered there, he embarked on 
a business career as a stock broker in New York City. He was a 
man with keen business talent, and succeeded admirably in this ven- 
ture in which he remained for several years. In addition to his busi- 
ness ability, he was also a thinker, student, and born diplomat. His 
recognized ability and genius in this line was instrumental in se- 
curing him an appointment from President Arthur in 1881 as Coun- 
sul at Lisbon, Portugal. He rendered valuable services in this im- 
portant position, and his worth was recognized to such an extent 
that he was retained in the consular service by the succeeding ad- 
ministration, that of President Cleveland. During this administra- 

293 



DUER AND ALLIED FAMILIES 

tion he was United States Consul at Antwerp, Holland, and was 
later identified in an official capacity with the consulate in London. 

To travel and live abroad among foreign peoples is an education 
than which there is none more broadening, and complete. Contact 
daily with customs differing in their essentials from those to which 
one has been accustomed, is bound to effect in the mind of a man a 
deep understanding** and sympathy with human nature, a sort of 
divine tolerance. These qualities Mr. Duer had in abundance, and 
in consequence possessed friends all over the world. Upon quitting 
the diplomatic service he returned to America and settled in New 
Haven, Connecticut, where he resided for the remainder of his life. 
After his retirement from official life, Mr. Duer did not again ac- 
tively enter the business world, though he still continued and did 
till the end of his life take a keen and active interest in almost every 
phase of life in the city of New Haven. The same qualities which 
had made him a successful business man and a more successful 
consul, made his advice sought by some of the most influential men 
of the city, whose friend he was. 

On February 12, 1874, Mr. Duer married Louise Suydam, of 
Babylon, Long Island, New York, a daughter of Henry L. and 
Phoebe (Higbie) Suydam. Her mother died when Mrs. Duer was 
five years of age, and she made her home thereafter with her aunt 
and uncle, Ferdinand and Caroline (Whitney) Suydam, of New 
York. (See Suydam). 

To Mr. and Mrs. Duer two children were born: 1. Caroline Suy- 
dam, married George Xavier McLanahan, of Washington, D. C., 
and is the mother of four children : Duer, Helen, Louise Suydam and 
George. 2. Louise, born in 1882, died in November, 1890. Mrs. 
Louise (Suydam) Duer survives her husband, and resides in New 
Haven, Connecticut. She is a member of the Colonial Dames and 
the Connecticut Society. A niece of Mr. Duer is the wife of the well 
known surgeon, Dr. Joseph Blake, of the American Hospital in 
Paris. 

(The Suydam Line.) 

Suydam Arms — Argent, a chevron azure between in chief two crescents gules, and 
in base a mullet of the last. 

Crest— A swan in water among reeds proper. 
Motto — De tyd vliegt. 

The Suydam family is one of very great antiquity, dating in the 
Netherlands from the beginning of the eleventh century, when mem- 
bers of the family held extensive landed estates in Holland. Re- 
search has as yet failed to establish a connection between the Ameri- 
can family of the name and the ancient Dutch house. Hiker in his 
"Annals of Newtown, New York," in an extensive article devoted 
to the Suydam family, states that they owe their name to a custom 

294 



DUER AND ALLIED FAMILIES 

in vogue among the Dutch founders of families, of assuming the 
title of the place in Europe whence they had emigrated to America. 
The first ancestor of the Suydams in America was Heyndrycke 
Rycke or Rychen. Early Dutch colonial records inform us that he 
was "from Suydaru," but unless either Schiedam or Saardam be 
intended, which is perhaps to be questioned, doubt must be raised as 
to the locality. Prom the earliest years of the New Amsterdam 
Colony, members of the family have rendered distinguished services 
to America during her several wars, and have established a reputa- 
tion for stern integrity, honesty, hospitality and respectability. The 
family has held a place of importance socially among the old Knick- 
erbocker families of New York, and has intermarried since the time 
of its founding with the foremost families of the State. 

/. Hendrick Rycken, immigrant ancestor and founder of the Suy- 
dam family, emigrated from Holland to America in 1663, settling 
on the outskirts of the city of New Amsterdam, at what was then 
called Smith's Fly, where he purchased a house and land on the 
shore of the East River, in 1678. He was a blacksmith, and pursued 
his trade in that locality until forced to move by the continued an- 
noyance and danger of the snakes which infested the low land in 
that section. This property, which he subsequently sold to Dirck 
Van der Cliff (after whom Cliff street, New York, took its name), 
was bounded by the East River, Shoemaker's land, and Maiden 
Lane. Hendrick Rycken had been in New York fourteen years be- 
fore he purchased this property, and this transaction seems to have 
been the beginning of a successful career for him. In his monograph 
on Hendrick Rycken, the Rev. J. Howard Suydam, D. D., says: 

We may imagine this house as that of a farmer, since it was located at a distance 
from the built-up portion of the city. If so, it was a wooden structure, long, having a 
low ceiling, and a roof reaching very near to the ground. Near by there was a gar- 
den of flowers, containing many colored tulips, which at this particular period were 
producing a strange mania in Holland. There was also a garden of vegetables, for 
which the Dutch were ever famous. The milk for the family came from the cows 
which flourished on the sweet clover in that pasture field ; and the table was never with- 
out the schnapps, or the tankard of beer. On the site of Hendrick Rycken's farm was 
fought the battle of Golden Hill, on January 18, 1770, which marked the first bloodshed 
in the American Revolution. It is usually stated by historians that the first blood was 
shed at Lexington, but such is not the fact. In 1678-79 he removed to Flatbush, where 
in April, 1679, he united with the church, with his wife Ida (Jacobs) Rycken. Rycken 
was one of the twenty-six patentees of the town of Flatbush, under the patent granted 
by Lieutenant-Governor Dongan, in 1685. He later acquired a large estate in Flatbush 
and other places, and assumed a place of prominence in the life and affairs of that 
locality. The family ranked high among the proud old Dutch families of the day. 

Hendrick Rycken died in 1701. In his will he enjoins upon his 
wife a careful attention to the religious education of their children. 
Issue: 1. Jacob. 2. Hendrick. 3. Ryck, mentioned below. 4. Ida. 
5. Gertrude. 6. Jane. 

It is a curious though well established fact that, about the year 

295 



DUER AND ALLIED FAMILIES 

1710, the sons of Hendrick Rycken adopted the surname of Suydam, 
and from these three are descended all the Suydams of America, 
whose lineage is traced to early colonial days. 

II. Ryck Rycken or Suydam, youngest son of Hendrick and Ida 
(Jacobs) Rycken, was born in 1675, probably in New Amsterdam. 
He removed to Flatbush, and resided there, a figure of prominence 
in the early affairs of the settlement, until his death. From 1711 
until his demise he acted repeatedly as supervisor of the town, and 
was also for a considerable period a judge. Ryck Suydam married 
twice. He died in 1711. His children were : 1. Hendrick. 2. John, 
mentioned below. 3. Ryck, usually called Richard, who established 
a branch of the family in Freehold, Monmouth county, N. J. 4. Ida. 
5. Anna. 6. Gertrude. 7. Jane. 8. Christiana. 9. Mary. 

III. Jolin Suydam, son of Ryck Suydam, was born in Flatbush, 
New York, and resided in Flatbush and in Brooklyn throughout his 
life. He died in Brooklyn, about the close of the American Revolu- 
tion. His children were: 1. Ryck. 2. Ferdinand. 3. Hendrick, 
mentioned below. 4. Rynier. 5. Maria. 

IV. Hendrick Suydam, son of John Suydam, was born in New 
York, in 1736. Prior to the Revolution he removed to Hallett's 
Cove, Long Island, and bought the mill on Sunswick creek, which he 
conducted during the rest of his life. He was one of the foremost 
citizens of Hallett's Cove, and was for many years an elder of the 
Dutch church in Newtown. A contemporary tribute to him, which 
gives an insight into his life and character, states that "urbanity of 
manners, . . . hospitality without grudging, characterized his life. 
He lived esteemed, loved, revered. ' ' From this we may draw a clear 
picture of him as representative of the finest type of Dutch gentle- 
man and planter of his day, living a useful life on his broad well- 
cared-for acres, dispensing hospitality and good cheer with a lavish 
hand, after the fashion of the Knickerbocker patriarchs whom 
Washington Irving has immortalized. 

Hendrick Suydam was thrice married; (first) August 30, 1762, to 
Letitia Sebring, who died February 14, 1765. He married (second) 
Harmtie Lefferts, who died childless. His third wife, whom he 
married, August 3, 1770, was Phebe Skidmore, daughter of Samuel 
Skidmore. She died April 11, 1S32, at the advanced age of eighty- 
seven years. He died February 9, 1818, aged eighty-one years. 

V. Ferdinand Suydam, son of Hendrick and Phebe (Skidmore) 
Suydam, was born at Hallett's Cove, Newtown, New York, Septem- 
ber 13, 1786. He passed the early years of his life on his father's 
estate at Newtown, but removed to New York City, where he en- 

296 



DUER AND ALLIED FAMILIES 

paged in mercantile pursuits later in life. He died at Buffalo, New 
York, March 23, 1851, and was buried in the vault of Trinity Church, 
New York. He was well known in business, and financial circles in 
New York City. Mr. Suydara was a member of Trinity parish. 
His home at No. 3 Bowling Green, New York, stood on the site of 
the present Custom House. 

He married, October 21, 1810, Eliza Underbill, daughter of An- 
thony Lispenard and Clarina (Bartow) Underbill, who was born in 
New York City, November S, 1788, and died there June 16, 1844. 
(See Underhill VI). 

VI. Henry Lispenard Suydam, son of Ferdinand and Eliza (Un- 
derhill) Suydam, was born November 7, 1S13, in New York City. He 
resided in Babylon, Long Island, a well known citizen there, living 
the life of a retired gentleman. He was a man of culture and of 
quiet, scholarly tastes. He married Phoebe Higbie, and died at 
Babylon, Long Island, where he was buried, October 25, 1879. 
Henry Lispenard and Phoebe (Higbie) Suydam, were the parents 
of one child : Louise, mentioned below. 

VII. Louise Suydam, daughter of Henry Lispenard and Phoebe 
(Higbie) Suydam, was born August 17, 1853, at Babylon, Long Is- 
land. She married, February 12, 1874, at New York City, Rev. Car- 
ter officiating, Denning Duer, who was born September 15, 1850, 
at Weehawken, New Jersey, son of Denning and Caroline (King) 
Duer, of New Y T ork. Mrs. Duer resides at No. 691 Whitney avenue, 
New Haven, Connecticut, and is well known in the more conserva- 
tive of the social circles of the city. Mr. and Mrs. Duer were the 
parents of two children : 1. Caroline Suydam, born in 1876, married 
George Xavier McLanahan, of Washington, D. C, where she now 
resides. 2. Louise, born in 1882, died in November, 1890. 

(The Underhill Line.) 

Underhill Arms — Argent a chevron sable between three trefoils slipped vert. 
Crest — On a mount vert a hind lodged or. 

The Underhill family in America dates from the year 1630, when 
Captain John Underhill, its founder, came to America. Since the 
time of the early Dutch settlements in New Amsterdam, and along 
the Hudson river, in what is now the State of New York, the old 
Westchester country has been the home of descendants of the 
pioneer Underhills. The family has been prominent in official life 
in this section of New York since the middle of the seventeenth cen- 
tury. Captain John Underhill, the progenitor, was a man of culture, 
considerable wealth according to the standards of the day, whose 
progeny have never relinguished the prestige and prominence of the 

297 



DUER AND ALLIED FAMILIES 

earlier generations of the family in the affairs of New York. The 
Underhills intermarried with some of the foremost of the old Dutch 
aiid English families of New York, among them the Suydams. 

7. Captain John Underhill, immigrant ancestor and founder, came 
to America in 1630, settling first on Long Island. He was a man of 
excellent education, evidently a keen observer and scholar, for in 
1638 he published his "Newes from America." This valuable com- 
ment on the life and manners of the times has been preserved and 
printed in book form by his descendants, and is among the most in- 
teresting documents which come down to us from early New York. 
Captain John Underhill was a prosperous planter and farmer, and 
after a short period became one of the leading figures in the affairs 
of Matinnecock. He died in 1672, and was buried in the Underhill 
burying ground at Matinnecock (Locust Valley) Long Island. Cap- 
tain Underhill married Elizabeth Feke, daughter of Robert Feke 
(or Feak). They were the parents of several children, among 
them Nathaniel, mentioned below. 

II. Nathaniel Underhill, son of Captain John and Elizabeth 
(Feke) Underhill, was born on Long Island, February 22, 1663, and 
passed the early years of his life at the home of his parents on Long 
Island. He removed later to Westchester county, New York, and 
was the founder of the Westchester branch of the family. He was 
a farmer on a large scale there, and one of the leading men of the 
surrounding country. Nathaniel Underbill married Mary Ferris, 
December 2, 1685; she was the daughter of John and Mary Ferris. 
He died November 10, 1710, and was buried in the old burying 
ground on the Lorillard Spencer estate in Westchester. Nathaniel 
and Mary (Ferris) Underhill were the parents of seven children, 
of whom Nathaniel, mentioned below, was the second. 

III. Nathaniel (2) Underhill, son of Nathaniel (1) and Mary 
(Ferris) Underhill, was born August 11, 1690. He resided in West- 
chester, New York, in what' is now Williamsbridge, and was prom- 
inent and active in the affairs of the county. In 1720 he held the 
office of trustee of the town of Westchester, and in 1772 was its 
mayor. Nathaniel Underhill married, April 19, 1711, Mary Hunt, 
who was born July 22, 1692, daughter of John and Phebe (Seaman) 
Hunt. He died November 27, 1775, at the age of eighty -five years, 
and was buried on the Lorillard Spencer estate at Williamsbridge, 
New York. His will, dated December 1, 1775, is recorded in the 
surrogate's office, New York. 

IV. Israel Underhill, son of Nathaniel and Mary (Hunt) Under- 
hill, was born in Westchester, New York, September 10, 1732, and 
resided in New Rochelle, New York. He was prominent in official 

298 



DUER AND ALLIED FAMILIES 

affairs in New Bochelle, and was active in the militia, holding the 
rank of ensign. He was a member of the Protestant Episcopal 
church, and in 17S4 was a trustee in St. Peter's Church. In 1787 
he held the office of supervisor, and in 1S03 was trustee of Lady's 
Seminary and Boys' School at West Farms, New York. He was a 
pewholder for several years in St. Paul's Church, at Eastchester, 
New York. 

Israel Underhill married, March 4, 1761 (license granted by the 
Secretary of the Province of New York), Abigail Lispenard, daugh- 
ter of Anthony and Maria (Milburnc) Lispenard, and a member 
of the noted Lispenard family of New York. She was born Decem- 
ber 4, 1739, and died February 3, 1806, and was buried on the Loril- 
lard Spencer estate. Israel Underhill died September 23, 1806, at 
the age of seventy-four years, and was also buried on the Lorillard 
Spencer estate. His will, probated in 1S07, is recorded in the surro- 
gate's office, White Plains, New York. 

V. Anthony Lispenard Underhill, son of Israel and Abigail (Lis- 
penard) Underhill, was born December 30, 1763. He removed to 
New York, and resided there during the greater part of his life, 
on Dey street, first at what is now No. 31, later at 41-44, in 1827, re- 
moving from the latter house to No. 28 Cortlandt street. He was 
one of the foremost merchants and public men of New York of his 
day, an alderman of the city in 1817 and 1818 ; 1814-15-16 he held the 
office of assistant alderman. In 3826-27 he was president of the 
Fulton Fire Insurance Company of New York. Anthony L. Under- 
hill was a member of Trinity Church, New York, and was a pew- 
holder in St. Peter's at Westchester, New York. 

Anthony Lispenard Underhill married, July 4, 1783, Clarina Bar- 
tow, who w T as bom March 4, 1769, the daughter of Basil and Clarina 
Bartow, of Westchester, New York. She died July 9, 1836, and was 
buried at Eastern Shore, Maryland, on the Dr. Sykes farm. He died 
July 18, 1S47, at Saratoga Springs, New York, and was buried in 
Trinity vault, Trinity Church, New York. 

VI. Eliza Underhill, daughter of Anthony Lispenard and Clarina 
(Bartow) Underhill, was born November 8, 1788, at No. 31 Dey 
street, New York City. She married October 21, 1810, Ferdinand 
Suydam, who was born September 13, 1786, at Hallett's Cove, New- 
town, New York, the son of Hendrick and Phebe (Skidmore) Suy- 
dam. He died at Buffalo, New York, March 23, 1851, and was buried 
in Trinity vault, Trinity Church, New York, of which parish he 
and his wife were members. Mr. and Mrs. Suydam resided at No. 
3 Bowling Green, New York, on the site of the present Custom 
House in New York City. Eliza Underhill Suydam died at her 
home in New York City, June 16, 1844, and was buried in Trinity 
vault. 

299 



Delano=Hilch Families 

Delano Arms — Argent, three lions rampant vert, armed and langued gules. 
Crest — Out of a crown or, the head and neck of a unicorn argent, attired and 
crined of the first. 

jpPmpl|]jHE descendants of the Pilgrim ancestor, Philip Delano, of 
1 twilll Plymouth, have the satisfaction of tracing; their an- 
^lil-vOl cestry in the old country for a dozen centuries. They 
\iiS^j)3w$ have established the full right to bear the arms of the 
Delano family, which could be of no better stock and 
which embraces a host of distinguished men in its numbers. The 
name is derived from the town of Lannoy, a few miles from Isle, 
now Lille, France. Away back in A. D. 863 this town was called 
Alnetum, later L'Annois and Lannoy. The meaning of the word is 
unknown. It has been spelled L'Annois, L'Annoe, L'Aulmais, 
L'Aulnoy, but more often Alnetum. Today Lannoy is a small man- 
ufacturing town, seven miles from Lille, with a population at the 
last census of one thousand, nine hundred and four. The first Lord 
of Lannoy, progenitor of the family, was Hugues de Lannoy, men- 
tioned as a knight of Tournai d'Auclin in 1096. On the same list 
was Simon de Alneto. A Chartre des Chanoines (cannons) de St. 
Pierre a Lille mentions Gilbert de Lannoy in 1171, and Hughes de 
Lannoy is mentioned in 1186. It is impossible to present in this 
place an extended history of the family in its early days in France. 
That has been done with remarkable care and apparent accuracy in 
the genealogy, which is authority for all said here about the origin 
and early history of the family. There seems to be no flaw in the 
following pedigree in the direct male line of the American emigrant, 
Philip Delano or Delanoy: 

I. Arnulphe de Franchmont. 2. Conrad de Franchmont. 3. Hellin, Marquis de 
Franchmont, married Agnes, daughter of Othon, Duke of Bavaria. 4. Hellin de 
Franchmont, married Agnis de Duras. 5. Jean de Franchmont, married Mahienne de 
Lannoy. 6. Hugues de Lannoy. 7. Hugues de Lannoy. 8. Guillebert de Lannoy. 9. 
Baudoin "Le Begue." 10. Vaudoin. 11. Phillippe. 12. Jean, born about 1511, died 
May 25, 1560; was made Chevalier de la Roison d'Or in 1546; Chamberlain to the Em- 
peror Charles V., from 1519 to 1556; Governor de Haymont and Captain-general of 
same province of Flanders in 1559; married Jeanne de Ligne de Barbancon, daughter 
of Louis de Ligne, Seigneur de Barbancon, and his wife Marie de Berghes. 13. Gysbert 
de Lannoy, born at Tourcoing, 1545, of Roman Catholic parents, but became a Protestant 
and was disinherited by his father. 14. Jean of Leyden, was born 1570, died at Leyden, 
1604. He married at the Walloon Church (Tornai), January 13, 1596, Marie la Mahieu, 
of Brabant family. 15. Philip, the American emigrant, (see forward). 

It is shown that the Delanoy family for all these centuries re- 

300 



DELANO-HITCH FAMILIES 

mained pure Norman and Flemish blood, never intermarrying with 
the French race. 

The following lines of descent show some of the royal ancestors of 
Philip Delano. 

i. Huolf, first Duke of the Normans, a Viking, A. D. 860. 2. William Longsword, 
Duke of the Normans. 3. Richard, the Fearless. 4. Richard, the Good. 5. Robert I., 
.the Devil. 6. William the Conqueror, King of England, Duke of Normandy. 7. Henry 
I., "Beauclerc." 8. Matilda, married Geoffrey Plantagenet 9. Henry II., King of Eng- 
land, 1154 to 1189. 10. Matilda, married Henry V., Duke of Saxony and Bavaria. 11. 
Henry VI., married Agnes, daughter of Conrad, son of Frederick I., a descendant 
of Alfred the Great (849), Cedric (495), and other ancient English noble and royal 
personages. 12. Agnes, married Othon, Duke of Bavaria. 13. Agnes, married Hcllin 
de Franchmont. 14. Hellin (2). 15. Jean de Franchmont, born about 1300. 16. Hugues 
de Lannoy, born 131 1, died 1349, previously mentioned. 

The line of Philip Delano is traced to Charlemagne and his an- 
cestors to the year A. D. 1611, viz. : 

I. St. Arnoul (6n). 2. Ansegise, A. D., 679. 3. Pepin Le Gros, 714. 4. Charles 
Martel, Duke of the Franks. 741. 5. Pepin, "the Short," King of France, 768. 6. Em- 
peror Charlemagne, 800. 7. Pepin, King of Italy. 8. Bernard, King of Italy. 9. Pepin 
(2). 10. Pepin, Compte de Vermandois. 11. Beatrix, married Robert, Duke of France. 
12. Huguese the Great. 13. Hugues Capet, King of France. 14. Robert, the Saint, King 
of France. 15. Alix de France, married Boudouin, fifth Count of Flanders. 16. Judith, 
married Guelph, Duke of Bavaria. 17. Henry III. 18. Henry IV. 19. Henry V. 20. 
Henry VI., where the line connects with the one previous. 

Another pedigree connects Philip Delano with Priam, King of 
France, in 382, and still another with Guelph, Prince of the Scyrri, 
A. D. 476. Of course, the royal ancestors of any family are legion in 
case any connection is established, for the constant intermarriages 
connect the ruling families of all nations to some extent. The royal 
and some of the noble family genealogies are available, of course. 
The name appeared at Plymouth as de la Noye, but the English- 
speaking and English-writing people of the colony very quickly con- 
solidated the three syllables and dropped the last two letters, this 
making the present form of the name Delano. In the early records 
of New England it appears as Dillanoe, Dillnoe, Dilnow, Dillno and 
Delanoy. At the present date people are found in Vermont who 
pronounce it Dilnow. 

7. Philip Delano was born in Leyden, Holland, 1602, and bap- 
tized there 1603. The Delano family went to Leyden to escape 
persecution in France, where the Catholic party was in power and 
the Inquisition active. They were French Protestants, or Hugue- 
nots. Philip grew up under the teachings of the Separatists of the 
Established church of England who fled to Holland in 1608 to abide 
in Leyden. Thus he became affiliated with the Pilgrims, who came 
over on the Mayflower, and it is believed that he started in the 
first company that came to Plymouth in that vessel. He is sup- 

301 



DELANO-HITCH FAMILIES 

posed to have been in the companionship, the Speedwell, which sailed 
from Southampton for America, but had to put into Dartmouth on 
account of a leak. She sailed again August 31, after repairs were 
made, but sprung a leak once more and returned to Plymouth, Eng- 
land, where the voyage was abandoned and eighteen of the pas- 
sengers who could not be accommodated on the Mayfloiver, includ- 
ing Robert Cushman, remained in England until the Fortune sailed 
next summer. At any rate, Philip Delano came to America on the 
ship Fortune in 1621, then aged nineteen years. In 1624 he had 
an acre of land granted him at Plymouth, but gave it up as he settled 
in Duxbury. 

Philip Delano was admitted a freeman, January 1, 1632-33. His 
farm at Duxbury, granted October 2, 1637, was north and northwest 
of Alden's, on the north side of Stony or Mill brook, below the site 
of the late tack factory. It was bounded by lands of Morse Pampas 
and Alden, and comprised forty acres. He was often employed in 
the early days as surveyor of lands, and frequently served on the 
grand jury, and was a volunteer in the Pequot War, June 7, 1637. 
He died at Bridgewater, Massachusetts, about 1681, aged seventy- 
nine years. The probate court was not established until 16S6, and 
his estate was settled according to the records in the registry of 
deeds, July 5, 1682. He died intestate, but left a memorandum 
expressing his wishes and intent, and this nuncupative will was al- 
lowed July 7, 1682. He married (first) at Duxbury, December 19, 
1631, Hester Dewsbery, of Duxbury. He married (second) at Dux- 
bury, 1657, Mary (Pontus) Glass, widow of James Glass, daughter 
of William Pontus. The children of Philip and Hester Delano: 
1. Mary, born 1635; married Jonathan Dunham. 2. Esther, born 
1638. 3. Philip, Jr., born about 1640; married Elizabeth Clark. 

3. Thomas (Doctor), born March 21, 1642; married Mary Alden. 

4. John, born about 1644. 5. James, died unmarried. 6. Lieutenant 
Jonathan, of whom further. 7. Kebecca, born about 1651; married 
John Churchill. The only child of Philip and Mary was: Samuel, 
born 1659, married Elizabeth Standish. 

77. Jonathan Delano, fifth son of Philip and Hester (Dewsbury) 
Delano, was born 1647, in Duxbury, and was one of the original 
proprietors of Dartmouth, residing in that portion which is now 
Fairhaven, where he died December 23, 1720. By deed of confirma- 
tion from Governor Bradford, November 13, 1694, in the right of his 
father in the township he became possessed of about eight hundred 
acres, and resided near the brook of Tusket Hill, or Wasquatucket, 
where he built a mill. He served as constable, surveyor, commis- 
sioner, selectman, and was deputy from Dartmouth, in 1689. He 
was commissioned lieutenant, December 25, 1689, by Governor Hink- 
ley, who had previously served as a soldier in King Philip's War, 

302 



DELANO-HITCH FAMILIES 

and was with Captain Benjamin Church at Mount Hope, when 
Philip's men were destroyed or captured. 

He married, in Plymouth, February 28, 1678, Mercy, daughter of 
Nathaniel and Sarah (Walker) Warren, and granddaughter of Rich- 
ard Warren of the Mayflower Colony. His first child, a daughter, 
died at the age of three days; others were: 1. Jonathan, born Jan. 
30, 1G80. 2. Jabez, born Nov. 8, 16S2. 3. Sarah, born Jan. 9, 1684. 
4. Marv, born Oct, 27, 1686. 5. Nathan, born Oct. 29, 1688. 6. Be- 
thiah, born Nov. 29, 1690. 7. Susanna, born Sept. 3, 1693. 8. A 
son died at birth. 9. Nathaniel, born Oct. 29, 1695. 10. Esther, 
born April 4, 1698. 11. Jethro, born July 31, 1701. 12. Thomas, 
mentioned below. 

III. Thomas Delano, youngest child of Jonathan and Mercy 
(Warren) Delano, was born May 10, 1704, in Dartmouth, where he 
passed his life. He married there, November 4, 1727, Jean Peck- 
ham, also born and died in Dartmouth. Childern: 1. Thomas, born y 
Aug. 12, 1729. 2. Abisha, born July 9, 1731, 3. Ephraim, men- 
tioned below. 4. Jabez, born Feb. 4, 1734. 5. Gideon, born Sept. 

25, 1736. 6. Deborah, born June 14, 1739. 7. Jean, born Dec. 3, 
1743. 

IV. Captain Ephraim Delano, third son of Thomas and Jean 
(Peckham) Delano, was born August 25, 1733, in Dartmouth, where 
he made his home, and died November 24, 1809, in Fairhaven, Massa- 
chusetts. Children: 1. Thomas, born October 16, 1761; was seized 
by a British fleet while fishing, and died on the Jersey prison ship 
in New York harbor in February, 1782. 2. Jabez, born April 27, 
1763. 3. Hannah, born April 12, 1766. 4. Allerton, born Dec. 2, 
1767. 5. A son, died unnamed. 6-7. Ephraim and Elizabeth 
(twins), born March 1, 1771. 8. Deborah, born July 26, 1773. 9. 
Sarah, born May 4, 1776. 10. Warren, mentioned below. 11. Tem- 
perance, born May 27, 1781. 

V. Captain Warren Delano, youngest son of Captain Ephraim 
and Elizabeth (Cushman) Delano, was born October 28, 1779, in 
Dartmouth, and died in Fairhaven, September 25, 1866. He mar- 
ried (first) in Fairhaven, November 6, 180S, Deborah, daughter 
of Joseph and Deborah (Perry) Church, born March 21, 1783, in 
Dartmouth, died there August 7, 1827. He married (second) in 
Dartmouth, April 2, 1828, Eliza Adams, widow of Captain Parker, 
of the United States navy. Children : 1. Warren, mentioned be- 
low. 2. Frederic, born April 11, 1811. 3. Franklin Hughes, born 
July 27, 1813, married Laura, daughter of William B. and grand- 
daughter of John Jacob Astor, of New York. 4. Louise Church, 
born Oct. 29, 1816. 5. Edward, born July 11, 1818. 6. Deborah 

303 



DELANO-HITCH FAMILIES 

Perry, born Aug. 15, 1820. 7. Sarah Alvey, born Aug. 15, 1822. 8. 
Susan Maria, born Aug. 17, 1823. 9. A daughter, died on day of 
birth. 

VI. Warren (2) Delano, eldest child of Captain Warren (1) and 
Deborah (Church) Delano, was bom July 13, 1809, in Fairhaven, 
and died January 17, 1S9S, at Newburgh, New York, at his residence 
called the "Algonac." He married, November 1, 1813, at North- 
ampton, Massachusetts, Catherine Bobbins, born January 10, 1825, 
died February 10, 1896, at Newburgh, daughter of Judge Joseph 
Lyman and Anne Jean (Bobbins) Bobbins, the last named a daugh- 
ter of Hon. Edward Hutchinson Bobbins, who was a Member of 
Congress from Massachusetts, and Speaker of the House ii\ 1793. 
Children : 1. Susan Maria, born Oct. 13, 1844, in Macao, China. 2. 
Louise Church, born June 4, 1846, in the same place. 3. Deborah 
Perry, born Aug. 29, 1847, in Northampton ; became the wife of 
William Howell Forbes, of Hong Kong, China. 4. Annie Lyman, 
born Jan. 8, 1849, in New York City; married Frederic Delano 
Hitch, of Shanghai, China. 5. Warren, died in infancy, at New- 
burgh. 6. Warren, born July 11, 1S52. 7. Sara, mentioned below. 
8. Philippe de Lannov, born Feb. 3, 1857. 9. Catherine Bobbins, 
born May 24, 1860. 10. Frederic Adrian, born Sept. 10, 1863, in 
Hong Kong. 11. Laura Franklin, born Dec. 23, 1864, in Hong Kong. 

VII. Sara, fifth daughter of Warren (2) and Catherine (Bobbins) 
Delano, was born September 21, 1854, and was educated in this 
country and in Europe. She married, October 7, 1880, James Boose- 
velt, of New York. 

Hitch Arms — Argent, a bend vair between two cotises indented gules. 

Crest— A heraldic antelope's head erased sable, tufted, armed and maned or, vulned 
through the neck with a bird bolt gold, feathered argent, holding the end in the mouth. 

Motto— Avi numcrantv.r avonnn. (The generations of our forefathers are num- 
bered). 

Frederic Delano Hitch was born in Fairhaven, Bristol county, 
Massachusetts, in 1833, son of Captain George and Abby (Church) 
Hitch. 

After completing his education, he began his business career in 
the State of Maryland, where he was successfully engaged until 
1860, in which year he went to China and entered the service of Bus- 
sell & Company, merchants and bankers, the leading American firm 
in their line in that country. For a number of years Mr. Hitch 
served in the capacity of manager of a fleet of fourteen steamers 
which plied the Yangtse river from Shanghai, the most important 
maritime city of China, situated on the left bank of the Hwangpoo 
river, under the name of the Shanghai Steam Navigation Company. 

304 



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DELANO-HITCH FAMILIES 

The company sold out to the Chinese in the late seventies, the line 
then becoming known as the China Merchants Company. 

With the exception of two visits to his native country, Mr. Hitch 
remained in China until his resignation as a partner from the firm 
of Russell & Company in 1S84, whereupon he returned to the United 
States, taking up his residence in the "Algonac," Newburgh, New 
York, where he became a prominent and influential citizen, identify- 
ing himself, as does also his wife, with various phases of social work, 
not alone in the city of Newburgh, but throughout the State of New 
York, having been especially active in the Associated Charities of 
Newburgh, St. Luke's Hospital, the Newburgh Agency for De- 
pendent Children, the State Charities Aid Association, and the 
Church of Our Father at Newburgh. Mr. Hitch also served as a 
trustee of the Laura Franklin Free Hospital for Children, in New 
York City, and for nearly twenty-four years acted as its treasurer. 
Mr. Hitch was scrupulously honorable in all his dealings with man- 
kind, and therefore won a reputation for public and private in- 
tegrity, and his career is well worthy of emulation. 

Mr. Hitch married, October 16, 1877, Annie Lyman, daughter of 
Warren and Catherine (Robbins) Delano, of "Algonac," New- 
burgh, New York. Mr. Hitch died at "Algonac," March 21, 1911. 



'(F^fc-iJXv- *o >-■ 'Yd-- — ^^PtrS 



305 



Rt. Rev. William Neilson McVickar, 0. D., 

Bishop of Rhode Island 



pl^pspiHAT branch of the McVickar family of which the late 

r : p:.;ff William Neilson McVickar, Bishop of Rhode Island, 

' v |i£r^1 was descended, was established in America in the latter 

I'wlJI^ii P ar t of the eighteenth century by John McVickar, a 

native of the north of Ireland. 



McVicker Arms — (From Vermont's "American Heraldry"): Quarterly, i and 4: 
or an eagle displayed with two heads gules, 2 and 3 : per bend embattled, argent and 
gules. Over all an escutcheon or charged with three stags' horns, erect gules, two and one. 

Crest — An eagle displayed with two heads, per pale embattled argent and gules. 

Motto— Dominus providebit. (The Lord will provide). 

I. John McVickar, ancestor of the family, was a successful linen 
merchant and settled in New York City. He later became prominent 
in many branches of activity in the city, and gained a reputation as a 
philanthropist. He married, May 19, 1771 ("?), Anna Moore, daugh- 
ter of John Moore, of Newtown, Long Island. Their children were: 
1. James. 2. Archibold, married, Aug. 30, 1809, Catherine Living- 
ston, daughter of Henry Brockholst Livingston. 3. Rev. Dr. and 
Prof. John McVickar, born in 1787, died October 29, 1868 ; married, 
Nov. 12, 1809, Eliza Bard, daughter of Samuel Bard, M. D. 4. Ed- 
ward, died Dec. 6, 1866; married, Dec. 1, 1819, Frances Matilda 
Constable, daughter of William Constable. 5. Benjamin McVickar, 
M. D., married, Nov. 2, 1825, Isaphane Catherine Lawrence, daugh- 
ter of Isaac Lawrence. 6. Eliza, married, Feb. 26, 1810, William 
Constable. 7. Hannah Augusta, died 1811 ; married, Sept. 4, 1812, 
William Jay. 

II. James McVickar, son of John and Anna (Moore) McVickar, 
was a successful and prominent New York merchant. He married 
(first) on June 15, 1806, Eweretta Constable. He married (second) 
Catherine (Bucknor) McVickar, daughter of W T illiam G. Bucknor, 
and widow of Nathan McVickar. Children by first wife: John 
Augustus, mentioned below; and Mary Stuart, married, Nov. 4, 
1843, William W T hitney. 

III. John Augustus McVickar, M. D., son of James and Eweretta 
(Constable) McVickar, was for a number of years a successful and 
prominent physician and surgeon in New York City. He married 
(first) February 20, 1837, Charlotte Neilson, daughter of William 
Neilson. She died December 1, 1871. He married (second) Ewer- 
etta McVickar, daughter of Edward McVickar, May 5, 1873. His 

306 






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McVICKAR 

children by first wife were: 1. Susan, married, April 1, 1857, L. 
Philo Mills. 2. Eweretta. 3. William Neilson, mentioned below. 
4. James, married, April 30, 1873, Ada Jaffray, daughter of Ed- 
ward S. Jaffray. 

IV. William Neilson McVickar, J). D., son of John Augustus and 
Charlotte (Neilson) McVickar, was born Oct. 19, 1843, in New York 
City. He received his education in private schools of the city, after 
which he entered Columbia University. In 1865 he was graduated 
with the degree of Bachelor of Arts and with honors. In the fall of 
the year 1865 he entered the Philadelphia Divinity School for the 
purpose of preparing himself for the Christian ministry. He re- 
mained there a year and a half, at the end of which time he returned 
to New York City and completed his course in the General The- 
ological Seminary. In 1867 he was made a deacon, when he became 
an assistant to the Rev. Dr. Stephen H. Tyng, of St. George's 
Church, New York City. In July, 1868, he was ordained priest of 
the Protestant Episcopal church, and received as his first charge the 
parish of Holy Trinity in Harlem, a young church, without a church 
building and having a congregation at times not exceeding ten or 
twelve people. Services were held in a nearby hall, at the time that 
the parish came into the hands of Dr. McVickar. He threw his 
whole soul into the work of upbuilding a strong church, increased 
his congregation with great rapidity, and built the large church and 
Sunday school building on the corner of Fifth avenue and 127th 
street. This he accomplished in a period of seven years, during 
which time he had received calls from other churches for his serv- 
ices, among which was a call to St. Paul's Church in Boston in 1873. 
In 1875, however, having set his first parish spiritually and tem- 
porarily on its feet, he accepted a call to Holy Trinity Parish in 
Philadelphia. Bishop McVickar 's connection with his parish ex- 
tended over a period of twenty-two years. During that time he 
became one of the prominent figures of his diocese, and was rec- 
ognized as a leader of strength and vision. For several years, be- 
ginning with 1883, he was a member of the General Convention. In 
Philadelphia, during the years that followed, he was a member of 
the board of managers of the Deaf and Dumb Institution of Penn- 
sylvania; a trustee of the diocese; a member of the board of over- 
Beers of the Philadelphia Divinity School; a member of the board 
of managers of the Episcopal Hospital ; and a member of the board 
of managers of the General Board of Missions. 

Bishop McVickar 's reputation for consummate ability in things 
ecclesiastical had spread beyond the confines of his parish in Phila- 
delphia. He became known as one of those few, or rather com- 
paratively few, men in the ministry who were endowed with the 
God-given quality of leadership. On October 27, 1897, at the Con- 

307 



McVICKAR 

vention of the Diocese of Rhode Island, Bishop McVickar was chosen 
coadjutor bishop of Rhode Island. The head of the diocese was 
Bishop Clark. Bishop McVickar was consecrated in the Church 
of Holy Trinity at Philadelphia. He came into full power as bishop, 
automatically with the death of Bishop Clark, September 5, 1903. 
His service as the Bishop of Rhode Island is remarkable for tfee 
progress and advance made throughout the State under his ad- 
ministration of that office. Bishop McVickar was a scholar and 
student of no small repute, as will be seen from the honorary de- 
grees bestowed upon him by colleges in different parts of the coun- 
try. In 1885 he received the degree of D. D. from Kenyon College, 
in Ohio. In 1898 he received the same degree from the University 
of Pennsylvania, and the degree of S. T. D. from Columbia Univer- 
sity. Brown Universitv conferred upon him the degree of LL.D 
in 1904. 

There is no more adequate test of the character of a man than 
his standing in the estimation of his friends and intimates, the men 
who know the nature of his work, who work beside him, who strive 
to the same end, imbued with the same idea and ideals of service. 
Nothing could give more clearly the life and character of the late 
Bishop McVickar than the excerpts appended hereto, resolutions 
passed after his death by various bodies, religious and secular, writ- 
ten by masterly preachers and literary men : 

"The standing committee of the Diocese of Rhode Island is again mysteriously 
called upon, after a brief interval of less then seven years, to make in the recess of the 
convention, official announcement of the death of its Bishop, and to bear witness to the 
profound grief of the Diocese in the loss of its beloved head. 

"The Right Reverend William Neilson McVickar, D. D., LL. D., .consecrated Janu- 
ary 27, 1898, as Bishop Coadjutor, since September 7, 1903, third Bishop of Rhode 
Island, rested from his labors at Beverly, Massachusetts, on June 28, 1910. This life 
thus closed on earth has been one of manifest grace and power. Called from a wide 
and conspicuous field of parochial experience to the exalted station of the Episcopate, 
Dr. McVickar was amply and eminently prepared to maintain the work and traditions 
of one of the oldest dioceses of the American Church. He proved an efficient and 
congenial helpmate to the venerable Bishop Clark through the closing years of the life 
of that great prelate, whose mantle fell upon his coadjutor as upon a worthy successor. 

"The fame of Rhode Island, under the brilliant chieftainship of Bishop Clark, 
had become fair and far-reaching, and it suffered no eclipse nor wane under Bishop 
McVickar, who entered at once into the spirit and interests of the Commonwealth and 
of the Diocese. He won rapidly popular respect and affection on every side, until he 
passed from us; it is not too much to say that he vas our first citizen. 

"In the councils of the Church both in the United States, and in England, he was 
eloquent and forceful. In the great causes of evangelization, philanthropy and social 
reform he was a recognized leader, whose advice and advocacy were eagerly sought. 
In the Board of Missions, and as a trustee of the Hampton Institute, he occupied posi- 
tions of national importance. 

"Our Bishop's life has been all too brief for our hopes and expectations. His sun 
seems to have gone down while it was yet day, but little past meridian. We confidently 
looked for him to guide and tend his flock for many years to come in those pleasant 
ways of truth and peace which have marked his gentle way. Yet the Episcopate which 
now appears to have ended so abruptly has already had its harvests, and will yet yield 
others as the fruit of its patient sowing. The people of Rhode Island, of all sorts and 
conditions, of all creeds and of none, have had a vision of the Good Shepherd reflected 

308 



McVICKAR 

in Bishop McVickar and the effect of that vision will be realized for many years to 
come; the institutions of the Diocese have been fostered by his loving care, and he leaves 
them in growing strength and vigor, while above all, the cathedral idea and organiza- 
tion, the initiative of which was his, will in the future be an enduring monument to 
William Neilson McVickar, who will stand out in our diocesan history as its founder. 
"Noble, however, will be that monument of loving kindness which his life and 
character have reared in human hearts, an ever-living memory of one who loved the 
souls of men. Priest! Pastor! Bishop! Father in God! Friend, tender and true 1 
Farewell until we greet thee with the 'Good morrow of eternity!' Meanwhile God 
grant thee His eternal rest and cause to shine upon thee His perpetual light!" 

The Rhode Island Clergy adopted the following minute : 

"The clergy of the diocese of Rhode Island, profoundly moved by the death of 
their late Bishop, William Neilson McVickar, desire to express their sense of loss and 
make some record of what he has been to them. 

"Twelve years ago, known to but few of us, well-known perhaps to none of us, 
he came among us as a needed coadjutor to an honored predecessor whose years had 
become to him a burden. How faithfully and tenderly he served him many of us can 
bear witness. Assuming nothing to himself, deferring all things to his elder, putting 
sturdy shoulders beneath whatever load had become irksome, bringing cheer and com- 
fort with look and word, he discharged each task that devolved upon him. As a son 
ministering to a loved and revered father, he toiled gladly. 

"Then in due season his place was changed. He was alone in his office. Very 
quickly he magnified that office, not in its dignities, but in its duties. He grew in the 
discharge of it. He assumed new responsibilities. Wherever there was sickness or 
sorrow brought to his notice his gentle presence was felt consoling it. As fresh social 
opportunities opened before him, he made his own precedents for dealing with them. 
He did not claim a wider jurisdiction; it was accorded to him because he revealed 
himself as a man of God and a brother of men. With holy and humble heart, and with 
resolute, because consecrated, purpose, he went forward and his people followed him. 

"He helped each one of us as far as we sought or would accept his service. He 
became a minister at large, a pastor among pastors, within and without his own com- 
munion. He brought with him everywhere a willingness to serve, a sound judgment, 
patience to wait, a spirit of peace and good will. His large heart went forth on loving 
errands to his clergy, his laity, his fellow citizens. Wisely and thoughtfully he con- 
cerned himself with public interests, seeking always that they should be founded on 
righteousness. He was at home everywhere, for he was always in his Father's house 
and concerned with his Father's business. 

"In the pulpit or on the platform, his word was with power. The common people 
heard him gladly. They felt his transparent honesty, were stirred by his generous zeal. 
He spoke on the common level, as one who stood beside them, however he might tower 
above them. His life was his best message. Being dead he yet speaketh. The tones 
of that marvelous voice, vibrant with sympathy, are silent, but we hear and would hear 
them still." 

Organizations representing almost every phase of endeavor, men 
of all the professions, in fact almost every walk of life, added their 
tributes to the memory of Bishop McVickar. The public press in 
its columns gave space to the man whom it recognized not only as a 
religious leader, but as a prominent public man. The following is 
an extract from the Newport News: 

"He was a man of magnificent physique. He was six feet five inches tall and built 
on extraordinarily large proportions. His build made him a commanding figure in any 
gathering where he happened to be. 

"It is related of him, while still a young man, together with Phillips Brooks and 
Mr. Richardson, of Boston, both of whom were also of mammoth build, he was attend- 
ing a convention at London. A speaker, in discussing the American people, described 
them as a decadent race and declared emphatically that their stature was growing 

309 



McVICKAR 

less. When the orator had finished, the three massive young Americans rose side by 
side, squared their shoulders and announced: 'We are Americans!' Bishop McVickar 
always smiled when this story was related and would not vouch for its authenticity. 

"He possessed a voice of great richness and sweetness. As a pulpit speaker he was 
noted particularly for his qualities of earnestness and sincerity. His friends were 
particularly charmed with the simplicity of character and attractive personality. The 
Bishop was described as a conservative broad churchman. He was especially noted for 
his belief in the necessity of an earnest spiritual life." 

The combination of Bishop McVickar 's personality, sincerity and 
ability was so great that it broke the strong - barriers that difference 
in religious faith erects. The Rev. Dr. Frank, pastor of the First 
Baptist Church of Pawtucket, Rhode Island, said: 

"Just now our State is lamenting the untimely death of one of the noblemen in the 
ranks of churchmen. Bishop McVickar still leads, though the giant form strides the 
earth no more. That hand will still guide and that voice continue to give counsel 
through many coming years. Four days after the death of Lincoln, Chaplain McCabe 
wrote in his journal: 'Our Atlas has gone to the shades of Erebus. Who will now 
uphold the falling skies?' In like manner our churchmen of every name will lament 
the loss of this leader whose strength was as the strength of ten because his heart was 
pure. Religion has been generous in its gift of great and good men for the highest 
leadership of mankind. It will continue to do the same in the future." 

The Right Rev. Monseigneur Thomas F. Doran, Vicar-General 
of the Providence Diocese of the Roman Catholic church, also ex- 
pressed himself in warm admiration of Bishop McVickar, as well as 
did countless other clergymen. 

The words of the Rev. Mr. Goodwin, of the Pawtucket Congrega- 
tional Church, are as follows : 

"It is true of this great Christian, as was said at the death of Mark Hopkins, 
'A great life has gone down, but it has not gone out.' Bishop McVickar was a man 
of simple and childlike spirit, with the beautiful freshness of youth unsullied by years 
of wide experience in the world. He was kind, tender-hearted and generous, always 
a friend of the weak and a manly co-laborer with the strong. An aristocrat in culture 
and refinement, his sympathies yet wide and democratic, the interests of all sorts of 
men being ever of great concern to him. 

"He was ever a great human, truly illustrating the words of the Hebrew prophet, 
'In whom God spoke, I will make a man more rare than fine gold.' He was a great 
churchman, dignifying the high office with which his own church had honored him, and 
throwing the ample mantle of catholicity of heart over all those who under whatso- 
ever name are striving to do God's will on earth. Today even the churches which 
were founded on the idea of a church without a Bishop, and a State without a King, 
feel that from them also has been taken a leader of commanding strength and a fearless 
champion of truth and righteousness. 

"It was eminently fitting that the services held at his funeral should end with the 
words of Christian confidence illustrative of his life of joy, helpfulness and conquering 
hope: 

" 'The strife is o'er, the battle is done, 
The victory of life is won, 
The song of triumph has begun.' " 

These are but a few of the tributes to the life, character, work and 
personality of Bishop McVickar, and have been culled from amongst 
hundreds of others. 

310 



UngriclHJtlell 



Ungrich Arms — Or, a point azure charged with a crowned lion rampant argent, 
holding in its dexter paw a sword, on each side of the point an eagle displayed sable. 

Crest— Issuing out of a crowned helmet, a pair of wings displayed, dexter per sable 
and or, sinister per pale argent and azure, between them a demi-lion as in the arms. 

Mantling — Dexter, sable and or, sinister, azure and argent. 




p||j HE qualities and attributes which have been the determin- 
■f^y\ ing factors in a man's success are somewhat difficult of 
^1 analysis, and any attempt, however inspired, must 
y||i| necessarily fall short of complete understanding-. It 
is possible to recognize, however, the essential qualities 
which have been vital moving forces in the career of the successful 
man, but the individuality of the man must be felt and sensed, 
rather than gained through the medium of the biographer. Henry 
Ungrich, Jr., attained a conspicuous success in the business world. 
A man of energy, purpose, determination, and wise forethought, he 
built for himself a career which counted among men and brought 
him rightfully into that class of men whose achievements are 
worthy of record. 

Scion of a family which for several centuries held a position of 
prominence in the life of those provinces of Western Germany bor- 
dering on the River Rhine, Henry Ungrich, Sr., the immigrant an- 
cestor of the American branch of the family, was born December 
19, 1819, in the town of Kreuznach, on the River Nahe, a few miles 
from the junction of the river with the Rhine. The town is chiefly 
notable for its salt springs, which were discovered in 1478, and 
because they contain iodine and bromine are used for medicinal 
purposes. Situated but twenty-one miles southwest of the famous 
city of Mayence, the town is a much frequented watering place, and 
draws travelers from all over the world to its springs. Here Hen- 
ry Ungrich, Sr., spent the early years of his life in that period of 
unrest and turmoil in Germany which for several decades preceded 
the Franco-Prussian war. The vision of America as a land of 
promise, in which the bonds of caste and tradition were unknown, 
appealed to him, and in 1845, with his wife, Eliza (Kamm) Ungrich, 
born March 21, 1822, a native of Worms, Germany, he immigrated 
to America. They settled in New York City, where Henry Ung- 
rich at once established himself in the baking trade, which he had 
followed in Germany. Starting at first in a comparatively humble 
establishment, he met with a high degree of success, and enlarged 
his quarters and resources gradually to meet the increasing de- 
mand of his trade. He was a man of business genius and keen 

3" 



UNGRICH-LITTELL 

judgment, and invested largely in real estate in New York, princi- 
pally in Harlem, retiring from active business life a comparatively 
wealthy man several years before his death, which occurred March 
1, 1901. The deatli of his wife preceded his own some years, Feb- 
ruary 15, 1885. 

Eenvy Ungrich, Jr., son of Henry and Eliza (Kamm) Ungrich, 
was born in New York City, New York, September 15, 1850. He 
spent his boyhood in the city and attended Public School No. 35, 
which was then under the direction of Thomas Hunter, one of the 
most famous and best loved educators of New York City, under 
whose preceptorship many men whose names stand high in busi- 
ness and professional life today received the rudiments of their 
education. After being graduated from Public School No. 35, 
Henry Ungrich, Jr., entered the College of the City of New York. 

Following his graduation, he entered upon business life in the 
employ of a large hardware firm, in the capacity of traveling sales- 
man, a position which gave him the opportunity of visiting practic- 
ally every section of the United States. A student of times and 
conditions, he gained from this extensive travel a broadness of 
education, sympathy and vision, the culture and polish of a cosmo- 
politan, and a familiarity with conditions of business and finance 
throughout the country, which in his later career gave him an excel- 
lent advantage. His next connection was with a flour concern of 
New York City, again as traveling salesman. Traveling about the 
country brought Mr. Ungrich into close contact with real estate 
values and transactions, and upon his return to New York, after a 
short period spent in his father's establishment, he entered actively 
into the real estate business, in which he remained until the end 
of his life. Coming first into contact with the real estate and prop- 
erty interests of New York through his care of his father's exten- 
sive interests, Mr. Ungrich subsequently entered into larger trans- 
actions. During the period which followed, he dealt largely in 
stocks, maintaining a constant connection with the stock market. 
Mr. Ungrich possessed that type of business genius which en- 
abled him to foresee with a reasonable degree of certainty the 
change in conditions affecting real estate, and he purchased accord- 
ingly. In the course of business life he accrued, through careful 
investment, a large fortune, and at his death was considered a 
wealthy man. 

His interests outside the field of real estate were largely finan- 
cial, and he was connected in executive capacity with several well 
known firms in New Y T ork and in "White Plains, where he resided. 
He was a prominent figure in the fraternal and social life of AYhite 
Plains, and was also active in Masonic circles. He was a past mas- 
ter of Harlem Lodge, No. 457, Free and Accepted Masons ; held 
membership in Tabernacle Chapter, No. 306, Royal Arch Masons; 

312 



UNGRICH-LITTELL 

and was a Sir Knight of Crusader Commandery, No. 56, Knights 
Templar. He was a member of the Republican party, though an 
active advocate of non-partisanship in politics, guiding his vote 
by the fitness of the man for office. He was a member of the West 
Chester Congregational Church of White Plains. 

Henry Ungrich, Jr., married Emily A. Glock, of New York, who 
was born January 16, 1855, and died March 4, 1901. They were the 
parents of a daughter, Minnie Florence, who married John D. 
Thees, Jr., of New York City, but later of New Eochelle, New York. 
Mr. and Mrs. Thees were the parents of two children: A daugh- 
ter, Glendon; and a son, John D. Thees (4th). 

Mr. Ungrich married (second) Emma Leonora Tyler, of New 
York City, daughter of Charles Brown and Mary Emily (Littell) 
Tyler, her parents born in Middle Patent, town of North Castle, 
West Chester county, New York. Mr. Tyler was the son of Wil- 
liam and Susan (Van Bramer) Tyler, formerly of Harlem Lane, 
New York, and Mrs. Tyler, the daughter of Egbert and Caroline 
(Peeks) Littell. 

Mrs. Ungrich, who survives her husband, resides in White Plains. 
On both paternal and maternal lines she is a descendant of two 
long established families of England. 

Mr. Ungrich died very suddenly on April 10, 1915, in San Fran- 
cisco, California, where he had gone with his wife to attend the 
Exposition. 

(The Tyler Line.) 

Tyler Anns — Sable, on a fesse or, between three cats passant guardant argent, a 
cross moline enclosed by two crescents gules. 

Crest — A demi-cat rampant and erased or. charged on the side with a cross cross- 
let fitchee gules in a crescent of the last. 

The name Tyler was adopted when the use of surnames became 
common in England, and is occupative in its derivation, meaning 
the "tyler," one who bakes clay into tiles, a tiler. The Anglo- 
Saxon word from which the name was originally taken is "tigele." 
which is a corruption of the Latin iegula, tile, which itself comes 
from the verb tegere, to cover. The name has been variously 
spelled during the centuries since it was first adopted — Tylere, 
Tilere, Tyghler, Tygheler, Tygehelere, and Tiegheler. The first 
mention of the name in authentic records occurs in 1273, that of 
Geoff reyle Tulere, County Hants, England. The family in the 
United States has given a President to the Union, and has furnished 
sons who have rendered signal service in the various departments 
of public activity and in other walks in life. 

(The Littell Line.) 
Littell Arms — Azure, a sattire engrailed or, in chief a mullet of the last. 

The name of Little or Littell is a very ancient one in Great Bri- 

3i3 



UNGRICH-LITTELL 

tain, and belongs to that great group of patronymics that owe their 
origin to the inveterate habit of nick-naming among the early inhab- 
itants of that island, of which we have a familiar example in the 
famous case of Little John (originally John Littell) the lieutenant 
of Robin Hood, which lias come down to us as Littlejolm a name 
closely allied in the character of its derivation to the one we are 
considering. Other names of like origin are those of Small, Strong, 
Stout, and an innumerable list with most of which we arc familiar. 
It is therefore unquestionable that one of the early forbears of the 
Littell or Little family in this country was of diminutive stature or, 
since a rather obvious form of sarcasm was much in use in the be- 
stowel of these nick-names, the reverse. Indeed, it is probable that 
the various lines bearing this name and which are found in many 
different parts of Great Britain, sprang originally from a number 
of different sources and unrelated ancestors, each of whom was dis- 
tinguished by this soubriquet. We find the name under the most 
various forms throughout England and even more commonly in 
Scotland and it is also widely distributed in the north of Ireland. 
The variations in spelling in early documents are both numerous 
and remarkable. At least nine forms were well established prior 
to 1700: Littell, Littel, Litel, Lytel, Lytell, Lyttelle, Little, 
Lytcl, and Lyttle. Probably the earliest mention of it in 
England is that of William Little, born at Bridlington, York- 
shire, in 1136 A. D. He was a monk in Newborough Abbey 
and wrote a history of England during the period from the 
Norman Conquest to 1197, two years before the death of Richard 
I. Some centuries later we read that Ellen, daughter of Sir Thomas 
Little of Berkshire, married Edward Bacon of Shrubland Hall, 
Stiff olkshire, son of Sir Nicholas Bacon, Lord Keeper of the Great 
Seal of England, and brother of the famous philosopher and states- 
man, Sir Francis Bacon, Viscount St. Albans. In more modern 
times we find that a family of this name has its seat at Llanvair 
Grange, Monmouthshire, and the vice-chancellorship of the Duchy 
of Lancaster was recently held by George Little. That the two 
forms of the name Little and Littell have been interchangeable com- 
paratively recently is shown that the arms borne by a family spell- 
ing their name in the former manner are described as: Or, a sal- 
tire engrailed sable, an obvious modification of the one given above. 
In the colonial period in this country the Littell name is not as 
frequently met with as some, but there were several immigrants at 
an early period who in that day of careless orthography appear to 
have spelt it Littell or Little about indiscriminately. The first of 
the name to arrive in this country was Thomas Littell or Little, who 
married, at Plymouth, Massachusetts, in 1630, Ann Warren, 
and died at Marsnfield in 1671. He was a lawyer by profession and 
his wife was one of the Mayflower passengers. At the present 
time his descendants number several thousand scattered all over 



UNGRICH-LITTELL 

the United States. Then there was George Littell or Little, who 
came to Newbury, Massachusetts, about 1640 and who according to 
tradition resided upon Unicorn street, London, near London Bridge, 
before coming to this country. There is also a tradition that he had 
a brother Thomas, an officer in Cromwell's navy, who gave to him 
a deed to lands at Barbadocs in the AVest Indies, which were after- 
wards stolen from him during his residence at Newbury. He be- 
came a large land owner at Newbury, and was twice married, first 
to Alice Poor, and second to Mrs. Eleanor Barnard. He was the 
ancestor of the prominent Maine families of this name and also of 
branches in Massachusetts, New Hampshire, Vermont and Connec- 
ticut. The members of the various lines have always maintained 
the high position in the community originally taken by their earliest 
forebears and many of them have distinguished themselves in vari- 
ous callings, professional and business. Three towns in the United 
States, including Littleton, New Hampshire, have been named after 
members of the George Little family, and as many as five college 
presidents and many other prominent men can trace their ancestry 
back to him, while many distinguished clergymen have been de- 
scended from Thomas Little. 

/. James Littell, of Stamford, Connecticut, was born December 23, 
1734, and died November 8, 1825, at the venerable age of ninety-one 
years. He married, February 9, 1761, Desire Brown, born Octo- 
ber 5, 1739, and died July 23, 1826. They were the parents of the 
following children : John, born Dec. 17, 1761 ; Ebenezer, born Aug. 
13, 1763; Sarah, born Oct. 20, 1765; James, mentioned below; 
Benjamin, born Dec. 31, 1769; Ezra, born Jan. 12, 1772; Henry, 
born Jan. 19, 1774; Justus, born Jan. 15, 1777; Mary, born March 
24, 1780. 

II. James Littell, son of James and Desire (Brown) Littell, was 
born November 29, 1767, and died March 3, 1855, in the eighty- 
eighth year of his life. During his early manhood he enlisted in 
the company of Captain Jonathan Bell, Ninth Regiment Connec- 
ticut Militia, commanded by Lieutenant-Colonel John Mead, and 
forming a part of the forces of General Woostcr. He was honor- 
ably discharged September 27, 1776, reenlisted, and was again dis- 
charged December 24 of the same year. He served as a corporal 
with his company during the campaign in New York State at that 
time. He married Lydia Nickerson, born January 4, 1770, died 
April 13, 1821, and they were the parents of the following children: 
Elizabeth, born January 22, 1792, died Feb. 22, 1852 ; James, born 
March 1, 1794, died Jan. 16, 1829; William, born April 18, 1796, 
married (first) Nancy Oviatt, (second) Amelia Woolsev; Cyrus B., 
born July 22, 1798; Josiah, born Feb. 15, 1801, died Jan. 12, 1867; 
Warren, born Nov. 4, 1803 ; David, born July 5, 1805, married Cyn- 

3i5 



UNGRICH-LITTELL 



tbia Jones, by whom lie had five children, and died Nov. 29, 1875; 
Egbert, mentioned below; Levi, bora Dec. '28, 1811, married Mary 
Smith, by whom he had one child, and died in 1876. 

III. Eqbert Lilt ell, eighth child of James and Lydia (Nickerson) 
Littell, was born January 1, 1809, and died Dec. 11, 1842. He 
married Caroline Feeks, born July 
and they were the parents of the 
Egbert, "born Feb. 6, 1832, died May 
April 24, 1836, died April 20, 1856; Lydia Ann, born Oct. 26, 1834, 
died June 3, 1835 ; Harriet Augusta, born Jan. 2, 1830, died Sept. 
28, 1838; Harriet Augusta (2)^ born Sept. 25, 1S3S, died Aug. 19, 
1854; Mary Emily, mentioned below. 

IV. Mary Emily Littell, youngest child of Egbert and Caroline 
(Feeks) Littell, was born March 28, 1841, and died December 16, 
1896. She became the wife of Charles Brown Tyler, and the mother 
of Emma Leonora Tyler, who became the wife of Henry Ungrich. 



29, 1806, died Feb. 22, 1876, 
following children: William 
29, 1854; Orville Green, born 




316 



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Frederick W. Hartwel 



S5JEEDERICK W. HARTWELL, secretary and manager of 



ppp3 



the General Fire Extinguisher Company of Providence, 
Rhode Island, from the time of the founding of the 
gigantic corporation until his death, was a figure of 
influence in business and finance in Rhode Island for a 
quarter of a century, ranking prominently among the master-minds 
which controlled these fields in the closing decades of the nineteenth 
century. 

Frederick W. Hartwell was born at Langdon, New Hampshire, 
January 8, 1850, the son of Samuel Estabrook and Lucy M. (King) 
Hartwell, and a descendant in the eighth generation of William 
Hartwell, the founder of the family in America. The Hartwell 
family dates from the year 1636, from which time to the present 
day it has figured prominently in New England life and affairs. 
Concord and Lincoln, Massachusetts, were the homes of the family 
for several generations. Samuel Estabrook Hartwell, grandfather 
of the late Frederick W. Hartwell, was the first of the direct line to 
remove to New Hampshire, where he became the owner of a large 
estate, and where he settled permanently. His son, Samuel Esta- 
brook Hartwell, Jr., inherited a large portion of his estate in New 
Hampshire, and remained there a farmer on a large scale until his 
death. 

In 1861, following the death of both his parents, Frederick W. 
Hartwell came to Providence to make his home with his uncle, the 
late John Bryant Hartwell, who at that time was a power in mer- 
cantile life in the city of Providence, where he died December 9, 
1872. He was given excellent educational advantages and studied 
in the elementary and high schools of the city, later attending the 
Kimball Union Academy at Meriden, New Hampshire, for a year. 
In 1868 he began his business career, entering the offices of Day & 
Chapin as bookkeeper. Within a short time he was transferred to 
the Elm street woolen mill, operated by the latter firm, in the 
capacity of bookkeeper and paymaster. Here he remained during 
the five years following, but finding the field somewhat narrow 
and not altogether to his likiiig, he resigned shortly before his mar- 
riage, in 1873, to become bookkeeper in the offices of the Provi- 
dence Steam and Gas Pipe Company, of which his father-in-law 
was at that time treasurer. From this position of comparative 
unimportance he rose rapidly in the firm, displaying an ability for 
the handling of large affairs which, in 1884, brought him the office of 
secretary and manager of the Providence plant, of the newly 

3^7 



FREDERICK W. HARTWELL 

founded million-dollar corporation, the General Fire Extinguisher 
Company. In 1893 the Providence Steam and Gas Pipe Company, 
which had been manufacturing for some time a water sprinkler for 
installation in buildings and stores as a safeguard against destruc- 
tive fires, the inventions and patents for which were then in their 
control, incorporated with a western firm, the Neracker & Hill 
Sprinkler Company, which was engaged in the manufacture of a 
similar device, under the firm name of the General Fire Ex- 
tinguisher Company, with a capitalization of $1,000,000, and Mr. 
Hartwell was elected secretary and manager of the Providence 
plant. In the years which followed, he was a factor of greatest im- 
portance in the upbuilding and development of the corporation. 
In 1906 he became a member of the board of directors. He was 
also active on the executive boards of several other Providence con- 
cerns, and was a director of the Atlantic National Bank. 

His interests, however, were not wholly confined to the field of 
business. He was at least as well known in the philanthropic cir- 
cles of his city. For several years Mr. Hartwell served as a com- 
missioner of the Dexter Donation. From 1899 to 1900 he acted, as 
president of the Providence Young Men's Christian Association, of 
which he had long been a member, remaining until his death a mem- 
ber of its board of managers. He never forgot the struggles and 
discouragements of his youth, and was always a source of encour- 
agement to the many young men who came to him for advice and 
assistance in his later days. His service as a member of the Cen- 
tral Baptist Church of Providence, and as superintendent of its 
Sunday school from 1902, was marked by such devotion and such 
material support as to command the utmost admiration, especially 
since it came from a man whose business and public duties were 
of great magnitude. He applied to business affairs the code of 
ethics by which he governed his private life. The principles of 
equity, mercy and justice which governed his every act made him 
honored, trusted and loved by men. "Faith in man and God, and 
an optimistic mien in the process of their service — these sum up his 
loved and useful character." 

On October 15, 1873, Mr. Hartwell married Mary Loring Harts- 
horn, who was born in Providence, Rhode Island, August 14, 1851, 
daughter of the late Rev. Joseph Charles and Rachel (Thurber) 
Hartshorn. They were the parents of the following children: 1. 
Joseph C, born at Warwick, R. I., August 20, 1874; educated in 
the public schools of Providence, prepared for college at the Wor- 
cester Academy, and was graduated from Brown University in the 
class of 1899, with the degree of Bachelor of Arts. He is now em- 
ployed in the engineering department of the General Fire Ex- 
tinguisher Company of Providence ; he is a member of the Univer- 
sitv Club among others, and makes his home with his mother in 
Providence. 2. John S., born Dec. 22, 1875, died in 1882. 3. Lucv 

3i8 



FREDERICK \V. HARTWELL 

King, born Feb. 16, 1S78; attended the public and high schools of 
Providence, and was graduated from the Abbott Academy at An- 
dover, Massachusetts; she married William B. Peek, of Providence, 
and they are the parents of three children : Margaret Hartwell, born 
July 19, 190-1; Ruth Hartshorn, born Dec. 13, 1906; Virginia Hunt- 
er, born June 12, 1913. -4. Mary Hartshorn, born Nov. 21, 1882, 
died July 1, 1915; she attended the public schools of Providence, 
and continued her studies at Dana Hall, "Wellesley, and Brown Uni- 
versity; she married Leonard Wollsey Cronkhite, of Boston, and 
has one daughter, Elizabeth Cronkhite. 5. Helen Thurber, born 
Oct. 28, 1885; attended the public and high schools of Providence, 
and was graduated from Wellesley College in the class of 1908; 
she married Rev. W. Douglas Swaffield, now of East Boston, Mas- 
sachusetts; they are the parents of three children: Esther Hard- 
ing, born Nov. 17, 1913 ; Frederick Hartwell, born April 13, 1915 ; 
Marian Nichols, born August 6, 1910. 

Frederick W. Hartwell died at his home, No. 77 Parade street, 
Providence, Rhode Island, October 9, 1911. Mr. Hartwell is buried 
in the Swan Point Cemetery. Mrs. Hartwell, who survives her 
husband, resides at No. 16 Freeman Parkway, Providence, Rhode 
Island. 




3i9 



Editorial 



THE HISTORICAL PERSPECTIVE 
Memorial Day, May 30th last, was regarded with a degree of dig- 
nity and reverence as never before, and which it is not conceivable 
can find a counterpart in any discernible coming time. It had a 
spirit all its own. The services of the previous year were, indeed, of 
peculiar import, but there had been a change in conditions. Then, 
the nation was involved in the mightiest of all the world's wars, the 
duration of which was uncertain, and its sacrifices not to be meas- 
ured. The requiem note in memory of the soldier dead of the War 
for the Union and the Spanish-American War was less pronounced 
than in former years. It was rather an undertone, overborne by the 
overwhelming voice of the people, raised in determination to vindi- 
cate American honor and battle for the sake of humanity. Thoughts 
of the past in large measure had disappeared in view of the present 
and future. 

The last Memorial Day had a meaning all its own. There was 
abundant sorrow T and abundant joy. In the processions were multi- 
tudes of black-robed women, the gold star on the sleeve bearing wit- 
ness to the loss of husband, son or brother. Deploring such woful 
sacrifices, orators and hearers joyed in the courage and endurance 
of the fallen, and enshrined them in their hearts as worthy knights 
in humanity's latest and greatest crusade. Yet was even a higher 
plane reached in a comprehensive realization of the tremendous 
meaning of the vindication and restoration of the Union under the 
statesmanship of Lincoln, and the military genius of Grant. It had 
only in these recent days come to be discerned that the great result 
achieved by those great leaders and their followers, was not only to 
the advantage of the American people, confirming to them posses- 
sion of the sacred heritage coming down from the Patriot Fathers, 
but also to the advantage, yea, the salvation, of seekers after liberty 
the world over; — that the re-establishment of the Union had made 
possible the immense and, in human view, indispensable, part taken 

320 



EDITORIAL 

by the nation on foreign soil, in crushing an audacious military pow- 
er holding to the pernicious doctrine that might makes right, and in 
support of the cardinal principles upon which civilization is 
founded. 



BATTLES IN TIMES OF PEACE 

There are indications from various quarters that a cessation of 
war is not necessarily a return to peace. There are symptoms not 
only of labor disturbances, but of troubles growing out of increased 
rentals, and of higher prices of various articles of consumption, 
more or less necessary to human existence. Not only this, but there 
is an unknown quantity of humanity of whom grim predictions are 
made as to the results of legislation prohibitive of intoxicating bev- 
erages — results physical and results moral, leading to X results in 
the individual condition and conduct. 

The greater number of newspaper and magazine writers who have 
approached this subject, make dire predictions of a very great resort 
to pernicious drugs on the part of that large portion of the popula- 
tion who will find themselves deprived of their accustomed alcoholic 
beverages. In marked contrast with these dismal forebodings, is a 
consideration of the question by one who sees other "Temptations 
Ahead to Guard Against," and exhorts "Now that we have got rid 
of alcohol, let's not over-eat and over-drink other things in a way to 
injure health." The phrases in quotation marks form the caption 
of an article in a contemporary magazine, from the pen of Dr. James 
J. Walsh, of New York City, one of our foremost psychologists and 
neurologists, and an author of fame. 

Dr. Walsh is no pessimist. He looks approvingly upon the disap- 
pearance of all that (to use a short term) goes under the head of 
"rum." As to the results, he looks for no striking reaction from 
prohibitory regulations, and answering the question he sets forth, 
"What are people (those deprived of their strong drink) going to 
do?" he says, "They are probably going to attend to their business, 
and forget drinking." But Dr. Walsh's main concern is, what is to 
take the place of the drink, with those who have been accustomed 
to it, and in a few pages he gives answer. He thinks that people will 
drink very much more coffee, in the belief that coffee is a stimulant, 
its effect, as compared with liquor, being in degree rather than in 

321 



EDITORIAL 

kind. With the authority of a master physiologist lie descants upon 
the effects of coffee, setting- forth the evils attendant upon its exces- 
sive use, and holding out a danger signal against substituting one 
bad habit for another. His cautions follow into other lines. He 
warns parents against enfeebled nerves and impaired digestion in 
their children, due not only to overmuch use of soda fountain 
sweets, but to a certain amount of a drug (them) contained in such 
beverages, and which is native in tea, and this last proposition is 
followed by definite information as to the proper making of tea, 
which in the light of the physiologist's revelations is a more serious 
matter than most people realize. 

Taking Dr. Walsh's article in its entirety — in its very understand- 
able depiction of the evils attendant upon very common articles of 
consimrption which in popular estimation are entirely innocent, — 
it may well be recommended to various reform bodies for wholesale 
distribution in pamphlet form. Moral reforms have at times fallen 
far short of what was hoped for, because the appeal was made on 
moral grounds alone. The physical needs are oftentimes more ur- 
gent and also more responsive to treatment after such a fashion as 
outlined in the article upon which is made this imperfect comment. 




322 






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i'ERICANA 

OCTOBER, 1919 

















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The Beginnings of Prohibition 




T the time of the separation of Maine and Massachu- 
setts, nearly every person in the new State drank 
liquor as a matter of course. The most respectable 
people sold it. Neal Dow says that "many of them 
were regular attendants upon the ordinances of the church; some 
were foremost in good words and works. Elders, deacons and Sab- 
^bath school teachers competed with each other for customers for 
liquor, as well as for dry goods and other family supplies, and cheer- 
fully donated generously of profits thus obtained." Men said with 
Iago, "Good wine is a good creature if it be not abused." But 
the danger of abuse was recognized, and on March 20, 1821, the 
Maine Legislature passed a license law regulating the sale of liquor 
very similar to the law of Massachusetts previously in force. The 
license fee was $6.00, and a fine of not over $50 for common selling 
and of not over $10 for a single sale was imposed on persons selling 
without a license. The licensees were to be persons of "sober life 
and conversation, and suitably qualified." They were forbidden to 
allow gambling or excessive drinking on the premises, no liquor 
could be sold to minors, except travellers, without the special per- 
mission of their parents, nor could credit for liquor be given to un- 
dergraduates in colleges without the consent of the college authori- 
ties. 

County attorneys were directed to file information against per- 
sons selling without a license, and the half of all fines under $20 was 
to go to the informer. In 1824 liquor sellers were ordered to take 
out a license for each place where they sold liquor. Sheriffs, dep- 
uty-sheriffs, constables and tithingmen were directed to furnish the 



Note. — This narrative is from advance sheets of "History of Maine," by Lucius 
C. Hatch, (American Historical Society, Inc., New York). 

323 



THE BEGINNINGS OF PROHIBITION 

selectmen with the names of those who used liquor to excess, and 
"all good citizens of the State were exhorted to do the same." In 
182G a law forbade the sale of liquor within one hundred rods of a 
place where an election was being held, but the act did not debar 
their usual places of prosecuting the same." In 1829 a local option 
"licensed parties from the pursuit of their ordinary business in 
law was passed and victuallers or retailers were forbidden to sell 
wine, spirituous or mixed liquors to be drunk on the premises. This 
act aid not apply to taverners. Moreover, any town at its annual 
town meeting might authorize its licensing board to allow the sale 
of liquor to be drunk on the premises on such conditions as might 
be prescribed by the selectmen. In 1832 the law of 1824 was re- 
pealed. In 1833 it was made the duty of the selectmen to insert in 
the list of subjects to be considered by the annual town meeting that 
of granting licenses for the sale of liquor to be drunk on the prem- 
ises. In 1834 all laws regulating the sale of liquor were repealed, 
and a new law containing most of the provisions of the former acts 
was passed, but no license was required for, nor any restriction im- 
posed, on the sale of beer, cider, ale, etc. 

Meanwhile there had been developing in Maine, a strong temper- 
ance movement. Shortly after the close of the War of 1812, sixty- 
nine citizens of Portland assembled in the Quaker meeting-house 
and formed a total abstinence society, commonly called from the 
number of those composing it, Sixty-niners. Among the leaders 
were two of the principal clergymen of the district, Dr. Payson and 
Dr. Nichols. In January, 1818, Dr. Payson 's church resolved that 
it considered the use of intoxicating liquors for purposes of enter- 
tainment, refreshment or traffic, as a case of immorality, and a 
cause of discipline, subjecting the offender to suspension and if 
persisted in, to excommunication. For years, however, many who 
earnestly desired to promote the cause of temperance did not advo- 
cate total abstinence. A distinction was also drawn between the use 
of wine, cider, and so forth, and that of whiskey and other "ardent 
spirits." In 1827 a society whose members were pledged to abstain 
from distilled spirits was formed in New Sharon. Such societies 
were also formed that year in Windsor, Buckfield and Gorham. 

In 1828 a society was formed in Gardiner, whose members pledged 
themselves that they would not "knowingly vote for a man for any 
civil office who is in the habit of using ardent spirits or wine to ex- 

324 




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UNION STATION, PORTLAND 



THE BEGINNINGS OF PROHIBITION 

cess." Neal Dow says in his reminiscences: "I think I am safe in 
saying that the adoption of this pledge was the first action taken 
anywhere in the State, favoring the introduction of the question in 
any form into politics." In 1834 the first State convention of tem- 
perance societies was held and a State organization was formed. In 
1837 it was moved at the annual meeting of the Society to make total 
abstinence a condition of membership. The opponents of the change, 
led by ex-Governor King and other prominent men, defeated the pro- 
posal, but the result was a secession of many of the more radical 
members, who formed the Maine Temperance Union. Among the 
leaders in this movement were Rev. Dr. Tappan of Augusta, Samuel 
M. Pond of Bucksport, Dr. Isaac Lincoln of Brunswick, Abner Co- 
burn (Governor of Maine in 1862), Richard D. Rice, afterward a 
judge of the Supreme Court, and John P. Potter of Augusta. Mr. 
Potter was later a member of Congress from Wisconsin, and ac- 
quired great popularity among the anti-slavery men by accepting a 
challenge from Roger A. Pryor of Virginia, and naming bowie- 
knives as the weapons. The duel did not take place, Pryor 's seconds 
refusing to allow him to fight under such conditions. 

The records of the Society say, "Voted to adjourn till 2 p. m. with 
a view to give those members who desired it, an opportunity of form- 
ing a new State Society on a pledge of total abstinence from all that 
intoxicates. A new Society was immediately formed and called the 
'Maine Temperance Union,' and about four-fifths if not seven- 
eighths of the old Society joined the new one. At 2 p. m., met accord- 
ingly. The treasurer's report was read and accepted, and some oth- 
er business done, when General King of Bath observed that he 
thought those who had joined the new Society ought not to assist in 
choosing the officers of the old, and after a few observations from 
members it was voted to adjourn for five minutes, and the members 
of the Maine Temperance Union retired to the Court House." 

The Union voted "that the sole object of this Society shall be to 
concentrate the efforts of the friends of temperance throughout the 
State, to diffuse information, and by a moral influence, discourage 
the use of intoxicating drinks in this community." A resolution was 
adopted, "that the subject of petitioning the Legislature for prohib- 
iting, under suitable penalties, the sale of intoxicating liquors as a 
drink, be recommended for discussion at the next meeting of this So- 
ciety. ' ' Neal Dow says, ' ' As far as I am aware, that was the earliest 

325 



THE BEGINNINGS OF PROHIBITION 

effort made in Maine toward the development of a public sentiment 
favorable to Prohibition," and he thinks it more than probable that 
"General Appleton of Portland was the author of the resolution." 
A committee was appointed to confer with the old Society in regard 
to financial matters, and the Society transferred the temperance pa- 
per, the Maine Temperance Herald "and all existing agencies," to 
the Union. The Bangor Whig said of the secession : 

AVe look upon the organization of a new State Temperance Socie- 
ty, upon the principle of abstinence from all that intoxicates, as a 
good omen. Most certain it is, the measure was called for by every 
consideration of consistency as well as the best good of the cause of 
temperance. The truth is the avowed friends of temperance must 
keep in advance of the mass, or the cause will inevitably suffer. How 
was it with the old Society? It was formed years ago, when the 
standard of public sentiment was far in the rear of its present point 
of elevation. It was found to be lagging behind public sentiment. It 
had become a dead letter, and it was absolutely necessary that it 
should be advanced to its present station. Total abstinence is the 
only safe, the only tenable, the only consistent ground. How very 
often is it urged, and with such force as to call the blush to the cheek 
of the avowed friends of temperance, that it is the object of reform- 
ers to deprive poor people of New England Rum, while they retain 
for their own use highly adulterated wines and cordials ? How often 
is it said, give up your wines and we will give up our rum. 

The same year a committee of the House of Representatives (of 
Maine) to whom the subject of the liquor traffic had been referred, 
reported in favor of prohibition. They stated that a license system 
made liquor dealing respectable and that it was impossible to en- 
force regulations for the sale of liquor. "The people will never be 
satisfied that if the taverner may rightfully vend the article by the 
glass, to the ruin of his neighbor, it is criminal for the retailer to do 
the same." They said that the "fathers" who established the li- 
cense system would probably have forbidden the sale of liquor en- 
tirely had they not wrongly believed that alcohol was useful and 
necessary to humanity. The committee claimed that generally speak- 
ing a prohibitory law could be enforced. A bill was reported for- 
bidding the sale of brandy, rum or strong liquors, in less quantities 
than twenty-eight gallons, except by physicians and apothecaries for 
medicinal and mechanical purposes. During the debate General 
Appleton said that sale in large quantities was permitted to meet 

326 



THE BEGINNINGS OF PROHIBITION 

the constitutional objection that though the Legislature might reg- 
ulate it could not prohibit. John Holmes, who was then serving as 
a member of the House, moved an amendment invalidating after the 
first of the following September, all contracts in relation to ardent 
spirits, and the motion was passed with a slight change. Mr. Hum- 
phries of Gray wished "to prohibit physicians and apothecaries 
from selling. The bill gave these individuals a monopoly which 
would be exceedingly profitable. Apothecary shops would spring 
up in every quarter by the hundred. The bill would be wholly inef- 
fectual; as much ardent spirits would be sold as now. If any ex- 
ception was to be made, it should be in favor of taverners." Ac- 
cordingly, Mr. Humphries moved to strike out the part of the bill 
relating to physicians and apothecaries, but his amendment was 
defeated. "An attempt was made to forbid the sale of ardent 
spirits in any quantity, but this also failed. Mr. Codman of Port- 
land said he presumed gentlemen were sincere in declaring alcohol 
to be a deadly poison. He therefore moved to amend by adding a 
section to provide that if any person in this State shall sell or drink 
any ardent spirits, he shall be punished, on conviction, by imprison- 
ment for life; the motion did not prevail." 

In 1838 Governor Kent said in his first address to the Legislature: 
"The cause of temperance and that philanthropic movement which 
has already done so much to check the ravages of the fell destroyer 
of individual health and happiness, and prolific source of crime and 
misery— intemperance — depend mainly for their ultimate and per- 
fect success upon moral causes, but may yet receive aid and sup- 
port from legal enactments which shall put the seal of public repro- 
bation upon the traffic in ardent spirits whenever public sentiment 
will sustain the strict enforcement of the provisions of such a 
statute." This was the first time that a Governor of Maine had 
referred to the subject of temperance in his iraugural address. But 
no action of importance was taken by the Legislature in regard to 
the selling of liquor until 1844, when a law was passed construing 
the act of 1835 to authorize licensing boards to license persons other 
than inn-keepers, but forbidding them to sell in less quantities than 
twenty-eight gallons, the whole to be taken away at one time. 

Meanwhile a very sharp contest had been going on in the ranks of 
the new Temperance Union. The radicals favored prohibition, the 
conservatives wished to rely on moral influence. One year the So- 

327 



THE BEGINNINGS OF PROHIBITION 

ciety indefinitely postponed a resolution recommending the friends 
of temperance to use their influence in enforcing the penalties of 
the law against the sale of strong liquors. The next year it de- 
clared that "it is necessary to exercise daily and constant vigilance 
in detecting the unlawful sale of intoxicating liquors, and to cause 
the license law to be executed on all those who transgress it." In 
1845 the radicals won a decisive victory. Rev. Dr. Dwight of Port- 
land was invited to address the annual meeting of the Union on 
"Law as a means of promoting the temperance reform." Reso- 
lutions were adopted declaring that "individuals engaged in the 
liquor traffic 'are the most guilty of any criminals known to us' and 
should be,' both regarded and treated according to their guilt as are 
other criminals ;' that to patronize a store or tavern in which intox- 
icating drinks are sold is to countenance and support intemper- 
ance." 

In 1846 the Union appointed Neal Dow and John T. Walton to 
represent "the views and wishes of the thousands of our State who 
have asked by their petitions the passage of a law which shall ef- 
fectually close up the drinking-houses and tippling-shops." The 
hearing was held in the Hall of Representatives and a petition 
fifty-nine feet long, signed by 3,800 citizens of Portland, was fes- 
tooned over the Speaker's chair. Judge Weston of Augusta pre- 
sented the arguments of the opponents of prohibition. A prohibi- 
tion law was passed in the House by a vote of 81 to 42, and in the 
Senate by one of 23 to 5, and was duly approved by Governor An- 
derson. The law forbade the sale of spirituous liquors except for 
medical and mechanical purposes. For such sales the towns were 
authorized to appoint a limited number of agents, the number vary- 
ing with the size of the town. 

For the next three years the Union devoted itself to endeavoring 
to secure the enforcement of the law and to obtain amendments 
which would make it more effective. Neal Dow says of this period : 

As long as the law recognized the trade as useful, necessary, and 
legitimate, those engaged in it cared little for its restraining clauses. 
The license was more potent in swelling the number of their patrons 
and the sum of their gains than the restrictions were in protecting 
the people from the evils inseparable from the business. Now, howev- 
er, under the law of 1846, matters were different. Nowthe trade began 
to show its teeth. The time had come when the fire was the hottest, 

328 



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RESIDENCE OF LATE JAMES G. BLAINE, AUGUSTA 



THE BEGINNINGS OF PROHIBITION 

the danger the greatest, and only the most determined and courag- 
eous kept on. This was manifest in the absence from the annual 
meetings of the Union in 1847, 1848 and 1849, of some of its former 
supporters. They had little taste for the kind of warfare now forced 
upon them, and perhaps, as to some of them, grave fears as to what 
the outcome politically might be to themselves or their party. 
. The vacancies, however, were filled by others, who, though young- 
er, less widely known, and lacking in the prestige and influence of 
those whose places they took, had all the zeal, persistency, and cour- 
age demanded at that stage of the movement. But there were yet to 
be found some of the old leaders. The calm, cool courage, the earn- 
est, unabated devotion of Appleton, were yet at the service of the 
cause. The venerable Samuel Fessenden was, as always, to be relied 
upon, and the devotion of such men, trained in the school of the anti- 
slavery reform to cherish the courage of their convictions as a price- 
less treasure, was a tower of strength at this crisis of the movement. 

In 1819, a law was enacted which punished by imprisonment in the 
county jail any person not licensed who should sell or expose for sale 
during the continuance of any cattle-show or fair any intoxicating 
drink within two miles thereof. This is the first instance in the legis- 
lation of the State where imprisonment was imposed as a penalty for 
the sale of intoxicating liquors. In 1850, the penalties for the viola- 
tion of the law were very much increased. Persons selling liquor il- 
legally had been liable to a fine of not less than one nor more than 
twenty dollars. They were now made punishable by a fine of not 
less than twenty nor more than three hundred dollars, or imprison- 
ment for not less than thirty days nor more than six months. 

Though the passage of the law of 1846 had been a great triumph 
for the friends of prohibition, its enforcement was far from satis- 
factory to them. Accordingly, in 1849 they prepared a bill increas- 
ing the powers of public officers to search and seize, and allowing pri- 
vate citizens to set the machinery of the law in motion. The bill was 
passed at the end of the session and Governor Dana availed himself 
of his constitutional right to retain the bill until the opening of the 
next session. Many petitions were sent begging him to sign the 
bill, but in January he returned it to the Legislature with his veto. 
He argued that the proposed law was altogether too stringent, more 
so indeed than the Legislature perhaps intended. He claimed that 
prohibition could not be enforced and that the attempt to do it had 
increased drunkenness. Undiscouraged, the prohibitionists again 

329 



THE BEGINNINGS OF PROHIBITION 

introduced a bill similar to that of the year before. It passed the 
House, but iu the Senate the vote was a tie. 

In the spring of 1851, Mr. Dow was elected mayor of Portland, 
with a prohibition city council. In his inaugural address he stated 
that prohibition could not be enforced without the aid of a law strin- 
. gent in its provisions and summary in its processes, and commended 
the subject to them as one eminently worthy of their attention. The 
city council passed resolutions echoing the opinion of the mayor and 
he was appointed the head of a committee to go to Augusta, present 
the resolutions to the Portland representatives, and express the 
opinions of the city council on the matter to any committee which 
might be appointed to consider them. Mayor Dow had already pre- 
pared a bill. He first carefully revised his bill of the preceding year 
and then submitted it to a lawyer who was much interested in tem- 
perance, Mr. Edward Fox, later judge of the United States District 
Court. Mr. Fox suggested and the mayor accepted a few changes 
mainly of a technical nature. 

At Augusta, Mr. Dow saw the president of the Senate and the 
speaker of the House and asked them, if the matter should be re- 
ferred to a committee, to appoint certain persons whom he named. 
Both officers agreed to pack the committee as requested. It was duly 
appointed and unanimously recommended Mr. Dow's bill. The bill 
passed the House by a vote of 81 to 40. The next day the Senate 
passed it under a suspension of the rules by a vote of 18 to 10. As 
soon as the bill had been signed by the president of the Senate, Mr. 
Dow himself took it to the Governor, John Hubbard. But he had 
been anticipated. On entering the executive chamber he met half a 
dozen Democratic leaders coming out. They had gone to demand of 
Gov. Hubbard that he veto the bill. Several of these men had them- 
selves voted for it. They explained, however, that they lived in close 
districts and feared for their re-election, bat argued that as Gover- 
nor Hubbard had twice received over 9,000 plurality he might safely 
disapprove the bill. Neal Dow says of this interview : 
_ 

Governor Hubbard, however, as he afterwards informed me, re- 
minded those gentlemen that they had voted for the bill. Their rec- 
ord was public. He was bound to believe that their vote, as thus re- 
corded, represented their convictions. It was neither his duty nor 
his desire to relieve them from the position in which they had placed 
themselves. They had admitted, in voting for the measure, that they 

330 



THE BEGINNINGS OF PROHIBITION 

were representing the wishes of their constituents. They must not 
ask him to disregard the public will that they had obeyed, and heed 
their private opinions and personal wishes, which they had con- 
cealed by their votes. Two sessions of the Legislature, the Gover- 
nor said, had been occupied in discussing and maturing the subject. 
It had passed both houses by a vote of about two-thirds. It could not 
be looked upon, therefore, as hasty and inconsiderate legislation, 
which alone would authorize the interposition of the veto, a power 
which the Constitution did not contemplate as part of the ordinary 
process of legislation. He would not use it in this case unless upon 
a careful examination of the bill he should find in it defects too grave 
to be overlooked. 

The discussion is said to have been very sharp, the leaders at- 
tempting to frighten Governor Hubbard into using his veto. When 
Mr. Dow entered with the bill, the Governor said nothing of the pres- 
sure which had been put on him, but promised to give the subject 
careful consideration and turned the conversation to general topics. 
The bill passed the Legislature on Saturday and on Monday the 
Governor signed it. From this time the temperance question became 
very closely interwoven with party politics. 

The prohibitory law gave offense to many who were not rummies. 
The act granted extensive powers of search and many felt that pri- 
vate rights were invaded. A cry was also raised that the law as en- 
forced was hurting business. But far more injurious to the Republi- 
cans was a liquor riot in Portland in which the militia were called 
out, the mob fired on, several persons injured and one killed. Liquor 
had been bought for the City Agency and it was claimed that techni- 
cally Mayor Dow was the owner and had violated his own prohibi- 
tory law. 

Handbills scattered throughout the city asked, "Where are our 
vigilant police, who are knowing to the above facts, and who think 
it their duty to move about in search of the poor man's cider, and 
often push their search into private houses contrary to every princi- 
ple of just law? Why are they so negligent of the weightier matters 
and so eager for the mint and cummin ? We call upon them by virtue 
of Neal Dow's law to seize Neal Dow's liquors and pour them into 
the street. The old maxim, Fiat justitia mat coelum, means 'Let 
the lash which Neal Dow has prepared for other backs be applied to 
his own when he deserves it.' " 

33i 



THE BEGINNINGS OF PROHIBITION 

The opponents of the Maine law were much excited. They con- 
sidered it a most outrageous and inquisitorial statute which estab- 
lished arbitrary and unreasonable presumption of guilt and that it 
had been enforced by Mr. Dow in a very severe manner. The report 
that he had been caught in his own trap and might be publicly pro- 
claimed and punished as a violator of his own law, was received 
with the greatest joy. On June 3, three men, all thorough-going 
opponents of the prohibitory law, appeared before Judge Carter of 
the Police Court, made oath that they had reason to believe and 
did believe that Neal Dow had liquors intended for illegal sale in 
the State, in the basement of the city hall; they had brought with 
them a constable and they demanded that warrants to seize the liquor 
and to arrest Mr. Dow be issued at once and delivered to their con- 
stable, on the ground that fees would be saved by giving it to the 
officer of the court, Deputy Marshal Ring. The Judge detained the 
deputy marshal until court adjourned, saying that he ought to re- 
main in attendance. The deputy then proceeded to the city hall; as 
the casks were not directed to Neal Dow, he hesitated about seiz- 
ing them, but after consulting the county attorney he did so. Be- 
lieving that they were as safe where they were as in any other 
place, he did not remove them but left them in charge of an officer. 
He properly gave Mr. Dow time for arranging for bail before ar- 
resting him. 

Meanwhile a crowd had collected near the city hall and much im- 
patience was expressed because the liquors were not seized. Re- 
ports of an attack on the agency were brought to the city mar- 
shal, the mayor and certain aldermen. Two companies of militia, 
Captain Green's Rifle Guards and Captain Roberts' Light Guards, 
were called out. The first company appeared at the hall but with 
ranks by no means full, was pelted with stones and withdrew. 
Mayor Dow had given and then countermanded an order to fire. 

The excitement of the mob increased, stones were thrown at the 
agency, forcible rescues were made of men who were arrested by the 
police, an attempt was made to break down a door of the city hall 
and get at the liquor. Within were a number of police and the 
city marshal. The crowd was repeatedly warned to disperse and 
that any of them entering the building would be shot. One man 
who was part way through the half broken door was wounded and 
there was a general discharge of revolvers by the police. Rein- 

332 




NEAL DOW . 



<o 



THE BEGINNINGS OF PROHIBITION 

forcements were also coming from the militia. About two hours 
after Captain Roberts of the Light Guards received the order from 
the magistrates, calling out his company, some thirty of his men 
had assembled at the armory of the Rifle Guards, but they had no 
ammunition suitable for their guns. Mayor Dow demanded the 
guns. of the Rifles. They were refused and by his direction the 
Light Guards took them from the racks. Information had come 
that without prompt assistance the city hall would be stormed and 
the police sacrificed. Mayor Dow led the troops to the city hall and 
found one of the doors broken and stones flying through the room. 
Some of the police had been hurt. No further warning was given 
to the mob to disperse, but the militia drew up at an open door 
looking out on Middle Street and fired by sections through the room 
and the broken door. After this the mob gradually quieted and 
were then dispersed by the militia. One life had been lost, that of 
Jonathan Robbins of Deer Isle, a sailor from a vessel in the har- 
bar, and seven of the rioters had been wounded. 

The riot had occurred on Saturday night. On Monday a public 
meeting was held, and F. 0. J. Smith, Nathan Clifford and others, 
made vehement attacks on the mayor. Mr. Smith said that the 
mayor's resignation should be demanded, and intimated that if 
necessary forcible measures ought to be taken to obtain it. The 
meeting unanimously passed resolutions reported by a committee 
which was unfavorable to the mayor, and provided for a committee 
to investigate the affair of Saturday. A resolution was offered 
from the floor and unanimously passed, calling on Mayor Dow to re- 
sign on account of his conduct in purchasing the liquor. 

i On Tuesday Mr. Dow was tried in the municipal court on ths 
charge of having liquor in his possession intended for illegal sale. 
Nathan Clifford appeared for the prosecution, William Pitt Fessen- 
den for the defense. Judge Carter ruled that the city had author- 
ized the original purchase, and dismissed the respondent. An in- 
quest, held on the body of Robbins, declared that he came to hia 
death while engaged in a riot. Another coroner's jury was formed 
composed of enemies of the mayor, who reported that Robbins 
had been illegally killed, and called on the grand jury to determine 
if the mayor should be indicted and, if so, whether for murder or 
manslaughter, but the grand jury took no action. A committee of 
investigation was appointed by the city council. Some of its mem- 

333 



THE BEGINNINGS OF PROHIBITION 

bers, such as William Willis and Rev. Dr. Dwight, were among the 
most respected citizens of Portland, but they were generally friends 
of prohibition. Their report fully endorsed the action of the 
mayor. 

The papers of the city in discussing the riot divided on political 
lines. The Democratic Argus and the Whig State of Maine bit- 
terly condemned Dow ; for the course of the latter paper there was 
at least excuse, since the owner, John A. Poor, had received a bul- 
let through his hat, the night of the riot. 

The Argus in describing what it considered to be the temper of 
the mob, said: "There was a pretty strong current of feeling, that 
no great moral or legal wrong would be done by letting Mr. Dow's 
liquor into the gutter (the common receptacle of the article here, 
and no doubt the best one when properly got into it), and it was this 
feeling on the part of a few, and curiosity on the part of the others, 
which caused the assemblage on Saturday night. The worst that 
any one of these assembled had in view— was the spilling of a little 
liquor — a few panes of glass broken, and some other injuries done to 
the door of the liquor store, would have been all, and the crowd 
would finally have dispersed of themselves." 

The Advertiser, on the other hand, took the attitude adopted by 
the investigating committee appointed by the city council, who said, 
"Here was a question not merely whether a quantity of liquor 
should be destroyed, for that w T ould be of comparatively small im- 
portance, but whether law should be vindicated and triumphant, and 
the peace and property of the city be preserved, or whether mob vio- 
lence should rule the hour, trample upon law and order, and break 
down the great barrier which protects the life, the property, and 
the happiness of our people." 

There was much dispute as to the character of Bobbins, and also 
as to whether he was killed by the police or the militia. The latter 
point would have been important had the mayor been tried for mur- 
der or manslaughter, but as he certainly ordered the military to fire 
it has little bearing on his moral guilt or innocence. There was the 
dispute usual in cases of riot as to the size and ferocity of the mob. 
It is possible that a small body of police well drilled and well 
handled might have dispersed the mob earlier in the evening. At- 
tempts were made to make arrests and warnings were given to the 
rioters to disperse, but there seems to have been no action by the 

334 



THE BEGINNINGS OF PROHIBITION 

police in a body. It is fair to remember that the police were few 
in number; that they had no uniforms, only a badge, and there was 
contradictor}' testimony as to whether one of them, who was the 
most active, had his badge on or not. It is doubtful if Mayor Dow 
was warranted in his first order to fire. Had it been obeyed there 
would probably have been a dreadful slaughter. Alderman Carle- 
ton, who was with Dow and was a supporter of his measures, said 
that he would not have given such an order. And without the con- 
sent of two magistrates it would not have been legal. Moreover, the 
mayor had no right to call out the militia. He acted in good faith 
but investigation showed that the statute on which he relied had 
been repealed by a later act. It is possible also that during that 
exciting night Mr. Dow was guilty of a technical violation of law in 
demanding the muskets of the Light Guards. On the other hand, 
the opponents of the mayor violated the spirit of the law in the 
original prosecution of Mr. Dow, and it is probable they had ar- 
ranged for the liquor to be taken from the constable whom they 
brought to serve the warrant, and spilled into the gutter. If the 
mayor bore the loss he would be $1,600 out of pocket; if the city 
assumed it, this could be used against the mayor politically. But 
these men played with fire. The mob spirit once roused cannot be 
controlled, and the devisers of the original comparatively innocent 
plot against the mayor must bear a considerable part of the blame 
of the tragedy that followed. 

Mayor Dow is undoubtedly responsible for the firing of the militia 
through the agency door, but the conditions were such as to justify 
him. The riot proved very injurious to the Republicans, their op- 
ponents resorting to the grossest misrepresentations concerning it. 
Mr. Dow says in his reminiscences: "The country districts were 
flooded with circulars full of misstatements and pictures represent- 
ing officers shooting women and children who had gathered to see 
liquors seized, or who were passing the stores where liquors were 
kept. One of these is before me while I write, representing a com- 
pany of uniformed soldiers firing under my orders into a throng of 
men, women and children, passing on the opposite sidewalk, peace- 
fully attending in broad daylight to their legitimate pursuits." 



335 



Art and Literature in Lowell 

1904 the Lowell Art Association was revived. On a 



®y snowy March evening a private view was held of a gen- 

l^ik^^'j eral exhibition of paintings in the high school hall. The 

^feSl setting was not especially favorable to works of art ; but 




in spite of that limitation the pictures looked well. The exhibition 
met with such success that the officers of the Association were en- 
couraged to believe that Lowell might eventually have such exhibi- 
tions as are of seasonal interest at Worcester, Providence, Spring- 
field and other New England cities of about the same population. 
The revival of the Lowell Art Association soon led to nationally 
significant consequences. 

Following the death of the artist, James McNeill Whistler, in 
London, came the Whistler Memorial Exhibition of the Copley Soci- 
ety of Boston in March, 1903, and with this an intensive cult of Whis- 
tleriana throughout the United States. Before this furore had died 
away, President Joseph A. Nesmith, of the Lowell Art Association, 
had conceived the idea of buying the plain, solid and not inartistic 
house in Worthen street in which Whistler was born. The undertak- 
ing, involving many difficulties of financing, was finally completed 
and on December 14, 1908, distinguished guests, including the Gov- 
ernor of the Commonwealth, met at the Whistler House. The inter- 
ior was found to have been redecorated in a mode appropriate to the 
late artist's liking for quiet, unobtrusive effects, with the main hall, 
forty by sixteen feet in dimensions, finished in grey friar's cloth. In 
this exhibition gallery was hung a collection of paintings by Ameri- 
can artists lent by the Copley Gallery, Boston. In the then library, 
now the Francis Room, and the dining room, were hung the three 
pictures already acquired by the Association — two works by David 
Neal, also born in Lowell, and one by Frederic P. Vinton. 

The exercises of the dedicatory evening, which were followed by a 
very large audience, were not without their exciting episode. Joseph 






Note — These pages relating to Art and Literature in Lowell, Massachusetts, are from 
advance sheets of a history of that city by Mr. Frederick W. Coburn, (Lewis Hist. Pub. 
Co., New York). 

336 






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ART IN LOWELL 

Pennell, illustrator, of Philadelphia, an admirer of Whistler, was 
unable to be present at the dedication, but sent a congratulatory let- 
ter in which he went out of his way to denounce failure of Americans 
properly to appreciate his friend. Governor Curtis Guild made a 
spirited reply, beginning with the following words: "I shall not go 
into joint debate with one who is absent. I shall not discuss the 
expressions in regard to the United States to which Mr. Pennell has 
given utterance. I merely desire to file my opposition to the opinion 
these express. The appreciation of art, the appreciation of service 
to humanity, has no stronger, no more enduring home than among 
our people, the people of the United States. Some of us may regret 
statements that Mr. Whistler may or may not have made. It is not 
necessary to discuss that question. This memorial is erected to him 
because he was a great artist, and because as a great artist he per- 
formed a service to the world and to humanity." 

Publicity on a national scale naturally followed the opening of 
the Whistler House. Special articles on the event were written for 
the New York Herald by Frank L. Baker and for the New York 
Evening Post by F. W. Coburn. The Outlook printed the following 
editorial note on January 9, 1909: 

Henceforth Lowell, Massachusetts, will be known not merely as 
the city of cotton mills. According to the familiar anecdote, James 
McNeill Whistler "did not choose to be born in Lowell." But he was. 
In a plain, substantial house, then the residence of Major Whistler, 
of the Locks and Canals Company, the author of "The Gentle Art of 
Making Enemies" first saw the light. Last week, by the generosity 
of Lowell citizens and others, the house was dedicated as a memorial 
museum of art. This is as it should be. An American memorial to 
Whistler is appropriate, because he was born in this country, owed 
his education to American schools and colleges and because all his 
early traditions were American. The Whistler House is to be not 
the only Whistler memorial in Lowell. A replica of the Rodin mem- 
orial, to be placed in the Chelsea Embankment, London, will shortly 
be erected in Lowell. The Chelsea memorial is a labor of love on the 
part of the great French sculptor who was also Whistler's friend. 
The city of Lowell is now uniquely distinguished ; it is the only com- 
munity in America with sufficiently initiative and local pride to mark 
the birthplace of an American painter by two such memorials. 

The project for a Rodin statue in Lowell, to which reference was 
made in the Outlook's article, is one which an untoward course of 

337 



ART IN LOWELL 

events destined to preclude from quick fulfillment. In the summer 
previous to the formal opening of the Whistler House the Lowell Art 
Association received from Mr. Pennell an offer of the only replica to 
be made of the memorial statue which Rodin had promised to do for 
erection in Chelsea. The money to defray the prime costs had been 
subscribed in England and France. The price asked for the replica 
was very low — only three thousand dollars. Lowell is not a wealthy 
city and money for artistic purposes comes hard ; but a committee 
•of the Association, headed by Philip S. Marden, went upon the street 
and practically in a day brought in pledges that secured to Lowell 
the promise of a statue which at least two leading American art 
museums had hoped to have. 

Since the opening of the Whistler House, the Lowell Art Asso- 
ciation has had a generally prosperous existence, under the presi- 
dency of Mr. Nesmith and secretaryship of Mary Earl Wood. The 
organization in point of numbers is a large one. Its activities have 
been many, and it has endeavored to make its home on Worthen 
street a focus of the artistic and literary interests of the community. 
Exhibitions of paintings, drawings and etchings by the foremost 
American artists have been shown from time to time in the down- 
stairs rooms. The house has also given Lowell what it never had 
before, a studio building. It has likewise furnished quarters of the 
local College Club, and for a literary society. 

In the second year after the renovation of the house, it was de- 
cided to keep green the memory of James Bicheno Francis by dedi- 
cating a room to his name and fame. The dedicatory exercises 
included reminiscences of the Francis family by Judge Hadley, Mr. 
Herscheli and the Rev. Dr. Chambre. The Staigg portrait of Mr. 
Francis was removed from City Hall and placed over the fireplace 
in this room which perpetuates the memory of the distinguished 
engineer. 

An interesting exhibition of works by artists born in Lowell, or 
otherwise connected with the city, was made in December, 1915, at 
the Whistler House by the Art Association. The tutelary genius of 
the house was represented by a slight but piquant study of a young 
woman's head, said to be the preliminary sketch for "Little Miss 
Alexander," which was lent by Mr. Frank Gair Macomber, of Bos- 
ton; a small marine made at Ostend, owned by Mrs. John Briggs 
Potter, of Boston, and several etchings. By David Neal were two 

338 



ART IN LOWELL 

paintings owned by the Association, and several early drawings. 
Willard L. Metcalf's "The Partridge Woods" was lent by Harry 
Newton Redman, of the New England Conservatory of Music. The 
painter of "Monadnock," Mr. Phelps, was seen favorably in the 
"Fading Light," lent by Miss N. P. E. Bobbins. By Walter L. 
Dean there was a marine "TJ. S. S. Charleston," owned by Mrs. 
Charles H. Allen. Sarah Wyman Whitman's portrait of the young- 
er Frederic Greenhalge was of a little youth of six years. Alfred 
Ordway's portrait of "Isabel" revealed this conscientious artist in 
a characteristic work. Thomas B. Lawson's manner was seen in the 
full-length portrait of Daniel Webster, lent by the City Library, and 
in a still life depicting some realistic malaga grapes. John Cogge- 
shall's "Sea and Cliffs," and a landscape; Mary Earl Wood's por- 
traits of General A. W. Greeley and Miss Betty Eastman ; Adelbert 
Ames' "Interior" and his sculptured Indian head; a self portrait 
by Mrs. Andrew Marshall (Jessie Ames) ; a portrait of Mrs. Butler 
Ames by Mrs. Oakes Ames; "Moat Mountain in March" and 
"Northwest Wind," both agreeable landscapes, by the president of 
the Association, Mr. Nesmith; several small sculptures by Louise 
Allen, daughter of Mr. and Mrs. Charles H. Allen; wax miniatures 
by Miss Ruth Burke ; metal work by Laurin II. Martin and enamels 
by Miss Florence Nesmith; Miss Elizabeth Walsh's portrait of 
"Mistress Mary;" a pastel head by Miss Elizabeth Irish; a pencil 
drawing of the Culebra Cut, by Clifton Kimball; a drawing in color 
by Mrs. E. C. Pulsifer; the originals of two illustrative drawings 
made for the Boston Transcript, by Frederick W. Coburn ; a trio of 
etchings by Lester G. Hornby, certainly the most brilliant worker in 
black and white with the exception of Whistler ever to come out of 
Lowell — these works made up a remarkably creditable exhibition the 
fame of which extended beyond the municipal borders. 

A city to which travelers resort because of its treasures and tradi- 
tions of fine art Lowell is not, and perhaps will not become such in 
the time of people now living. The period in which the community 
grew up was one singularly characterized by debasement of the arts 
of design, and, though the textile industry is one that naturally lends 
itself to the application of art to material, the general influences of 
the time were against products that combined beauty and utility. 

The larger history of the deterioration of the arts in the nine- 
teenth century — a degeneration by no means confined to the so-called 

339 



ART IN LOWELL 

fine arts, architecture, painting and sculpture, but more seriously 
affecting the entire range of decorative art — has yet to be authorita- 
tively written. Just what happened in the minds and hearts of men 
throughout the civilized countries of Europe and America that 
almost simultaneously they abandoned older standards of taste and 
esthetic honesty, is still somewhat mysterious. Enough, that by gen- 
eral admission this thing happened : a progressive decline of public 
appreciation of artistic values from the first decades of the century 
down to about 1880, since which era there has been a slight though 
perceptible recovery. 

The arts of design rise and fall together. Any considerable pro- 
duction of genuinely beautiful pictures and statuary is not to be 
looked for in a time and land whose humble household utensils and 
articles of personal adornment are tawdry and ugly. Despite the 
professional skill of many of their practitioners and their fervid 
devotion to the traditions of their great calling, the fine arts of the 
middle nineteenth century in this country and abroad sunk to a very 
low ebb. Artists, except for a few itinerant portrait painters whose 
livelihood was imperiled when the daguerreotype became popular, 
were hardly to be encountered in New England at this era outside of 
Boston, at the time when one of the greatest of artists of modern 
times was born on Worthen street, Lowell. Even at ''the Hub of 
the Universe," as Dr. Holmes a little later called it, there was noth- 
ing corresponding to the present large representation of architects, 
painters, sculptors, and workers in the arts and crafts. Washing- 
ton Allston, who lived down to 1843, represented an old tradition 
of painting, as did Gilbert Stuart and his daughter Jane. In this 
era there settled in Boston the giant backwoodsman, Chester Hard- 
ing, and there grew up into something of a portraitist the energetic 
and diminutive Healey, both of whom are represented in the collec- 
tion of works now in the Lowell Public Library. The Boston Art 
Club was founded in 1854, mainly through the efforts of Alfred 
Ordway, of a family long connected with Lowell. Art in Boston was 
of very minor interest until after the Civil War, when William Mor- 
ris Hunt and his social associates introduced a new understanding of 
the artistic practices and ideals of the French nation, and when the 
Museum of Fine Arts entered upon its honorable career of public 
usefulness. 

The same impetus which was given to the practice of the arts in 

340 




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Vista Showing Canal in the Heart of the City 



ART IN LOWELL 

Boston in the seventies was felt quite distinctly in Lowell. Interest, 
indeed, in the art of painting was probably keener about 18S0 than 
either before or since. John I. Coggeshall, long identified with artis- 
tic occupations in Lowell, recalls how he came from Boston to take a 
position as engraver and designer and engraver, and how he discov- 
ered with much surprise that a little coterie of artists and collectors 
made Lowell much of an "art centre." Many people were then 
watching the progress of William Preston Phelps, a young man from 
New Hampshire, who had gone to Munich for training in the days of 
Frank Duveneck's best teaching. David Neal, born in Lowell and 
long an instructor at Munich, was then spending much time in his 
native city. To visit him came frequently Walter Shirlaw, who had 
settled in New York. Thomas B. Lawson represented the older 
coterie of portrait painters of Massachusetts. Several gifted ama- 
teurs and art students helped to make up a most agreeable coterie. 
This was the period in which, as elsewhere noted, the Lowell Art 
Association first came into being. After some years of activity it 
became quiescent to be revived, as related, in the present century. 

The last decade of the nineteenth century was one in which the 
arts fared badly in Lowell. Mr. Phelps left the city in 1889 to live at 
Chesham, New Hampshire. The Association had become a merely 
perfunctory organization. The panic of 1893 was followed by a long 
depressed era. Hardly any one who could be called a professional 
painter or sculptor plied his calling in Lowell. Finally, in the pres- 
ent century, as told on a preceding page of this narrative, the Art 
Association was suddenly revived, the Whistler House became its 
headquarters, with studios at which artistic work was done, and 
Lowell began to be known as a city not altogether dead to the in- 
fluences of the arts. 

Lowell in 1917 had no Art Museum, and very little outdoor art of 
any kind. In the City Library, as already mentioned, are a few por- 
traits of fathers of the city, all dignified and imposing. Among 
them are "Dr. Elisha Huntington," T. B. Ianson; "Daniel Web- 
ster," "Nathan Appleton," "Patrick T. Jackson" and "John A. 
Lowell," S. P. A. Healey; "Kirk Boott" and "Abbott Lawrence," 
Chester Harding. At the entrance to the library is a small but ef- 
fective mural decoration representing "Industry," by Vesper Lin- 
coln George, of Boston, the gift of Joseph A. Coram. 

Of public monuments, the one conspicuous and celebrated work is 

34i 



ART IN LOWELL 

the Victory Monument in Monument Square, in front of the City 
Hall. "Miss Victory," as a subsequent generation of smart news- 
paper reporters have liked to call her, came to Lowell in the summer 
of 1867, and was presented to the city by Dr. J. C. Ayer at unveiling 
on the Fourth of July. The work is an angel figure, in bronze, ex- 
tending a wreath of victory in one hand, and a sheaf holding a sheaf 
of wheat in the other hand. It is a replica of the figure in front of 
the Royal Palace at Munich. Despite the German origin of the 
Winged Victory, no proposal to remove it from the prominent posi- 
tion has, so far as known, been entertained. 

Lowell cemeteries include a few notable monuments of which the 
most celebrated are the Butler memorial in the Hildreth burying 
ground, the sculptural work of the late Bela Lyon Pratt ; the Louisa 
M. Wells memorial in the Lowell cemetery, Evelyn B. Longman, 
sculptor; and the Moses Greeley Parker mausoleum in the Lowell 
cemetery. 

The subjoined notes concern a few of the principal artists who 
have lived at Lowell or otherwise been connected with the city : 

Abbott, Holker — President for many years of the Copley Society 
of Boston. One of the younger sons of Judge Josiah G. Abbott, born 
at Lowell in 1858. He was trained at the School of Drawing and 
Painting of the Boston Museum of Fine Arts, of which Otto Grund- 
mann was director. For a time he shared a studio in Boston with 
W. H. W. Bicknell, painter and etcher. Later he did more or less 
work in ecclesiastical decoration at his home studio, Wellesley Hills. 
His great service to art has been his wise and progressive manage- 
ment of the Copley Society (originally the Boston Art Students' 
Association), whose loan exhibitions of important masterpieces have 
international celebrity. Mr. Abbott's marked executive capacity, 
his uniforml} r courteous bearing and his wide acquaintance in the 
United States and abroad, have made him an ideal director of such 
enterprises as the Copley Society's exhibitions of works by John 
Singer Sargent, Whistler, Monet, Sorolla and E. C. Tarbell. Since 
3911 Mr. Abbott has been a trustee of the Boston Museum of Fine 
Arts. 

Button, Albert Prentice — This able painter, long resident in Bos- 
ton, was born in Lowell and received his first instruction from a 
private teacher from whose studio he went to the Cowles Art School, 
Boston, and to the classes of the Boston Art Club, then taught by 
Ernest L. Major. His work has been shown in most of the large 
cities of the United States. He has exhibited at the Whistler House. 

342 



ART IN LOWELL 

The Boston Art Club purchased his work entitled "On the Sands at 
Day's Close." 

Coggeshall, John I. — A native of Boston, who studied drawing, 
design and engraving, and who came to Lowell in the seventies to do 
special work as an engraver. Mr. Coggeshall early became intimate 
with Mr. Phelps, from whom he received valuable criticism in land- 
scape painting. He has practiced the allied professions of painting 
and engraving for many years at Lowell and, in the summers, at 
Cape Ann, where he has a studio where he has taught many classes 
of art students. He is a sincere and able painter, and has been rep- 
resented at various exhibitions. 

Dean, Walter Lofthouse — This son of Benjamin and Mary Ann 
(French) Dean, who was related to several of the best known fam- 
ilies of the region, was born at Lowell, June 4, 1854. The marked 
artistic bent in the family seems to have come from Walter Dean's 
grandfather, Benjamin Dean, of Clitheroe, England, who was an en- 
graver and designer and who entered the employ of the Merrimack 
Print Works in 1829. Mr. Dean studied art at the Massachusetts 
State Normal Art School, the Massachusetts Institute of Technology 
and the Julian Academy, Paris. He settled in Boston, where for 
many years he was one of the most prominent members of the Paint 
and Clay Club, the Art Club and the Society of Water Color Paint- 
ers. His large picture "Peace," depicting several units of the 
White Squadron in Boston harbor, was one of the notable works of 
the American section at the Chicago Exposition. His canvases were 
seen in most of the important general exhibitions for more than 
quarter of a century. He was always fascinated by the sea and was 
a life member, trustee and one time commodore of the Boston Yacht 
Club. He made several voyages out of Gloucester on fishing vessels. 
Shortly before his death, in 1913, he spent an entire summer nomi- 
nally as ship's carpenter (since the law would not permit his going 
as passenger) aboard one of the whalers out of New Bedford. Dur- 
ing this voyage, which was confined to the North Atlantic ground off 
Cape Hatteras, he made valuable sketches and studies of present- 
day whaling operations. His untimely decease was universally re- 
gretted among his fellow-artists and other friends. 

Foley, Margaret F. — Sculptor and cameo cutter. Miss Foley was 
one of the editors of The Loivell Offering. She was born in Can- 
ada and came to Lowell to teach at Westford Academy. "While 
there," writes Mrs. Robinson, "she boarded in Lowell, and on Sat- 
urday afternoons she taught classes in drawing and painting, and 
among her pupils was Lucy Larcom. She always had a piece of clay 
or a cameo in some stage of development upon which she worked in 
spare moments." W T hile in Lowell she made a medallion portrait of 
Gilman Kimball, M. D., which was locally celebrated. She gave up 
teaching at Westford and for a time worked as an operative on the 

343 



ART IN LOWELL 

Merrimack Corporation. Her contributions to The Offering were 
poems signed "M. F. F." After some years she went to Boston, 
where she opened a studio. Her struggle for a livelihood was at first 
bitter, though there was some demand for her portrait heads and 
ideal heads in cameo. One of her supporters was the Rev. Theodore 
Parker, whose portrait she made. She finally secured means to take 
a studio at Rome, where she numbered among her friends Harriet 
Hosmer, Mrs. Jameson, William Wetrnore Story, William and Mary 
Howitt. She practiced her profession with success down to her 
death in 18.77. Among her portrait medallions were those of Charles 
Sumner, Henry Wadsworth Longfellow, William Cullen Bryant and 
other literary people. She made many ideal figures such as those 
of Jeremiah, Pasquiaccia, The Fountain, The Timid Bather, Excel- 
sior, Cleopatra, and Viola. 

Hobbs, Louise Allen— A daughter of Hon. Charles H. Allen, born 
at Lowell and trained in sculpture at the Rhode Island School of De- 
sign, Providence. Mrs. Hobbs began to exhibit about 1912, and 
almost immediately took a prominent place among American sculp- 
tors. Her work, usually conceived in a new classic spirit, has been 
seen at the Pennsylvania Academy of Fine Arts, the Albright Gal- 
lery, Buffalo, and many other seasonal exhibitions of American art. 

Hornby, Lester G. — Illustrator and etcher, born in Lowell. He 
was trained in the art schools of Boston and served an apprentice- 
ship as a newspaper illustrator, acquiring quite remarkable facility. 
In 1906 his illustrative drawings which appeared under the title of 
"An Artist's Sketchbook of Old Marblehead" attracted favorable 
attention. Soon afterwards he began to show etchings at the Doll 
& Richards gallery, Boston. He made plates in Paris and at various 
places in Spain and North Africa. His work was favorably received 
in Paris. To-dav he is among the foremost of the world's etchers. 
On January 25, 1911, he lectured on the art of etching before a large 
audience. 

Lawson, T. B. — This portrait painter, originally of Newburyport 
was resident in Lowell for many years. Before the Civil War he 
also practiced his profession in the South. His portrait of Daniel 
Webster was one of his most noted works. He made excellent still- 
life studies as well as portraits. 

Martin, Laurin H. — The arts and crafts movement, so prominent 
in England, has an able Lowell representative in Mr. Martin, trained 
as a metal worker in England. His productions in silver and other 
metals are familiar to all who follow the exhibitions of the Boston 
Society of Arts and Crafts. 

Metcalf, Willard Leroy — This painter was born at Lowell, July 
1, 1858, a son of Greenleaf Willard and Margaret Jane (Gallup) 
Metcalf. He was educated in the public schools and in 1875 was ap- 
prenticed to a wood engraver in Boston. There he received instruc- 

344 



ART IN LOWELL 

tion in landscape painting from George L. Brown, then at the height 
of his career. He was the first student to enter the newly formed 
school of drawing and painting of the Boston Museum of Fine Arts, 
and there he received a scholarship. He had two years of painting 
in New Mexico and Arizona and then in 1883 he went to Paris, where 
he entered the Academie Julian, studying under Boulanger and Le- 
febvre. In 18S9 he settled in New York City. He has at various 
times taught at Cooper Institute and the Art Students' League of 
New York. He has had medals and prizes at all the recent exposi- 
tions. He was one of "Ten American Painters" who seceded from 
the Society of American Artists in 1897, and who have since then 
regularly exhibited together. His great professional successes be- 
gan in 1907 in Boston, where an exhibition of his work at the St. 
Botolph Club aroused admiration. Since then he has had about all 
the honors that can come to an American artist. He is well repre- 
sented in the permanent collections of the Boston Museum of Fine 
Arts and other museums. 

Nesmith, Joseph Aaron — Mr. Nesmith was born at Lowell, March 
25, 1877. He was graduated from Harvard College in 1891. After a 
brief business experience in Virginia he settled in Lowell, where he 
has looked after the extensive Nesmith interests. To the public 
away from Lowell he is best known as a talented painter and as pres- 
ident of the Lowell Art Association and prime mover in the project 
to preserve the Whistler House. He has painted much landscape 
and has exhibited at the Twentieth Century Club, Boston, and else- 
where. 

Neal, David — Next to Whistler, David Neal is the Lowell-born 
painter who unquestionably gained most celebrity in his lifetime. 
His technique was founded on that of a school which has somewhat 
lost its popularity in later years, and many of his pictures are of 
greater historical than of present artistic consequence. His close 
association with German art during most of his career may prove 
not to have helped his eventual standing. The fact remains that 
during his early and middle lifetime he was one of the foremost fig- 
ures in European art; his was one of the few American names that 
practically everybody who followed the international art exposi- 
tions was familiar with. He was born at Lowell in October, 1837, a 
son of Stephen B. and Mary M. Dolloff Neal. His first schooling 
was in the old Mann School. As a young boy he went to New Orleans 
to do clerical work. Thence, at the age of fifteen, he joined his fath- 
er, who, like so many Lowell men, had gone to California during the 
gold fever. He was apprenticed to a wood engraver and soon be- 
came an expert in this artistic craft. In 1861 he went to Munich, 
which continued to be his permanent home down to his death. May 2, 
1915. In 1862 he entered the Bavarian Royal Academy, where he 
studied for two years under the Chevalier Einmuller, of the Royal 

345 



ART IN LOWELL 

Bavarian Glass Works, the gentleman who later became his father- 
in-law. He presently won recognition with his studies of architec- 
tural subjects, such as "The Chapel of the Kings, Westminster Ab- 
bey," and "St, Mark's, Venice," both exhibited at the Munich Inter- 
national Exhibition of 1869. In 1876 his most famous work, "The 
First Meeting of Mary Stuart and Rizzio," won the gold medal of 
the Royal Bavarian Academy and established the young American's 
reputation as a strong and vigorous painter. It was shown in Lon- 
don, New York and elsewhere and eventually was bought by the late 
Darius Ogden Mills. "The Return from the Chase," of the same 
period, belonged to the late John Bloodgood, and another version of 
the same subject was acquired by Moses T. Stevens, of North An- 
dover. Other works of note were the "James Watt," shown at the 
London Royal Academy in 1874 and the property of Lord Mayor B. 
S. Phillipps; "Cromwell Visiting Milton," now at the Cleveland 
Public Library; "Nuns at Prayer," in the Royal Gallerv, Stuttgart; 
' ' The Burgomaster, " " The Return ' ' and ' ' Trust, ' ' On his numer- 
ous visits to the United States, Mr. Neal painted upwards of seventy 
portraits, including those of Whitelaw Reid, the first Mrs. W. C. 
Whitney, the twin daughters of D. Ogden Mills, Robert Garrett and 
Professor Samuel Green, of Princeton University. His last works 
were portraits of the three New Jersey signers of the Declaration of 
Independence, ordered by the New T Jersey Chapter of the Daughters 
of the American Revolution. Mr. Neal was survived by two sons, 
Max Neal, a dramatist, of Munich, and Heinrich Neal, Capellmeister 
at Heidelberg. 

Ordway, Alfred — Founder of the Boston Art Club in 1851, of 
which he was first secretary and treasurer. In 1859 he was elected 
president. From 1856 to 1863 he was chairman of the exhibitions of 
paintings at the Boston Athenaeum. He painted much landscape in 
rather a tight, literal way, but with admirable fidelity. 

Phelps, William Preston — This landscape painter, whose work is 
found in many Lowell homes, was born at Chesham, New Hamp- 
shire. He came to Lowell as a sign painter. His efforts to do more 
artistic work than that of most men in commercial lines were noted 
sympathetically by many Lowell people, and he was enabled twice to 
go abroad for periods of study at Munich and Paris. During the 
eighties he had a studio in Lowell which, as already related, was a 
rendezcous for all who were interested in the arts of design. Inher- 
iting the ancestral farm at Chesham, in 1S89 he left Lowell, where for 
many years he painted Mount Monadnock from almost every con- 
ceivable viewpoint and under every atmospheric condition. He ex- 
hibited frequently in Lowell and Boston. About 1911 he ceased 
painting and in 1917 it was found that his mental condition was such 
as to make it necessary to commit him to an asylum for the insane. 
As a painter of landscape and cattle pieces he gained in the years 

346 



ART IN LOWELL 

1880-1900 a reputation that was thoroughly well deserved, and his 
great "Canyon of the Colorado," painted in Arizona, was exten- 
sively exhibited. 

Wood, Mary Earl — Descended from Captain John Ford and other 
pioneers of the Lowell district, the present secretary of the Lowell 
Art Association, was born in Lowell and educated in drawing and 
painting at the school of the Boston Museum of Fine Arts. She is a 
thoroughly trained and very sincere and competent painter. For 
some years past she has had studios in Lowell and Boston. Among 
her many portraits for public places have been those of the late 
Frank F. Coburn, principal successively of the Lowell high school 
and State normal school ; Charles W. Morey, principal of the High- 
land grammar school; Dr. John J. Colton, and many that have been 
privately commissioned. As secretary of the Association, Mrs. Wood 
has arranged many of the exhibitions and lectures given at the 
Whistler House. 

Walsh, Elizabeth Morse — One of the younger painters of Massa- 
chusetts, born at Lowell and trained at the Museum of Fine Arts 
School, where early in the European war she was awarded the Paige 
traveling scholarship which, in more normal times, sends its holder 
to Europe for several years of intensive study. Miss Walsh in 1918 
was waiting for conditions to become favorable for taking advantage 
of her honor and opportunity. She meantime had already exhibited 
professionally in Boston, Lowell and other cities. 

Whistler, James Abbot McNeill— Born at Lowell, July 10, 1834. 
Died in London, 1903. Although much has been said about Whistler 
elsewhere, he was to such an extent the most famous personage who 
ever came out of Lowell that his career and connection with our city 
should be rather fully noticed. The salient facts, as admiring con- 
temporaries saw them, have never been more succinctly set forth than 
by the late Charles M. Kurtz, director of the Art Museum at Buffalo, 
in the catalogue which he wrote for the St. Louis Exposition in 1901. 
"Among modern artists," said Mr. Kurtz, "no man has been more 
discussed, more admired, more condemned, more appreciated, or 
more misunderstood, than the late Mr. Wnistler. And there has been 
no greater artistic personality in the world for many a day. Subtle 
in feeling and in artistic vision, exquisite in his power of discrimi- 
nating selection and the delicacy and charm of his interpretation, as 
well as in his technique ; with rare sense of color and its harmonious 
combinations, Mr. Whistler was a distinguished figure in the world's 
art. He was born in Lowell, Massachusetts, in 1834. For a time he 
was a student at West Point. In 1857 he was studying painting, un- 
der Gleyre, in Paris. He lived and painted in England, France and 
Italy ; but his work shows the influence of Japan rather than that of 
any other country — and this influence was digested and assimilated. 
His work was distinctively his own. As an etcher he has no superior 

347 



ART IN LOWELL 

in the history of art. In his later years he was the recipient of many 
medals and decorations which honored the artistic perspicacity of 
the donors. He was a member of the Royal Society of British Ar- 
tists; the Soeiete Nationale des Beaux Arts, Paris; president of the 
International Society of Sculptors, Painters and Gravers, London; 
honorary member of the Royal Academy of Saint Luke, Rome; 
honorary member of the Royal Academy of Dresden ; Officer of the 
Legion of Honor, Knight of the Order of Saint Michael of Bavaria, 
Commander of the Order of the Crown of Italy, etc., etc. He was ac- 
corded the Grand Prix at the Paris Exposition, 1900. He is repre- 
sented in the Gallery of the Luxembourg, Paris ; the Corporation 
Gallery, Glasgow, etc., etc. He died in London in 1903." 

That enthusiasts, of whom Mr. Kurtz was one of very many, prob- 
ably have overstated Whistler's claims to a place among the very 
greatest artists, does not affect the circumstance that he certainly 
achieved greater celebrity in his own day than did any other Amer- 
ican born painter. Just how the future will regard his art is still 
questionable. Some of his best trained fellow professional artists 
alwa} r s regarded him as a gifted amateur. Although he was serious 
and plucky when in his studio by himself, there were difficulties in 
the art of painting which he was never able to overcome on account 
of a deficient technique. 

Whistler's association with Lowell was slight. The family was 
southern. The father, Major George Washington Whistler, an able 
engineer, who achieved a fine reputation through building the Shore 
Line railway, was called to Lowell to direct the Locks and Canals 
Company. The family occupied the house in Worthen street which 
is now known as the Whistler house. Tradition has it that the fu- 
ture artist was born in the ell ; though one of his ardent admirers has 
insisted that Mrs. Whistler must have gone to bed in a front cham- 
ber; and this accords with the recollection of members of the Brow- 
nell family who subsequently occupied the house. The child's bap- 
tism at St. Anne's is recorded in Dr. Theodore Edson's handwriting 
in the parish register. The Lowell Art Association received a small 
contribution toward its purchase of the house from Mrs. Anna S. 
Magoon, of Chelmsford, aged eighty-five, who sat behind the Whis- 
tler family at St. Anne's. She told a representative of the Courier- 
Citizen that she distinctly remembered the regular advent of the 
Wliistler folk on Sunday mornings and that she had a faint recollec- 
tion of the day their baby, afterwards the illustrious artist, was 
born. While the Whistler child was still a baby the father was in- 
vited to build a railroad in Russia, to connect the capitals of St. Pe- 
tersburg and Moscow. In the semi-barbaric splendor of the city on 
the Neva the boyhood of James McNeill Whistler was passed. As a 
youth he returned to this country to enter West Point, from which 
he was not graduated "because silicon was not a gas." There is no 

348 



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LITERARY LOWELL 

record of his ever having revisited his birthplace. In later life he 
persistently denied that he was born in Lowell, claiming St. Peters- 
burg as his birthplace. 

Only at one brief period in its history has Lowell been what 
journalists call a "literary centre" — a place where a considerable 
number of writers ply their craft and are associated with each 
other professionally. The group of young women who contributed 
to the Lowell Offering between 1840 and 1850 began what under 
favoring circumstances might have grown into a distinctive "Lowell 
school of literature." Their little magazine found readers through- 
out the country. It was seriously reviewed in London and Edin- 
burgh. A bound volume of The Offering was shown by M. Thiers 
to the French chamber of deputies as an example of what working 
women may do for themselves in a republic. 

Lowell, for the rest, though many writers, professional and am- 
ateur, have lived from time to time within its confines, has never 
qualified as one of the New England towns which must be men- 
tioned in any and every survey of American literature. It has no 
such reputation as that of the former shire town a few miles up the 
Concord river, immortalized by the writings of Emerson, Thoreau, 
Hawthorne and the Alcotts. The Merrimack does not figure in 
literature as does the Charles. The printing and publishing indus- 
try, except for one large print shop whose specialty is commercial 
rather than literary, has not sought locations in Lowell; it has 
been largely centralized, so far as this part of New England is con- 
cerned, in Greater Boston. While there have been so-called liter- 
ary societies in Lowell as in nearly every community, these have not 
been associations of professional workers, such as compose the 
membership of the Boston Authors' Club. Except, in fact, in the 
era covered by The Offering, little material is offered for a narrative 
history of literary production in Lowell; one falls back, perforce, 
upon a list of individual and often isolated authors, few of them 
professional in the sense of giving their entire time to such work. 

The efflorescence of literature in New England in the middle 
nineteenth century— the so-called "golden age," which produced 
most of the now classic authors named in school text-books— nat- 
urally had offshoots in a manufacturing village situated only twen- 
ty-five miles from the "Hub of the Universe." This mental effer- 
vescence of the thirties and forties was of a sort to suffuse much of 
the writing of the period with personal emotion— in other words to 

349 



LITERARY LOWELL 

evoke literature. Lowell, with its population of well-born, alert 
Yankees, selected individuals from many communities, was in fa- 
vorable situation to generate a literary fervor of its own. 

The mill girls of the newly-incorporated city, as Airs. Robin- 
son has recalled in her "Loom and Spindle," were omnivorous read- 
ers. When they were not allowed to take books and magazines into 
the factory they brought newspaper clippings of poems and fine 
sentiments and would paste these on the window to be memorized 
during lulls in the work. At the boarding house they read the week- 
ly newspapers and discussed the propriety of the Mexican War and 
of further extensions of slave territory. Many of them were inter- 
ested in Fourier (1772-1837) and French communism; though the 
prevailing opinion was that his proposed "phalansteries," or com- 
munistic associations of 1,800 persons, would have in an intensified 
degree the defects of the existing factory system with which they 
were familiar. The progress and decline of the celebrated Brook 
Farm community, which ran for about six years beginning in 1843, 
was watched with much curiosity by Lowell operatives. Mrs. Ame- 
lia Bloomer, the New York dress reformer, found several converts 
among the wide-awake "girls" of the Lowell mills. According 
to the Lowell Journal, on July 4, 1850, local merriment was caused 
when a little group of bloomerites in costume joined the parade. A 
considerable following, also, was vouchsafed in Lowell for Pro- 
fessor Sylvester Graham, the first noted advocate in America of 
vegetarianism. In this era, too, "Prof. Fowler," the phrenologist, 
examined the crania of many young men and young women and told 
them unhesitatingly what careers they were adapted for. Mesmer- 
ism, that manifestation of the eternal gullible, had its many devotees 
in the corporation boarding houses. 

In this time of lively fads and isms, some fifty young women em- 
ployed in the factories proved that they could write well enough to 
draw surprised commendation from the solemn North American Re- 
view* 



♦Dickens had in mind the attitude of English readers of three-decker novels toward 
the lower classes of society when he notified his constituency that he had discovered 
in Lowell "three facts which will startle a large class of readers on this side of the 
Atlantic very much. Firstly, there is a joint stock piano in a great many of the board- 
ing houses. Secondly, nearly all these young ladies subscribe to circulating libraries. 
Thirdly, they have got up among themselves a periodical called Th-e Lowell Offering, 
'a repository of original articles, written exclusively by females actively employed in 
the mills,' — which is duly printed, published and sold ; and whereof I brought away from 
Lowell four hundred good solid pages, which I have read from beginning to end." 

350 



LITERARY LOWELL 

The publication of the celebrated magazine at Lowell was preced- 
ed by the formation of several groups of young persons for pur- 
poses of literary study. In 1839 Harriot F. Curtis conceived the 
idea of an "Improvement Circle," for development of literary tal- 
ent. The proposed group was formed. The original list of officers 
is forgotten, though it is known that Emmeline Larcom was secre- 
tary and that her sister Lucy was of the original members. The 
meetings must have been enjoyable, for the idea was copied, and 
by 1843 there were at least five "Improvement Circles" in various 
parts of the city. Two of these circles had been organized as 
promising aids to church work by the Rev. Abel C. Thomas and 
Rev. Thomas B. Thayer, pastors respectively of the First and Sec- 
ond Universalist churches. 

To Mr. Thomas belongs the credit of originating The Lowell Of- 
fering. When the Improvement Circle was started at his church, 
he found that it was difficult to get the young people to speak on 
the topics assigned for literary study and he accordingly introduced 
a plan of having them bring to the meeting written essays that were 
read aloud by their authors. Some of these papers seemed to him 
to be so remarkable that he arranged for publication of a selection 
in series of four pamphlets entitled "The Lowell Offering, a Re- 
pository of Original Articles by Females employed in the Mills," 
and issued between October, 1840, and March, 1841. Such a demand 
for copies of these pamphlets arose that the circle at the Universal- 
ist Church undertook the preparation of copy for a new review of 
thirty-two pages. This was published monthly until October, 1842, 
under Mr. Thomas' supervision. It was then taken over by Har- 
riot Curtis and Harriet Farley, who engaged William Schouler to 
publish it for them. The arrangement lasted a year and then the 
two young ladies became editors, publishers and proprietors. As- 
suming this responsibility, they issued the magazine until Decem- 
ber, 1845, when, upon the completion of the fifth volume, Miss Curtis 
retired and the magazine was temporarily suspended. In Septem- 
ber, 1847, it was reissued by Miss Farley under the style of The 
New England Offering. Only one number was then produced. In 
April, 1848, Miss Farley got a fresh start and continued publishing 
her magazine until March, 1850, when the publication was given up 
for ever. 

Within these ten years of more or less intermittent publication, 

35i 



LITERARY LOWELL 

the productions of about fifty mill girl writers gained a celebrity 
that was well deserved, even though it was not based entirely upon 
literary merit. The contributors, so far as known, were as follows : 
Sarah S. Bagley, Josephine L. Barker, Lucy Ann Baker, Caroline 
Bean, Adeline Bradley, Fidelia 0. Brown, M. Bryant, Alice Ann 
Carter, Joanna Carroll, Eliza J. Cate, Betsey Chamberlain, L. A. 
Choate, Kate Clapp, Louisa Currier, Maria Currier, Lura Currier, 
Harriot F. Curtis, Catherine Dodge, M. A. Dodge, Harriet Farley, 
Margaret F. Foley, A. M. Fosdick, Abby A. Goddard, M. R. Green, 
Lydia S. Hall, Jane B. Hamilton, Harriet Jane Hanson, Eliza Kice 
Holbrook, Eliza W. Jennings, Hannah Johnson, E. Kidder, Miss 
Lane, Emmeline Larcom, Lucy Larcom, L. E. Leavitt, Harriet Lees, 
Mary A. Leonard, Sarah E. Martin, Mary A. Leonard, Sarah E. 
Martin, Mary J. McAfee, E. D. Perver, E. S. Pope, Mary R. Rainey, 
Sarah Shedd, Ellen L. Smith, Laura Spaulding, Emmeline Sprague, 
S. W. Stewart, Laura Tay, Rebecca C. Thompson, Abby D. Turner, 
H. Whitney, A. E. Wilson, Jane S. Welch, Adeline H. Winship, Sa- 
bra Wright. Most of these young women, of course, were after- 
wards married and lost to fame, so far as literary achievements 
were concerned. A few of them, however, appear with published 
books to their credit in the list of publications by Lowell authors. 

So unusual a proceeding as the publication of a magazine by wo- 
men may have caused more or less adverse criticism in conservative 
homes of the city. When Miss Curtis and Miss Farley undertook 
the editorship they found it wise to secure a formal statement of 
approval of their enterprise from several of the leading men of the 
community. Those who signed this statement were Samuel Law- 
rence, Benjamin F. French, J. W 7 . Warren, William Butterfield, 
John Avery, Alexander W 7 right, John Wright, John Clarke, Homer 
Bartlett, W 7 illiam Schouler, Jacob Robbins, George Motley, William 
Spencer. At this time, so far as known, only three other women 
in the United States were doing editorial work. They were Cor- 
nelia Walter, of the Boston Transcript; Mrs. Green, who edited the 
Fall River Wampanoag, and Lydia Maria Child, of the Anti-Sla- 
very Standard. 

If the plan of issuing such a mill girls ' maagzine was highly orig- 
inal, the same adjective could hardly be applied to the contents of 
the periodical. As might be expected from young women who were 
as a rule more interested in the books they had read than in the 

352 



LITERARY LOWELL 

life that was lived around and about them, the literature which they 
produced was mainly derivative and imitative. The poetry savored 
of Mrs. Sigourney, Mrs. Hemans, Miss Landon, Mrs. Barbauld, 
Pope, Cowper and Hannah More. The prose was modeled after 
Addison, Goldsmith and Lydia Child. In technical quality, never- 
theless, The Offering averages up to the standard of the religious 
and literary journals of the period. Several of the contributors 
used the experience they gained from their own magazine to break 
into others, and while still writing for The Offering were seeing 
their poems and stories printed in Zion's Herald, The Christian 
Register, the Saturday Evening Gazette and other publications. 

That there was a good local reading public for such a magazine 
as The Offering is evident from one of the news articles in the mag- 
azine, descriptive of the daily life of the factory operatives. In an 
account of "Our Household,' signed "H. T.," the following signifi- 
cant data are given: 

In our house there are eleven boarders, and in all thirteen mem- 
bers of the family. I will class them according to their religious 
tenets as follows: Calvinist Baptist, Unitarian, Congregational, 
Catholic, Episcopalian, and Mormonite, one each; Universalist and 
Methodist, two each; Christian Baptist, three. They receive regu- 
larly fifteen newspapers and periodicals ; these are, the Boston 
Daily Times, the Herald of Freedom, the Signs of the Times, and 
the Christian Herald, two copies each; the Christian Register, Vox 
Populi, Literary Souvenir, Boston Pilot, "Young Catholic's Friend, 
Star of Bethlehem and the Lowell Offering, three copies each. We 
also borrow regularly the Non-Resident, the Liberator, the Lady's 
Book, the Ladies' Pearl and the Ladies' Companion. We have also 
in the house what cannot perhaps be found elsewhere in the city 
of Lowell, a Mormon Bible. 

In a town where average working women thus read avidly of the 
periodical literature of the day, it was not strange that some one 
felt the incentive to undertake a local magazine publication. The 
wonder, indeed, is that there were not several magazines. The 
Lowell Offering died from the financial trouble that has over- 
taken most of the countless periodical ventures of the past century 
and a half. Nothing runs into money faster than an unsuccessful 
magazine, and most of those that keep going never quite square up 
with their printers' bills. 

The editors and contributors of The Offering were scattered 

353 



LITERARY LOWELL 

after 1850, and Lowell never again had a group or school of literary 
workers in any way comparable with the coteries that have made 
Boston, Cambridge, Concord, Springfield, Hartford and Indianap- 
olis celebrated. Some details of the life history of those members 
of the school who later did professional work are given in the list of 
Lowell authors on following pages. It may also be noted that Miss 
Foley became rather a well-known sculptor of the same era and 
genre as the late Harriet Hosmer. A majority of the contributors 
were, of course, only amateurs to whom writing was an agreeable 
diversion. 

The subjoined list of authors sometime resident of Lowell, and 
of their principal publications, is based, with some additions sup- 
plied from the card catalogues of the Boston and Harvard College 
libraries and from the national and New England editions of 
1 'Who's Who," on the admirable compilation prepared for the 
Lowell Board of Trade's 1916 booklet by Frederick A. Chase, 
librarian of the city of Lowell. Brief biographical data concerning 
several of the authors have been supplied : 

Abbott, Katharine M.— "Old Paths and Legends of the New Eng- 
land Border" (1907). "Old Paths and Legends of New England" 
(1903). "Trolley Trips on a Bay State Triangle for Sixty Sunny 
Days" (189/). A daughter of Hon. James M. Abbott, who was 
among the first in New England to discover the delightfulness of 
trolley tripping. 

Ames, Blanche Butler-" The Butler Family." 

Aver, Frederick Fanning— "Bell and Wing" (1911). "Josephine 
Mellen Aver, a Memoir" (1900). Mr. Ayer's many benefactions to 
the city of Lowell, in which he was born, September 12, 1851, have 
been described elsewhere in this history. He was admitted to the 
Massachusetts bar in 1875, and since the death of his father, Dr. 
James Cook Ayer, he has given most of his time to management 
of the extensive Aver interests. His home for some years past has 
been at 5 West 57th street, New York City. 

Ball, Benjamin R.— "Government of the State of Massachu- 
setts" (1885). 

Ball, Benjamin West— "The Merrimack River, Hellenics and Oth- 
er Poems." Edited with an introduction by Frederick Fanning 
Ayer. (1892). "Elfin Land" (1851). > Mr. Ball was born at Con- 
cord, Mass., Jan. 27, 1823. He was prepared at Lawrence Academy 
for Dartmouth College, from which he was graduated in 1842. He 
read law with John P. Robinson, at Lowell. In 1856 he became edi- 
tor of the Courier. In person and postures he was very much 

354 



LITERARY LOWELL 

of the picturesque Bohemian during his Lowell residence. He is 
remembered by Judge Hadley, who, on one occasion, had to use his 
good offices to keep Ball out of the lock-up when he had been found 
in an inebriated condition in a Lowell coal cellar. He was well 
liked as a man, and had not a little of the divine afflatus. His wife 
was a Rochester, New Hampshire, woman, and at her ancestral 
home he spent the latter part of his life among his books and man- 
uscripts. 

Barnes, Emily R. — "Narratives, etc., of the Bellows Family" 
(1888). ' 

Bartlett, Elisha — "A Vindication of the Character and Condition 
of the Females Employed in the Lowell Mills" (1S41). "An Essay 
on the Philosophy of Medical Science" (1844). 

Bass, Cora C. (Hester Vane)— "Songs for All Seasons and Oth- 
er Poems" (3901). Poems (1899). 

Batchelor, Rev. George — "Social Equilibrium and Other Prob- 
lems, Ethical and Religious" (1887). This distinguished Unitarian 
clergyman, editor and author was born at Southbury, Conn., in 
1836. He received degrees from the Meadville Theological Sem- 
inary, Harvard College and the Harvard Divinity School. From 
his ordination in 1806 until 1S82 he preached in Salem. After a 
three years pastorate at Chicago he came to the First Unitarian 
Church, Lowell, serving until 1893, when he was elected secretary 
of the American Unitarian Association. In 1897 he became editor 
of the Christian Register, a position held until 1911, when he was 
made editor emeritus. Mr. Batchelor has been one of the most vig- 
orous writers in the field of religious journalism, representing the 
conservative element in the Unitarian denomination. 

Burnap, Rev. Uzziah Cicero — "Lectures on the Seventh Com- 
mandment, Delivered in the Citv of Lowell, December, 1837" (1838). 
"The Youth's Etherial Director" (1822). 

Butler, General Benjamin Franklin -"Butler's Book" (1892). 

Caverly, Robert Boodey — "King Philip," "Miantonomi," and 
"Chocorua in the Mountains," historical dramas (1884). "Geneal- 
ogv of the Caverly Family" (1880). "Annals of the Boodevs in 
New England" (1880). "Heroism of Hannah Duston" (1875). 
"Poems" (1871-72). "History of Barnstead, N. H.," begun by 
Jeremiah R. Jewett and finished by Mr. Caverly (1872). "An Epic 
Poem, The Merrimac and Its Incidents)" (1866). Mr. Caverly, 
for many years a sort of "poet laureate" of Lowell, was born at 
Barrington, N. H., July 19, 1806. As a very young man he earned 
the title of colonel in the New Hampshire militia. He attended the 
Harvard Law School, and practiced for six years in Maine, after 
which he settled in Lowell. The record of his busy life as a lawyer 
is recorded in published reports of the Massachusetts, New Hamp- 
shire and Maine courts and of the Supreme Court of the United 
States. His literary labors, some of which he published at his own 

355 



>_?< 



LITERARY LOWELL 

expense, were produced in the evening at his residence in Central- 
ville. He was a painstaking' worker in the field of historical re- 
search, a fluent but not inspired versifier. 

Chambre, Rev. A. St. John — ''Sermons on the Apostles' Creed" 
(1898). Rev. Dr. Chambre, who became rector of St. Anne's Church 
in 1884, had a delicate and graceful literary style as shown in this 
volume of sermons and in his many addresses and special reports. 

Chase, C. C — "Lowell," in "History of Middlesex County" 
(1890). Mr. Chase was born at Haverhill, June 19, 1818, in a house 
situated not far from the birthplace of the poet Whittier, who was 
one of his lifelong friends. Entering Dartmouth College, he was 
graduated with highest honors in 1839. In 1845 he came to Lowell 
as principal of the high school, and here the remainder of his long 
and useful life was passed. 

Coburn, Silas R. — "Genealogy of the Descendants of Edward 
Colburn (Coburn)," co-author with George A. Gordon (1913). 
"Across the Ferry" (1886). Mr. Coburn was born in 1848, a son 
of Captain Gilbert Coburn, of Pelham. As an avocation he has de- 
voted much time to historical and genealogical work. 

Coburn, Frederick William— "The American Business Encyclo- 
paedia" (1912). Mr. Coburn was born at Nashua, X. H., Aug. 6, 
1870, a son of Frank and Susan (Whitney) Coburn, both for many 
years resident at Lowell. He was graduated from the Lowell High 
School with a Carney medal in 1888; from Harvard College in 
1891. While teaching at Washington and New York, 1891-1901, he 
studied at the Art Students' Leagues of both cities, having as prin- 
cipal instructors at Washington, Harold McDonald and E. C. Mes- 
ser; at New York, Douglas Volk, George DeForest Brush and Ken- 
yon Cox. Since 1902 he has done general literary work, and occa- 
sional illustrating at Boston. He has contributed to many Ameri- 
can and English magazines.* 

Coburn, Mrs. Fordvce (Eleanor Hallowell Abbott)— "The Indis- 
creet Letter" (1915). "Little Eve Edgarton" (1914). "The White 
Linen Nurse" (1913). "Molly Makebelieve" (1911). "The Sick- 
a-Bed Lady" (1911). Mrs. Coburn, a granddaughter of Jacob Ab- 
bott, whose "Rollo" books interested young people of the middle 
nineteenth century, and a daughter of Rev. Edward Abbott, author 
as well as clergyman, has inherited a literary talent which finds ex- 
pression in subtle and exquisitely constructed fiction. Since her 
marriage to Dr. Fordvce Coburn she has lived in Lowell winters, 
and summers at Wilton, where many of her best stories have been 
written. 

Colburn, Warren — "Intellectual Arithmetic" (1863). The above 
is only one of the almost numberless editions through which "Col- 

*Mr. Coburn's last piece of work is his excellent "History of Lowell," from which 
these pages are taken. His narrative is delightfully original, in his masterly command 
"of language, in almost conversational style. 

356 



LITERARY LOWELL 

burn's Arithmetic" went — a book with an international vogue dur- 
ing several decades. Its author, born in 1793, was, as brought out 
in volume one, one of the founders of the town of Lowell. He died 
in 1831. To hira and to his co-worker, Dr. Edson, was due the mod- 
ern and effective public school system which the town of Lowell 
adopted. 

Colby, John Stark-" Agatha : a Romance of Maine" (1880). The 
alert and aggressive editor of the Vox Populi, who about 1890 left 
Lowell to. study for the ministry, wielded a trenchant pen which, 
but for the exacting duties of journalism, might have made copy 
for more books than the single one credited to him. 

Coughlin, William J.-" Songs of an Idle Hour" (1883). The 
author was a scholarly bookseller, whose shop is well remembered 
by older Lowell people. 

Cowley, Charles — "Leaves from a Lawver's Life, Afloat and 
Ashore" (1879). "Famous Divorces of All Ages" (1878). "Il- 
lustrated History of Lowell" (1868). "Memoirs of the Indians 
and Pioneers of the Region of Lowell" (1862). Judge Cowley as 
historian, lawyer and patriot, may fairly be called the Herodotos of 
Lowell. 

Crosby, Nathan— "Eulogy on Tappan Wentworth" (1877). "A 
Crosby Family" (1877). "'First Half Century of Dartmouth Col- 
lege" (1876). Judge Crosby's loyalty to Dartmouth, from which 
he was graduated in 1820, led to his undertaking the important his- 
torical studv listed above. 

Curtis, Harriot F.-"Jessie's Flirtations" (1816). "Kate in 
Search of a Husband." Miss Curtis was associated with Harriet 
Farley as editor and publisher of The Lowell Offering. She ap- 
pears to have been the moving spirit (in these days she would have 
been called the general manager) of the celebrated enterprise. She 
was born at Kellyvale (now Lowell), Vermont, Sept. 16, 1813. She 
came to Lowell with the idea of earning money for an education. As 
an operative she was a skilled harness dresser on the Lawrence Cor- 
poration. The cacoethes scribendi was strong in her. Her "Kate 
in Search of a Husband" was one of the earliest of a somewhat 
sentimental type of novel which later became very familiar. As ed- 
itor of the little magazine she became acquainted with many of the 
foremost literary people of the time. She remained in Lowell for a 
few years after the discontinuance of The Offering, and for a time 
she wrote rather extensively for magazines and newspapers. Then 
she returned to Vermont to care for an aged and blind mother and 
gradually lost the zest of production. Other family cares of the 
same sort developed and the rest of her life was passed in keeping 
house for invalid relatives. She died at Needham in 1889. 

Devereaux, Anna W.— "The Lowell System of Kindergarten De- 
signing." This is a work by the former principal of the Lowell 
Training School for Teachers. 

357 



LITERARY LOWELL 

Eddy, Daniel C— "The Percy Family" (1859). "The Young 
Man's Friend" (1854). "Europa" (1852). "Letters to Young 
Ladies" (1848). This Baptist clergyman, who was settled in Low- 
ell between 1848 and 1856, returned to the city to read a most inter- 
esting historical retrospect at the fiftieth anniversary exercises of 
the First Baptist Church. 

Eastman, Mary F. — "Biography of Dr. Lewis" (1901). 

Eaton, Joseph Giles— "The Chesapeake and the Shannon" 
(1901). "Notes on Steel Inspection of Structural and Boiler Ma- 
terial" (1873). Admiral Eaton, born at Greenville, Ala., 1847, son 
of William Pitt and Sarah Farwell (Brazer) Eaton, was educated 
at the Lockport, N. Y., Union Academy, Worcester Military Acad- 
emy, and at the United States Naval Academy, Annapolis. In 
1871 he married Mary xVnne Varnum, of Dracut. He rose by succes- 
sive steps in the navy and received medals for conduct in the battles 
of Manzanillo and Santiago, war of 1898. The circumstances of his 
" death a few years ago caused much newspaper publicity to be given 
to his personal affairs. 

Edson, Elizabeth M.— "Plain Questions on the Collects, Epistles 
and Gospels of the Christian Year." 

Edson, Rev. Dr. Theodore— "Sermons" (1891). "Memoir of 
Warren Colburn" (1856). "Christian Nurture and Admonition" 
(1847). Dr. Edson (1793-1883) was so prominent a figure in the 
early and middle periods of Lowell history that special character- 
ization of his services is not needed here. 

Egan, Patrick— "A Circlet of Memories" (1888). An attorney, 
with a delicate poetic gift, whose untimely decease was regretted by 
a wide circle of friends and acquaintances. 

Emery, Enoch— "Myself— a Romance of New England Life" 
(1872). The author w T as a brother of Major Henry Emery, the 
well-known Lowell hotel man. He was born at Canterbury, N. It., 
Aug. 31, 1822. As a young man he served as clerk in his brother's 
hotel and in 1851 as a member of the firm of Keach, Emery &• Co., 
he founded the Lowell Daihi News, A short time afterwards he 
started the Daily Morning Herald, which was shortlived. In 1854 
he went to Peoria, 111., where he was for many years editor of the 
Transcript, still a leading paper of that community. He died at 
Peoria, May 30, 1881. 

Farley, Harriet-" Fancy's Frolics" (1880). "Shells from the 
Strand of the Sea of Genius" (1847). "Operatives' Reply to Hon. 
Jere Clemens" (1856). Miss Farley was one of the editors and 
publishers of the Lowell Offering. She was born at Amesbury, a 
daughter of Rev. Stephen Farle5', a Unitarian clergyman. She 
came to Lowell to earn money to help a brother through Harvard. 
She later married Mr. Dunlevy, an inventor, and lived in New York. 

Francis, James Bicheno— "Prevention of Floods in the Valley 

358 



LITERARY LOWELL 

of Stony Brook" (1886). "Lowell Hydraulic Experiments" (1883). 
"On the Strength of Cast Iron Pillars" (1883). The distinguished 
engineer whose studies brought international celebrity to the Low- 
ell hydraulic system confined his writing to technical subjects. His 
"Lowell Hydraulic Experiments" is still a classic of hydraulic en- 
gineering. 

Garity, Mrs. George E. (Elizabeth Walker) -"Real Letters of a 
Real Girl" (1909). She graduated from the Lowell High School. 
While her husband, Captain George E. Garity, was stationed in the 
Philippines, she wrote home to her friend Miss Elizabeth Butler 
Hadley the letters which were subsequently published in book form. 

Greene, R-ev. Dr. John Morton— "Genealogy of the Family of 
Timothy and Eunice Greene" (1904). "Looking on the Bright 
Side (1901). "Happy Wedlock" (1900). "The Blessed Dead" 
(1888). Dr. Greene, often called "the father of Smith College," 
occupied the pulpit of the Eliot Congregational Church from 1870 
to 1900, when he was made pastor emeritus. 

Griffin, Sara Swan-"Quaint Bits of Lowell History" (1913). 
Mrs. Griffin was for some years a Lowell teacher. After her mar- 
riage she gave much time and attention to historical research, for 
which she has marked aptitude. She has lectured extensively upon 
historical subjects. Her book on old Lowell has especially valuable 
chapters on the Acadians at Chelmsford, on Colonel Lewis Ansart, 
Marquis de Marasquelles, and on old houses of the neighborhood. 

Hadley, Samuel Page— "Genealogy of the Hadley Family." 
Judge Hadley made many contributions to the literature of the 
Lowell Historical Society. 

Haggett, Mrs. Frank-" Snow Hill Girls." 

Hanks, Rev. S. W.-" Black Valley Railroad and the Country." 
Pastor of John Street Congregational Church for twelve years, his 
ministry terminating in 1852. For many years after leaving Low- 
ell, he was secretary of the Seaman's Friend Society in Boston. 

Hanscom, Elizabeth Deering — "The Friendly Craft, A Collection 
of American Letters" (1908). "Lamb's Essays; a Biographical 
Study" (1905). "The Argument of the Vision of Piers Plough- 
man." Miss Hanscom, daughter of George A. and Lizzie (Deering) 
Hanscom, was born at Saco, Maine, and educated in the public 
schools of Manchester and Low 7 ell. She w r as graduated in 1887 from 
Boston University, and then for three years did newspaper work in 
Boston. In 1890 she entered the graduate school of Yale University, 
from which she received her A. M. in 1892, and Ph. D. in 1894. Since 
1894 she has taught continuously at Smith College, where she was 
made full professor in 1905. 

Harrington, Thomas F., M. D. — "The Harvard Medical School" 
(1905). Dr Harrington, one of the foremost medical men of Massa- 
chusetts, was born at Lowell in 1866. He was graduated from the 
Lowell High School in 1885, having been major of the battalion in 

359 



LITERARY LOWELL 

his senior year. He was graduated from the Harvard Medical 
School in 1888, and he later studied at Dublin and in Vienna. He 
practiced medicine in Lowell from 1889 to 1907, when he was elected 
medical director of the Boston public schools. Later he became sec- 
retary of the State Board of Health. Dr. Harrington was originator 
of the ''Health Day" plan which has met wide approval throughout 
the United States. He has been a delegate at various medical con- 
gresses in this country and abroad. While a resident of Lowell he 
originated the plan, now generally followed everywhere, of flushing 
the streets in the tenement districts on very warm days. His history 
of the medical school of which he is an alumnus has been highly com- 
mended, and his various special reports and addresses are models of 
clear, concise writing. 

Haywood, William Mills— "History of Hancock, N. H." (1889). 
The author was a Universalist minister, born at Hancock in 1834 and 
graduated from the Tufts Divinity School in 1877. 

Hedrick, Charles C— "Cotton Spinning" (1909). 

Hedrick, Mary A.— "Incidents of the Civil War" (1888). 

Hill, Mabel — Civics for New Americans" (1915). "A Course in 
Citizenship" (1914). "Lessons for Junior Citizens" (1906). "Lib- 
erty Documents ' ' ( 1901 ) . Miss Hill, a daughter of Paul and Belinda 
(Hadley) Hill, was educated at Bradford Academy and Radcliffe 
College. Between 1897 and 1912 she was instructor in history at the 
State Normal School, Lowell. In the latter year she became dean of 
the graduate department of Dana Hall School, Wellesley, and later 
associate director of the Garland School of Home Making, Boston. 

Hodgman, Arthur Winfred — "The Versification of Latin Metrical 
Inscriptions" (1897). Prof. Hodgman was graduated from the Low- 
ell High School in 1886, and from Harvard College, with honors in 
the classics, in 1890. His life has been devoted to university teach- 
ing and intensive scholarship. 

Hodgman, Edwin R.— "History of the Town of Westford" 
(1883). _ 

Huntington, William Reed — "Sonnets and a Dream" (1899). 
"Four Key W T ords of Religion" (1890). "Psvche, a Study of the 
Soul" (1899). "A National Church" (1898). "The Spiritual 
House" (1S95). "Short Historv of the Book of Common Prayer" 
(1893). "The Peace of the Church" (1891). "The Causes of the 
Soul" (1891). "Popular Misconceptions of the Episcopal Church" 
(1891). "Conditional Mortality" (1878). "The Church Idea" 
(1870). Dr. Huntington, for many years rector of Grace Church, 
New York City, was a son of Dr. Elisha Huntington, after whom 
Huntington Hall was named. He was born in Lowell, September 20, 
1838, and was graduated from Harvard College in 1859. He became 
a deacon of the Protestant Episcopal Church in 1861 ; a priest in 
1862. From 1862 to 1S83 he was rector of All Saints' Church, Wor- 

360 



LITERARY LOWELL 

cester. In the latter year he was called to be rector of Grace Church 
in the metropolis. He married Theresa, daughter of Dr. Edward 
Reynolds, of Boston, a niece of Wendell Phillips. 

Irish, Cyrus W. — " Qualitative Analysis for Secondary Schools" 
(1894). The exacting supervisory duties of the late principal of the 
Lowell High School prevented him from undertaking scientific stud- 
ies which he would have liked to make. Mr. Irish was born at Buck- 
field, Me., Aug. 27, 1S62. Coming to Lowell through his older broth- 
er, Dr. John C. Irish, he was graduated from the high school in 1881 
and from Harvard College in 1885. He was elected first principal of 
the Pawtucket Grammar School in 1885. Two years later he entered 
the high school as teacher of chemistry, and remained in its service 
as instructor and principal down to his death in the summer of 1917. 

Johnson, Allen — "Readings in American Constitutional History" 
(1912). "Union and Democracv" (1912). "Report on the Archives 
of the State of Maine" (1910*). "Stephen A. Douglas" (1908). 
"The Intendent under Louis XIV" (1899). Prof. Johnson, now of 
the Department of History, Yale University, was born in Lowell, 
Jan. 29, 1870, a son of Moses Allen and Emma (Shattuck) Johnson. 
He was graduated from the Lowell High School in 1888, and 
from Amherst College in 1892. He received his A. M. degree from 
Amherst in 1895. The years 1895-97 were spent at the University of 
Leipzig, Germany; in 1897-98 he was at l'Ecole des Sciences Poli- 
tiques, Paris. In 1899 he received his degree of Ph. D. from Colum- 
bia University. He was professor of history at Grinnell College, 
Iowa, 1898-1905, and at Bowdoin College, Brunswick, Maine, 1905- 
10. In the latter year he was called to Yale. Mr. Johnson is one of 
the ablest and most progressive of university students of American 
history. 

Kenngott. George F.— "The Record of a City; a Social Survey of 
Lowell, Massachusetts" (1912). The author of a much discussed in- 
tensive study of Lowell was born at Pittsburgh, Penn., Feb. 8, 1862, 
of German and Scottish ancestry. He was graduated with honors 
from the Pittsburgh Central High School in 1882, and from Amherst 
College in 1886. He attended the Andover Theological School for 
three years. In October, 1889, he became pastor of a church at New- 
port, N. H. In September, 1892, he was installed at the First Con- 
gregational Church, Lowell. The troubles of his pastorate, which 
resulted in the formation of a separate church with Mr. Kenngott as 
minister, need only be referred to. The "Survey," which was pub- 
lished by the Macmillan Company, was undertaken to satisfy the re- 
quirements of a Harvard Ph. D. degree, which Mr. Kenngott won in 
the social ethics department. He moved in 1916 to Los Angeles, Cal- 
ifornia. 

King, Charles Francis — "Advanced Geography" (1913). "Ele- 
mentary Geography" (1909). "Roundabout Rambles in Northern 

361 



LITERARY LOWELL 

Europe" (1908). "Methods and Aids in Geography" (1889). Mr. 
King was born at Wilton, N. II., and was graduated from Dartmouth 
College in 1867. He married Elizabeth Boardman, of Lowell. From 
18S7 to 1913 he was principal of the Dearborn School, Boston, in 
which latter year he was retired. 

Larcom, Lucy— " Poetical Works." "Landscape in American 
Poetry;" "An Idyl of Work;" "At the Beautiful Gate;" "A New 
England Girlhood;" "Childhood Songs;" "The Unseen Friend;" 
"As it is in Heaven;" "Wild Eoses of Cape Ann." Miss Larcom, 
it hardly need be said, was the most famous of the group of writers 
who began their work by contributing to the Lowell Offering, 

Le Hoine, Sir James McPherson — "Maple Leaves" (1891). "The 
Explorations of Jonathan Oldbuck in Eastern Labrador" (1887). 
"Tourists' Notebook; Quebec" (1890). The author was a member 
of the Royal Society of Canada from its foundation, and to its publi- 
cations he made many scientific contributions which are summed up 
in "La Bibliographie de Sir James M. LeMorne." Par Raoul Re- 
nault. Quebec: Leger Brousseau. 1897. 

Little, William— "History of Weare, N. H." 

Livermore, Abiel Abbott and Sewall Putnam — "History of Wil- 
ton, N. H. 

Lilley, Charles Sumner — "What is the Monroe Doctrine" (1905). 
Judge Lilley was born at Lowell in 1851, and admitted to the bar in 
1877. 

Locke, Mrs. Jane Ermina— "Miscellaneous Poems" (1842). 

MacBrayne, Lewis E.— "The Men We Marry (1910). Co-author 
with James P. Ramsay, "One More Chance" (1916). Mr. Mac- 
Brayne was born at New Britain, Conn., in 1871. He was graduated 
from the Lowell High School in 1890, and studied for a time in Eu- 
rope. He was a news writer and editor on the staffs of the Lowell 
Citizen, Courier and Courier-Citizen for more than a quarter cen- 
tury, resigning in 1918 to become director of war gardens for New 
York State. In addition to the two books mentioned he has contrib- 
uted articles to most of the leading American magazines and has 
written a play, "An Engaging Position." 

Marden, Philip Sanford— "Egyptian Days" (1912). "Travels in 
Spain" (1909). "Greece and the Aegean Islands" (1907). The 
author of these travel books was born in Lowell in 1874, educated at 
the Lowell High School, and Dartmouth College, from which he was 
graduated in 1891, and the Harvard Law School, from which he re- 
ceived his LL. B. degree in 1898. He became managing editor of the 
Courier-Citizen in 1902, and after the death of his father, the Hon. 
George A. Marden, was chosen president of the Courier-Citizen 
Company in 1907. The first of his published books appeared in the 
form of letters from Greece in the "C-C," and attracted so much 
favorable comment that Mr. Marden was induced to embody the ser- 

362 



LITERARY LOWELL 

ies in book-form. The success of the book was immediate and led to 
a demand for more volumes of the same sort. 

Miles, Henry Adolphus — "Traces of Picture Writing in the Bi- 
ble" (18T0). "William Ellery Charming: a Selection from his 
Works" (1855). "The Gospel Narratives" (1848). "Lowell as It 
was and as It is" (1845). This celebrated Unitarian divine was pas- 
tor of the South Congregational Society (Unitarian) from 1836 to 
1853, when he resigned to become secretary of the American Unitar- 
ian Association. 

Miner, Alonzo Ames — "Bible Exercises" (1884). This Boston 
clergyman was settled at the Second Universalis! Church, Lowell, 
1842-48. He was born in 1814, and died in 1895. 

Morrison, William A. — "Practical Engineer and Mechanics' 
Guide" ( 1884). 

Morey, Charles W. — "Morey Arithmetics." The well loved late 
principal of the Highland Grammar School, whose portrait painted 
by Mrs. Wood now hangs at the school. 

Nesmith, Joseph Aaron— "The Lazy Clouds" (1916). 

Nesmith, James Ernest — "Philoctetes and Other Poems and Son- 
nets" (1894). "Frederic Thomas Greenhalge" (1897). "Monad- 
nock and Other Sketches in Verse" (1888). 

Both the foregoing sons of John Nesmith have shown literary as 
well as artistic ability. The untimely death of James Ernest Ne- 
smith cut off a career of much promise. Joseph E. Nesmith is better 
known as a painter and as president of the Lowell Art Association 
than as writer. Both brothers were graduated from Harvard Col- 
lege. 

O 'Council, William, Cardinal— "Sermons and Addresses," four 
volumes (1911-15). The pride which Lowell people take in Cardinal 
O 'Council has been attested in the naming of the Cardinal 'Council 
Parkway, and in many other ways. His published sermons bear wit- 
ness to his command of vigorous, eloquent English, which was nota- 
ble even in his boyhood in Lowell public schools. 

O'Crolv, Ita (Margaret) Hutchinson — "Eastern Echoes with 
Western "ideas" (1892). 

Osgood, William Nelson — "Law Points for Business Men" 
(1908). This well-known attorney and publicist was born at Lowell 
in 1855, graduated from Amherst College in 1878, and admitted to 
the bar in 1880. Since 1885 he has had a law office in Boston, though 
retaining his residence in Lowell. 

Parker, Maria Hildreth— "The Country Home" (1894). "Hal- 
worth Hill," a novel. "Stories for Children," a Christmas Book. 
"Stray Thoughts or Poems" (1885). "Poems and Stories" (1876). 

Parker, Moses Greeley, M. D. — "Photo-Micrography" (1888). 
Dr. Parker, in addition to his scientific achievements, which have 
elsewhere been described, wrote extensively on subjcts in which he 
was interested. 

363 



LITERARY LOWELL 

Ecadc, Brig. Gen. Philip — "Dedicatory Exercises at the Massa- 
chusetts Military Monument, Valley Forge, Pa." (1912). "History 
of the Military Canteen" (1912). "Origin and Genealogy of the 
Hildreth Family, Lowell" (1892). Gen. Reade was born at Lowell, 
Oct. 13, 1844. He studied at the United States Military Academy, 
West Point, 1864-67. In 1901, after a career of marked competence, 
he was honorably discharged from volunteer service. He was re- 
lieved by operation of the law in October, 1908. He had then had 
forty-four years in the military service, including Indian wars, the 
Civil War, the Spanish-American War in Cuba, the Aguinaldo In- 
surrection. His writings reflect a lifelong interest in military, pa- 
triotic and genealogical matters. 

Reed, Fanny — "Reminiscences" (1903). She lived for many 
years in Paris, though the Lowell residence was kept open. Her 
"Reminiscences" were of some of the foremost nineteenth century 
figures. 

Rice, Laura A.-" Sunshine and Shade" (1879). 

Rice, Lepine Hall— "Digest of the Decisions of Law and Practice 
in the Patent Office from 1869 to 1900" (1900). 

Richardson, William Adams — "Rules of the Court of Claims and 
of the Supreme Court Relating to Appeals" (1895). "History, 
Jurisdiction and Practice of the United States Court of Claims" 
(1882). "Practical Information concerning the Public Debt of the 
United States" (1872). "The Banking Laws of Massachusetts" 
(1855). 

Robinson, Harriet Hanson— "Loom and Spindle" (1898). "Early 
Factory Labor in New England" (1883). Harriet Hanson Robin- 
son, one of the most famous contributors to The Lowell Offering, 
was born in Boston, Feb. 8, 1825. Her widowed mother came to 
Lowell in 1832 and took a boarding' house on the Tremont and Suf- 
folk Corporation. Harriet was educated at the old North Gram- 
mar School, and had some months at the high school. At fifteen 
she became self-supporting by going into the mill. Through her 
mother's Universalist connections, she was one of the early con- 
tributors to The Offering. She also wrote sketches for the news- 
papers. One of these, submitted to William S. Robinson, then a 
Lowell editor, led to an acquaintance and subsequent marriage. In 
later life Mrs. Robinson was one of the pioneers of the woman 
suffrage movement. She was one of the founders of the General 
Federation of Women's Clubs in 1890. Her home for many years 
was at Maiden. 

Russell, James H. — "Rational Arithmetic" (1843). Mr. Russell, 
who died at his home in Nesmith street, Jan. 14, 1903, at the ad- 
vanced age of ninety-six, was for forty-four years a teacher in the 
Lowell High School. He came to the then town of Lowell in 1835 
as an instructor in mathematics. 

Shaw, Ralph H.-"The First Plymouth Marriage" (1907). "Leg- 

364 



LITERARY LOWELL 

end of the Trailing Arbutus and Other Poems" (1898). "In Many 
Moods" (1889). This son of Benjamin Franklin Shaw, inventor of 
the seamless hose, has from boyhood been a resident of Lowell and 
a contributor of graceful verse to many publications. 

Stowell, Charles Henry, M. D. — "Student's Manual of Histolo- 
gy." "Microscopical Diagnosis." "The Structure of Teeth." "A 
Healthy Body. " "A Primer of Health. " " How to Teach Physiol- 
ogy. " Dr. Stowell, one of the most celebrated of the considerable 
number of scientific men who have lived in Lowell, is at this writing 
(1917) general manager and treasurer of the J. 0. Ayer Company. 
He was born at Perry, N. Y., Oct. 27, 1850. His early training was 
at the Genessee Wesleyan Seminary and the University of Michi- 
gan, from which he received his M. D. degree in 1872. He was in 
the service of his alma mater as instructor, assistant professor and 
professor between 1877 and 18S9. Dr. Stowell is editor of five 
monthly journals: Trained Motherhood, Food, Practical Review, 
The Microscope and The National Medical Revieiv. 

Street, Owen, D. D.— "The Dream and the Awakening" (1887). 
Dr. Street was the beloved pastor of High Street Congregational 
Church from 1857 until his death in 1887. 

Talbot, Anne Richardson— "The Garden of Life and Other 
Poems" (1913). 

Thayer, Wildie — "Flower Fancies from Fairy Land" (1911). 
"Carbon" (1903). "Violilla" (1898). "Morning Glory" (1897). 
"First Poems" (1895). 

Thorndike, Ashlev Horace-" Evervday English" (1913). "Ele- 
ments of Rhetoric and Composition" (1909). "Tragedy" (1908). 
"Influence of Beaumont and Fletcher on Shakespeare" (1901). 

Thorndike, Edward Lee— "Animal Intelligence" (1901). "Prin- 
ciples of Teaching" (1905). "Elements of Psychology" (1905). 
Mental and Social Measurements" (1904). 

The brothers Thorndike, both professors at Columbia University, 
New York City, were born in, respectively, 1871 and 1874. Their 
father, the Rev. Edward R. Thorndike, a Methodist clergyman, was 
settled in Lowell, 1884-1887, after which he was called to Roxbury. 
Both sons started their college preparatory work at the Lowell High 
School. Professor Ashley Thorndike was graduated from Wes- 
leyan University in 1893, and was awarded his Ph.D. at Harvard in 
1898. He is one of the leading Shakespearian scholars of the world. 
Prof. Edward L. Thorndike was graduated from Wesleyan in 1895 
and took his Ph.D. from Columbia in 1898. His studies in animal 
psychology are internationallv famous. 

Umpleby, Fenwick— "Design Texts" (1910). 

Varnum, Atkinson C. — "History of Pawtucket Church and So- 
ciety" (1888). Published pamphlets and papers entitled: "Shays' 
Rebellion," "Bnrgoyne's Surrender," "The Old Garrison House," 
"Life of General James M. Varnum," "Life of Colonel Louis An- 

365 



LITERARY LOWELL 

6art," "The Coburn Family," "Young Men's Lyceum," "Temper- 
ance in Massachusetts," "Ordinations, Huskings and Raisings," 
"Old Middlesex Canal," "Navigation on the Merrimack." 

Walker, Benjamin— "Aboard and Abroad" (1889). Benjamin 
Walker was born at Wilmington, June 24, 1822. His school train- 
ing was at the Pinkerton Academy, Berry, N. H., and the Lowell 
High School. He had intended to study law, but the death of his 
father caused his going into business. He entered the book publish- 
ing company at Philadelphia. His skill in penmanship led to his 
being chosen teacher of handwriting in Lowell schools in 1847. 
Three years later he became paymaster of the Hamilton Company. 
In 1862 he entered the employ of the J. C. Ayer Company as cor- 
respondence clerk, a position which he held until his death in No- 
vember, 1896. He was a director in several important commercial 
enterprises, a member of the original executive committee of the 
Old Residents' Historical Association in 1868, one of the originators 
of/ the Lowell Choral Society, and its president for ten years; a 
competent musician, and organist of St. Anne 's Church for twenty- 
six years. Besides his one book he published several musical com- 
positions. 

Webster, Prentiss— "Law of Naturalization in the L T . S. of Amer- 
ica and of Other Countries" (1895). "Acquisition of Citizenship 
and Application of the Rule to the Case of Chin King" (1889). Ed- 
itor of "The Story of the City Hall Commission" (1894). Bio- 
graphical details concerning Mr. Webster have been given in the 
narrative of the installation of the Lowell City Hall and Memorial 
Building, of whose commission he was secretarv. 

Ward, Anna Maria Webster-" Verses" (1906). "Sketch of the 
Tweed Family of Wilmington, Mass." (1898). 

Whitaker, Channing— "Machine Drawing and Allied Subjects. A 
Lowell Course of 12 Lectures." Boston. 1883. 

Wright, Carolyn (Quincy Germaine)-"The Even Hand" (1912). 
Prof. Whitaker, whose title was due to his holding for some years 
a professorship at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, set- 
tled in Lowell as a mill engineer. His professional practice was 
extensive. He had an important part in the establishment of free 
evening drawing classes at which hundreds of young men and wo- 
men have learned the elements of drafting. Living in the latter 
years of his life at Tyngsboro, he was very active in efforts to en- 
force temperance laws. 

Whistler, James Abbott McNeil-" The Gentle Art of Making 
Enemies." 



366 






'''''"' " • ...._-.- _ <ZF!*m 



-3 















i 



aa5aEiJ ^ i "-'"~ ; - * &*&ffiS — ---.—.^.--i-^^^^^.^.^wjw^ 







Hill and Allied Families 

Arms — Sable a fesse argent between three leopards passant or, spotted sable. The 
fesse is charged with three escallops gules. 

Supporters — Dexter a leopard gules, spotted or, ducally collared or. sinister, a stag, 
azure, attir.ed gules. 

Crest — A stag's head and neck, azure; attired gules, on a wreath, over a ducal 
coronet. 

Motto — Per Deum et ferrum obtinui. 



pprnpfi; HE family of Hill have been well known and prominent 
H n illj" 1 ^ n »l an d since the middle of the fourteenth century, 
f0? IpSf anc * es P GC i a ^y eminent for their antiquity and worth, in 
Ipfe^ lj the counties of Stafford, Devon, Somerset and Salop. 
Since the time of Queen Elizabeth it has been of great 
note and esteem in the counties of Down and Antrim, Ireland. The 
family has produced in every generation soldiers, statesmen and 
diplomats of note, and has had its chief seats in the County of 
Down, Ireland; and in England, at North Alton, in Oxfordshire and 
Twickenham, in the County of Middlesex. 

The American branch of the family ranks among the foremost 
of our great Republic, holding a place of prominence in the only 
aristocracy which America knows- — that of sterling worth and 
achievement. The Hill family of Connecticut, of which the late 
Junius F. Hill, of Waterbury, Connecticut, was a member, traces its 
history through a period of two hundred and eighty years, through 
a line of stern and rugged patriots, who in time of need have served 
their country well, men who have gained notable successes in the 
professions, men of keen business intellect, and virtuous and capable 
women. 

/. William Hill, progenitor of the family in America, emigrated 
from England, and arrived in Boston Harbor, Massachusetts, on the 
ship "William and Francis," on June 5, 1632. He was a man of 
note and settled with a company at Dorchester, Massachusetts. He 
was made a freeman of the Massachusetts Colony, November 5, 
1633, and elected a selectman of Dorchester in 1636. He received an 
allotment of land from the town Nov. 2, 1635. In 1636, or shortly 
afterward, he removed to Windsor, on the Connecticut river, where 
he was granted a home lot and set out an orchard. In 1639 he was 
appointed by the General Court to examine the arms and ammuni- 
tion of the colony. He was auditor of public accounts, and was elect- 
ed to the General Court, 1639-41 and again in 1644. After 1644 he 
removed to Fairfield, Connecticut, where he lived and died, and 

367 



HILL AND ALLIED FAMILIES 

where his last will and testament is recorded in an ancient volume 
of the records of the "Particular Court for Fairfield County." (To 
be found in the Fairfield Library.) In Fairfield he became one of the 
leaders of the official life of the town, serving as assistant, and later 
being appointed collector of customs. He was selectman in 1656. He 
and his son William were granted by the town home lots between 
Paul's Neck and Robert Turney's lot, on the north side of Dorches- 
ter street and Newton square. William Hill died in 1649, as his 
wife was called a widow at that time in the town records. His will is 
dated Sept. 9, 1649. and was admitted to probate, May 15, 1650. He 
bequeathed to his wife Sarah, and children : Sarah ; William, men- 
tioned below; Joseph; Ignatius; James; Elizabeth. 

11. William (2) Hill, son of William (1) and Sarah Hill, was born 
in England, and accompanied his parents to America. It is probable 
that he was with his father in Dorchester and Windsor, for he ac- 
companied him to Fairfield, where he was the receiver of an allot- 
ment of land from the town. He later became one of the most promi- 
nent citizens of the town. He was town recorder in 1650, and con- 
tinued in that office for several years. To him Roger Ludlow deliv- 
ered town papers of value when he left Fairfield, in 1654. The town 
records show that on February 1, 1673, he received a portion of 
his father's estate from his father-in-law, Mr. Greenleaf, which 
would seem to indicate that his father married a second time. (The 
term father-in-law was an equivalent of stepfather today). Wil- 
liam Hill received from the town, Feb. 13, 1670, the Lewis lot on 
the northeast corner of Newton square. He died Dec. 19, 1684. 
He married, at Fairfield. Connecticut, Elizabeth Jones, daughter of 
the Rev. John Jones. Their children were: William, Eliphalet, 
Joseph, John, mentioned below; James, Sarah. 

///. John Hill, son of William (2) and Elizabeth (Jones) Hill, 
was born in Fairfield. Conn., and died in 1727. He married 
Jane , He owned considerable real estate, and was prom- 
inent in the town. He later moved to New Haven. 

IV. Obadiah Hill, son of John Hill, was born in October, 1697. He 
married Hannah Frost, who was born in June, 1706. Their chil- 
dren were: 1. Eunice, born March 28, 1731. 2. Sarah, May 20, 
1732. 3. Mary, October 5, 1733. 4. Jared, mentioned below. There 
were other children, record of whom is lost. 

V. Lieutenant Jared Hill, son of Obadiah and Hannah (Frost) 
Hill, was born in North Haven, Conn., on August 10, 1736. He 
married Eunice, daughter of Daniel and Mary (Mansfield) Tuttle, 
both descendants of pioneer colonists of New Haven. Jared Hill, 
the progenitor of the Waterbury Hills, removed there with his wife 
in 1784, and purchased a farm on East Mountain. They were the 
ence Woodruff, of Milford, Conn., and they have two daughters : Su- 
sanne Hill Leach, and Ruella Woodruff Leach, born Mav 8, 1818, died 

368 



HILL AND ALLIED FAMILIES 

the French and Indian War, as a private, and had the reputation 
of a good soldier. He died April 20, 1816. His wife, born in 1739, 
died Dec. 28, 182G. 

VI. Samuel Hill, son of Lieut. Jared and Eunice (Tuttle) Hill, 
was born in Waterbury, Conn., September 4, 178-4. He was edu- 
cated in the public schools of the city, and after finishing- his edu- 
cation learned the carpenter's trade, which he followed during- the 
summer months. He was a man of much literary ability, and a 
scholar, and during the winter months taught school in Waterbury. 
He was' also a talented musician, and served as fife major in the 
2nd Regiment from 1807 until 1818. Samuel Hill gained consider- 
able distinction for poetic ability in Waterbury and the surrounding 
country. He married, Oct. 14, 1807, Pollv Brockett, daughter of 
Giles and Sarah Brockett. (See Brockett VI). He died April 26, 
1834, and after his death his family removed to Naugatuck, where 
his wife died Oct. 8, 1853. Both are buried in Grand Street Ceme- 
tery. Their children were : Henry Augustus, born Jan. 19, 1809 ; 
Junius Fayette, mentioned below; Sarah Maria, born April 14, 
1816, died January 24, 1822; Eunice Hortensia, born Nov. 8, 1818; 
Ellen Maria; Robert Wakeman, mentioned below. 

VII. Junius Fayette Hill, son of Samuel and Polly (Brockett) 
Hill, was born in Waterbury, Conn., July 11, 1811. He received his 
educational training in the public schools of Waterbury, and upon 
completing his education learned the carpenter's trade, which he 
followed for the remainder of his life. He later engaged in busi- 
ness independently, and became one of the leading builders and con- 
tractors of the city. He was a man of great business talent, and 
possessed great ability for organization and management. In addi- 
tion to his prominence in the business world, he was also a leading 
figure in the political affairs of the city, always active in the interests 
of issues which he thought were a benefit to the community. He 
was nominated for the State Legislature on the Democratic ticket, 
but declined to accept. Mr. Hill was one of the best known and 
most thoroughly respected business men of Waterbury of the mid- 
dle part of the last century, substantially successful, and highly 
honored. He died at Naugatuck, Connecticut, March 31, 1859. He 
was a prominent Mason, and a member of Shepard's Lodge, Nau- 
gatuck. He attended St. John 's Episcopal Church. 

Mr. Hill married Elizabeth Augusta Porter, daughter of Samuel 
Porter, of Naugatuck, Conn., Mav 4, 1835. She was born in Nau- 
gatuck, Sept. 21, 1812, and died at Waterbury, Jan. 9, 1899. Their 
children were: 1. Marie Louise, unmarried; resides at Wood- 
mont, Conn. 2. Ellen Augusta, married Henry Leach, and resides 
at Woodmont, Conn. ; children : Robert Hill Leach, married Flor- 
ence Woodruff, of Milford, Conn., and they have two daughters : Sus- 
anne Hill Leach, and Ruella Woodruff Leach, born May 8, 1918, died 

369 



HILL AND ALLIED FAMILIES 

in infancy. Mr. Henry Leach was a native of New York City, and 
was educated there. Later in life he removed to Waterbury, Conn., 
where he became a pioneer rubber merchant, and one of the lead- 
ing manufacturers of the city; he died in 1907, at the age of sixty- 
two. Mr. Leach was a member of the Masonic order, and of the In- 
dependent Order of Odd Fellows, and attended St. John's Epis- 
copal Church. Mrs. Leach is a charter member of the Milicent 
Porter Chapter of the Daughters of the American Revolution, 3. 
Susie Elizabs-th, mentioned below. 4. Caroline Eunice, died aged 
three years. 5. Lucy Brown, married Joseph Ives Doolittle, who 
died in 1907; she died in May, 1914, and is survived by her two 
sons, Trubee J. and Clarence Lewis, who reside at Woodmont, Con- 
necticut. 

VII. Robert Wakeman Hill, son of Samuel and Polly (Brockett) 
Hill, was born in Waterbury, Conn., Sept. 20, 1828, and received his 
early education there. He later removed to New Haven, Con- 
necticut, and there attended the Young Men's Institute. After 
completing his studies there, he entered the offices of Mr. Henry 
Austin for the purpose of studying architecture. After thoroughly 
mastering the technicalities of his profession, he went to the State 
of Wisconsin and there engaged in business in the city of Mil- 
waukee. After several years, during which he built up a splendid 
business, he returned to Waterbury, and there engaged in his 
work for the remainder of his life. Several of the most important 
public buildings of Waterbury, New Haven, Hartford and other 
large cities of the State of Connecticut are monuments to his genius 
as an architect. During his lifetime he was recognized as the lead- 
er of his profession in Waterbury. He was affiliated with the Re- 
publican party, but although he took a keen interest in politics he 
remained outside the circle of political influence. He was a well 
known figure in the financial life of the city, and at the time of his 
death was a member of the board of directors and vice-president of 
the Manufacturers' Bank of Waterbury. He was also a member of 
several social and fraternal organizations, a founder of the Water- 
bury Club, and a member of the Mason Clark Commandery. He 
was a communicant of St. John's Episcopal Church. Robert 
Wakeman Hill died on July 16, 1909. 

VIII. Susie Elizabeth. Hill, daughter of Junius Fayette and Eliz- 
abeth Augusta (Porter) Hill, was born in Waterbury, Conn. She 
is a resident of Waterbury, and devotes much time and attention 
to social and public welfare in the city, supporting generously 
charities and benevolences. Miss Hill takes a keen interest in the 
issues of importance in the life of the city. She is a member of the 
Milicent Porter Chapter of the Daughters of the American Revolu- 
tion, the Mattatux Historical Society, and the Naturalist Club. She 
is also prominent in the social life of Waterbury. 

37o 



HILL AND ALLIED FAMILIES 



(The Tuttle Line.) 



Anns — Azure on a bend doubly cotised argent a lion passant sable. 

Crest — On a mount vert a turtle-dove proper; in the beak a sprig vert, fructed or. 

Motto— Pax. 

Ranking among the foremost of New England families, but be- 
longing inseparably to the history and development of Connecticut 
is the Tuttle family. Branches of the ancient English family, 
however, were established throughout the New England Colonies 
in the early part of the seventeenth century. None of these have 
attained the distinction and note of the Connecticut Tuttles. Scions 
of the house have wielded large power in the industrial and com- 
mercial growth of Connecticut, and have achieved notable places 
in the professions and in the divine calling. The early Tuttle 
family played a prominent part in the public life of the Connecticut 
Colony, and the name is found with great frequency in important 
places in early Colonial registers. The early Tuttles were leaders 
of men. and later generations have not relinguished the prestige of 
the early family. The Tuttles of today are an honored and notable 
race. 

The surname Tuttle is of most remote antiquity, and its origin has 
been traced to the god Thoth or Toth on the Lower Nile in Egypt, 
vestiges of whose worship some antiquarians believe to have existed 
in early England. This would naturally give rise to numerous 
places dedicated to the worship of the god. At all events, we find 
throughout England "Totehills," which at the date of authentic 
history were hills with a good lookout against the enemy's ap- 
proach. The eminent authority, Charles Wareing Bardsley, in his 
"Dictionary of English and Welsh Surnames," states the origin 
of the surname to have been in the ancient Totehill, and makes 
no mention of an earlier origin in the worship of Thoth. In sup- 
port of this, he draws attention to the fact that we still use the 
verb "tout" or "toat" in the sense of spying about. 

When the adoption of surnames spread over England, Toathill, 
Tootle, Tothill, Tootol, Tottle, Tootehill, Tuthill, Toutill and Tut- 
tle appeared as surnames which had their origin in the place name 
"Totehill," and we find instances of the name in the very early 
registers. The first appearance of the name in Colonial America 
is in the year 1635. Numerous immigrants left the mother country 
and were the founders of large families. On the good ship "Plant- 
er," in 1635, came John, Bichard and William Tuttle, from the par- 
ish of St. Albans, Hertfordshire, England, bringing with them their 
families. John Tuttle, who is recorded as a mercer, aged thirty- 
nine years, according to the passenger list of the "Planter," settled 
in Ipswich ; he was in Ireland in 1654, and probably died there, for 
his wife went to Carrickfergus, and wrote on April 6, 1657, that he 
died on December 30, 1656. 

37^ 



HILL AND ALLIED FAMILIES 

Richard Tuttle, aged forty-two, settled in Boston, where he died 
May 8, 1640. "William Tuttle, who was the founder of the line here- 
in under consideration, settled first in Charlestown, Massachusetts, 
but was prominent in Xew Haven as early as 1647. Henry Tuttle 
was in Hingham in 1635, in which year he arrived with his brother 
John. He settled in Southold, Long Island, and John returned to 
England and settled at Weybread. County Suffolk. Still another 
John Tuttle came in the ship "Angel Gabriel," and settled in Dover, 
New Hampshire, there founding the New Hampshire branch of the 
Tuttle family. 

1. William Tuttle, the immigrant ancestor, came from St. Albans 
parish, Hertfordshire, England, on the ship "Planter" in April, 
1635, with his brothers, John and Richard and their families. He 
stated his age as twenty-six. His wife Elizabeth, aged twenty-three, 
and children; John, aged three and a half, and Thomas, aged three 
months, came at the same time. His occupation was given as hus- 
bandman. His wife joined the church at Boston, August 1-1, 1636. 
As early as 1636 he was granted the liberty to build a windmill at 
Charlestown, and was a proprietor of that town in 1636. His wife 
was dismissed to the church at Ipswich, Sept. 8, 1639, and they 
doubtless were there for a time. He was part owner of a ketch 
"Zebulon, " of Ipswich, and was associated to some extent in busi- 
ness with John Tuttle, of Ipswich. He and John owned land deeded 
to them by George Griggs for debt, and the same George Griggs 
gave him a mortgage of house and land on Beacon street, Boston, 
October 8, 1650, after William Tuttle had moved to New Haven. 
About 1639 William Tuttle moved to Quinnipiac, later called New 
Haven. In 1611 he was the owner of the home lot of Edward Hop- 
kins, who had removed to Hartford. This lot was on the square 
bounded by Grove, State, Elm and Church streets. In 1656 William 
Tuttle bought of Joshua Atwater his original allotment, mansion 
house and barn, with other lands. He made his home there until his 
death, and his widow after him until her death, a period of twenty- 
eight years. At the time of his death it was appraised at £120. He 
shared in the division of common lands in 1610 and afterwards. 
William Tuttle and Mr. Gregson were the first owners of land in 
East Haven, Connecticut, and Mr. Tuttle surveyed and laid out the 
road from Red Rock to Stony River. His land there was bounded 
by a line running from the old ferry (where the new bridge over the 
Quinnipiac now is) eastward to a spring where issues the small 
stream called Tuttle 's brook, then south along this brook to Greg- 
son's land at Solitary cove, thence west to a point on the New Haven 
harbor near the chemical works and Fort Hale, thence north along 
the harbor to the point of beginning. It included Tuttle 's Hill. 

In 1659 he became owner of land at North Haven. He sold or con- 
veyed to his children most of his property before he died. Judging 

372 






HILL AND ALLIED FAMILIES 

from the seat he was assigned in the meeting-house, he was among 
the foremost men of New Haven as early as 1646. He was interested 
in the projected settlement from New Haven on the Delaware, which 
failed on account of the opposition of the Dutch in New Netherlands. 
He filled many positions of trust and responsibility in the colony; 
Avas commissioner to decide on an equivalent to those who received 
inferior meadow lands in the first allotment; was fence viewer, 1644; 
road commissioner, 1646; commissioner to settle the dispute as to 
boundary between New Haven and Branford, 1669, and to fix the 
bounds of New Haven, Milford, Branford and Wallingford, 1672. 
He was often a juror and arbitrator ; was constable in 1666. He died 
early in June, 1673, his inventory being dated June 6, 1673. His wife 
died Dec. 30, 1684, aged seventy-two years. She had been living 
with her youngest son Nathaniel, who presented her will, but the oth- 
er children objected aiiu it was not allowed. The inventory of her 
estate is dated February 3, 16S5. Her gravestone was removed, 
with the others, from the Old Green to the Grove Street Cemetery, 
1821, and it now stands in a row along the north wall of the cemetery, 
but part of the inscription is gone. 

Children: 1. John, mentioned below. 2. Hannah, born 1632, in 
England. 3. Thomas, born 1634, in England. 4. Johnathan, bapt. 
in Charlestown, Mass., July 8, 1637. 5. David, bapt. in Charlestown, 
April 7, 1639. 6. Joseph," bapt, in New Haven, Nov. 22, 1640. 7. 
Sarah, bapt. April, 1642. 8. Elizabeth, bapt. Nov. 9, 1645. 9. Si- 
mon, bapt, March 28, 1647. 10. Benjamin, bapt, Oct. 29, 1648. 11. 
Mercy, born April 27, 1650. 12. Nathaniel, bapt, Feb. 29, 1652. 

//. John T little, son of William Tuttle, was born in England in 
1631, and came to this country with his parents in 1635. He received 
a house and lot in East Haven, by deed of his father, 1661, and sold 
it to John Potter the following year, and also, about the same time, 
sold land at Stony River, which was a part of his patrimony. In 
these conveyances he is called "junior." At the court in New Haven, 
Nov. 23, 1662, he requested that he might have liberty to purchase 
land from the Indians beyond Chestnut Hill. 

He married, Nov. 8, 1653, Kattareen, daughter of John Lane, of 
Milford, Conn., born 1630, died 1669, leaving a good estate. He died 
November 12, 1683. Children : 1. Hannah, born Nov. 2, 1655. 2. 
John, Sept. 15, 1657. 3. Samuel, mentioned below. 4. Sarah, born 
Jan. 22, 1661-62. 5-6. Daniel and Mary (twins), April 13, 1664. 

III. Samuel Tuttle, son of John Tuttle, was born Jan. 9, 1659-60. 
He was a stone mason by trade, and a large land owner. He married 
(first) June, 1683, Sarah, daughter of Samuel Newman, of New 
Haven. He married (second) Abigail, daughter of John and Mercy 
Frost and widow of Thomas Barnes. He and his wife, Sarah, joined 
the church in New Haven, 1692. He died between 1731 and 1733. 
His second wife was the mother of fifteen children, and her third of 

373 



HILL AND ALLIED FAMILIES 

the estate was divided to the heirs of Samuel Tuttle, 1748. Chil- 
dren : 1. Mary, born Jan. 31, 1684-85. 2. Jemima, Dec. 6, 1686. "3. 
Stephen, married Rachel Mansfield. 4. Abigail, born April 4, 1692. 
5. Martha, March 18, 1694. 6. Josiah, April 5, 1696. 7. Sarah, 
Jan. 17, 1698. 8. Daniel, mentioned below. 

IV. Daniel Tuttle, son of Samuel Tuttle, was born August 23, 
1702. He married, April 25, 1726, Mary Mansfield, sister of Eben- 
ezer Mansfield. His will was presented 1772, and names wife Mary 
as executrix, and Samuel Tuttle as executor. Children (record in- 
complete) : 1. Samuel, born Feb. 12, 1727. 2. Daniel, born March 
12, 1728; married Christian, daughter of Ebenezer Norton. 3. Mary, 
married, Jan. 17, 1755, Jacob Brackett; died June 20, 1760. 4. 
Eunice, born 1739. 

V. Eunice Tuttle, daughter of Daniel and Mary (Mansfield) Tut- 
tle, was born in 1739. She married Lieut. Jared Hill, of North 
Haven and Waterbury, Conn. (See Hill V.) 

(The Brockett Line.) 

Arms — Or, a cross patonce, sable. 

Crest — A stag lodged sable, ducally gorged and lined, or, 

Motto — Crux mea lux. 

The name of Brockett is a very old and honored one, and appears 
very early in the records of English history, and is traced authenti- 
cally to the year 1201 A. D. It is of Saxon origin and in all proba- 
bility was established in England at the time of the Saxon invasion 
in the seventh century A. D. The family has always been held in 
high repute locally, and is connected through marriage with several 
of the most noble lineages in England. Several of its members 
fought in the Crusades, and a mark of the trend of the times as well 
as of the character of the house is found in the motto still retained 
in the Brockett coat-of-arms, namely, Crux mea lux — The cross my 
light. 

The Brocketts have from time to time acquired the following man- 
ors : Manor of Almeshoebury, Letchworth, Rathamsted, Ayot St. 
Lawrence, Ayot St. Peter, Offley Magna, Mandlesen, Spain's Hall. 
Brockett Hall, the ancestral home of the family, was located in 
Wheathamstead, County Herts, originally described as Watamstede, 
in the Domesday Book. This estate originally adjoined Hatfield, 
which is noted in history. In the year 1312 Brockett Hall was the 
meeting place of the Barons in their war against Edward II. 

A tradition which has existed for two hundred years in New Hav- 
en traces the ancestry of the progenitor of the American Brocketts, 
John Brockett, to this famous English family, above mentioned. 
John Brockett is thought to have been the eldest son of Sir John 
Brockett, of Brockett Hall, Hertsfordshire, England, disinherited 
because of his sympathies with Puritanism, then gaining a strong 

374 



HILL AND ALLIED FAMILIES 

foothold in England. Because of persecution of Puritanism and 
family disagreement, John Brockett came to America, in 1637. 

I. John Brockett, the first of that patronymic to be mentioned in 
records in this country, was born in England, in 1609, and came to 
America in 1637, probably in the ship "Hector," arriving in Boston, 
June 26, 1637, in company with Rev. John Davenport and Theo- 
philus Eaton. It is said of the little band which accompanied the 
Rev. John Davenport "They were gentlemen of wealth and char- 
acter, with their servants and household effects. They were for the 
most part from London, and had been bred to mercantile and com- 
mercial pursuits. Their coming was hailed at Boston with much joy, 
for they were the most opulent of the companies who had emigrated 
to New England." 

These men were unwilling to join the Massachusetts Colony, and 
explored the coast of Long Island in search of a site on which to set- 
tle. They selected a tract of land near the Quinnipiac river, the site 
of the present city of New Haven, and left seven of their number to 
hold it for the winter. In the spring of the following year Rev. Mr. 
Davenport and a company of men among whom was John Brockett, 
reached the site, bought the ground from the Indians, and set up an 
independent government or "Plantation Covenant," founded, as 
were all the early governments of New England, on a stern religious 
basis. They called the town which they founded New Haven. 

In the early Colonial records of New England, and New Haven, 
the name of John Brockett appears more often than any other name 
with the exception of Thcophilus Eaton. He was a man of import- 
ance and influence in the civic organization, and because of his abil- 
ity and excellent judgment was often called upon to represent the 
community. In the settling of difficulties with the Indian tribes of 
the neighborhood he was appointed "one of a committee of four to 
investigate and advise with the Indians." He was also appointed 
commissioner to settle the question as to boundary lines between the 
Connecticut Colony at Hartford and the New Haven Colony. John 
Brockett was skilled and well known as a civil engineer and survey- 
or, and his services were often needed in the town. In June, 1639, he 
laid out the square which is now the center of the city of New Haven, 
in nine equal sections, calling forth mention in the Colonial Records 
for the perfection of his work. Shortly thereafter the governor of 
New Jersey deputed John Brockett "to lay out, survey, and bound 
the said bounds of Elizabeth Towne, (now the city of Elizabeth, 
N. J.), the planting fields, town lots, and to lay out every particular 
man's proposition, according to his allotments and the directions of 
the Governor, for the avoiding of all controversies and disputes con- 
cerning the same, having had certain notice of the good experience, 
knowledge, skill and faithfulness of John Brockett in the surveying 
and laying out of land." 

375 



HILL AND ALLIED FAMILIES 

As a reward for his services in the above instance, he was allotted 
a portion of land in Elizabeth, which lie held until 1670, when he 
sold it to one Samuel Hopkins. During the time he was surveying 
hi Elizabeth Towne (from December, 1667 to 1676), John Brockett 
lived there, and became an important member of the community, and 
was chosen, with John Ogden, Senior, to represent the town in the 
House of Burgesses. One of the Connecticut religious papers, pub- 
lished in 1868, refers to John Brockett as follows: "John Brockett, 
the eldest son of Sir John Brockett, of the County of Herts, Eng- 
land, was a well known loyalist of the time of Charles I., becoming 
convinced of the truth of the gospel as preached by the Puritans, re- 
linquished his birthright and all his prospects of honor and fame, 
joined himself to the little company of Kev. John Davenport, emi- 
grated to New England and settled at New Haven in 1637. Of him, 
as of Moses, it could be said that he preferred to suffer affliction with 
the people of God than to enjoy the pleasures of Sin for a season." 

There is no records of his marriage. However, a seat was as- 
signed in the church to "Sister Brockett" in 1646. It is supposed 
that John Brockett married in England in 1610 or 1641, during which 
time he returned to England for a visit. He did not, however, bring 
his wife to America until 1644 or 1645. He was appointed surgeon 
in King Philip's War, and was deputy to the General Court of 
Connecticut during the years 1671-78-80-82-85. In the autumn of 
1669, John Brockett was one of the men appointed by the one hun- 
dred settlers of Wallingford, an off-shoot of the New Haven Colony, 
"to manage all plantation affairs in ye said village." In the first 
allotment of land in Wallingford, John Brockett received twelve 
acres, and his son John eight acres. His house lot was "No. 1 at the 
extreme south end of the village, forty rods long and twenty rods 
wide, subsequently extended to Wharton's Brook." 

He was one of the thirteen men who founded the Congregational 
church at Wallingford, deciding "that there be a church of Christ 
gathered to walk according to the Congregational way." John 
Brockett died in Wallingford, Conn., on March 12, 1690, at the age 
of eighty years. His children were : 1. John, mentioned below. 2. 
Benjamin, born Eeb. 23, 1645, died same year. 3. Fruitful, twin of 
Benjamin. 4. Mary, born Sept. 25, 1646; married Ephraim Pen- 
nington. 5. Silence, born Jan. 4, 1648; married, at Milford, Mass., 
Oct. 25, 1667, Joseph Bradley. 6. Benjamin, born Dec, 1648, mar- 
ried Elizabeth Barnes. 7. Abagail, born March 10, 1650; married, 
Jan. 22, 1673, John Payne ; died July 4, 1729. 8. Samuel, born Jan. 
14, 1652; married Sarah Bradley. 9. Jabez, born and died in 1654. 
10. Jabez, born Oct. 24, 1656; married Dorothy Lyman. 

II. John (2) Brockett, son of John (1) Brockett, the progenitor, 
was born in New Haven in 1642, and was baptized Jan. 31, 1643. He 
was educated at Oxford Universitv in England for the medical pro- 

376 



HILL AND ALLIED FAMILIES 

fession. Upon returning to America he began to practice in New 
Haven, but soon located at Muddy River, near North Haven, be- 
tween New Haven and Wallingford, where he remained during his 
lifetime. He owned a large and carefully selected library of valua- 
ble medical books, which he gave to Yale College at his death. In 
the first allotment of land in Wallingford he received eight acres, 
as has already been mentioned. In 1689 he was given forty-four 
acres. He was the first physician to permanently reside in the New 
Haven Colony, and as such w r as a man of importance. Under his 
father's will, Dr. John Brockett received large quantities of land, 
and in addition to his practice, he carried on extensive farming. He 
married Elizabeth Doolittle, daughter of Abraham Doolittle, one of 
the men elected with John Brockett, Sr., to manage the affairs of 
Wallingford. She was born April 12, 1652, and died March, 1731. 

Dr. John Brockett died in November, 1720, and his will, dated New- 
Haven, August 31, 1720, gives all his property to his widow, who was 
his sole executrix. Their children were : 1. Mary, born May 6, 1673, 
died 1673. 2. Mary, born Feb. 18, 1674; married Lawrence Clinton. 
3. John, born Oct. '23, 1676, died Nov. 29, 1676. 4. Elizabeth, born 
Nov. 26, 1677 ; married, Oct. 12, 1710, at Wallingford, Conn., John 
Granis. 5. Benjamin, born and died in 1679. 6. Moses, mentioned 
below. 7. Abigail, born March 31, 1683 ; married, July 9, 3 712, John 
Pardee; died August 2, 1752. 8. John, born Sept. 13, 1686, died 
Nov. 17, 1709. 9. Samuel, born Nov. 8, 1691; married, August 5, 
1712, Mehitable Hill, daughter of John Hill. 

111. Moses Brockett, son of John (2) and Elizabeth (Doolittle)^ 
Brockett, w r as born in Wallingford, Conn., April 23, 1680. He A mar- 
ried Ann Lydia Granis, on Jan. 8, 1706, and was among the earliest ,-v > \ 
settlers at Muddv River. He was a wealthy farmer and land owner, „ J ««a ,, . v- A ' * 
one single piece of land being one mile in width and two miles long. * j, 
He was an active member of the First Ecclesiastical Society, and his ^ 
name is recorded in the manuscript notes of President Ezra Stiles /) \ 
of Yale College. His wife died April 6, 1742. He died Nov. 5, 1764. ^%^\ 

Their children were : 1. Anne, born Sept. 27, 1707 ; married, March 
25, 1728, Daniel Barnes. 2. Silence, born Nov. 3, 1709 ; married a Mr. 
Frisbee. 3. Lydia, born August 28, 1712 ; married, Nov. 29, 1744, 
Henry Barnes. 4. Moses, born Jan. 17, 1714; married Priscilla 
Granis. 5. Samuel, born March, 1715. 6. Benjamin, born Dec, 
1717. 7. Elizabeth, born May 9, 1718 ; married, July 14, 1747, Jared 
Robinson. 8. Mary, born June 26, 1719; married, July 18, 1749, 
John Jacobs. 9. Abraham, born May 19, 1721, died April 7, 1774. 
10. Abigail, twin of Abraham, married a Mr. Barnes. 11. John, born 
Dec. 31, 1722; married (first) Thankful Frost; (second) M. Cooper. 
12. Ebenezer, born July, 1724; married Esther Hoadley. 13. Abel, 
born August 11, 1725; married, July 24, 1755, Hannah Pierpont. 14. 
Richard, mentioned below. 15. Stephen, born March 20, 1729 ; mar- 

2,77 



*>vv — 






HILL AND ALLIED FAMILIES 

ried, March 27, 1771, Mabel M. Barnes. 16. Sarah, born May 29, 

1731; married, Sept. 16, 1771, Stephen Hitchcock. 17. Ichabod, 

born Nov., 1733. 18. Keziah, born June 13, 1735; married a Mr."? fv<mU*-a 

Sanford. i^f-zu /nfci- 

IV. Richard Brockett, son of Moses and Am\ Lydia (Grnnie-) 4^^JL/rtn-> 
Brockett, was born Sept. 11, 1727. On March 13, 1756, he married 

Mary Pierpont, daughter of Joseph and Hannah (Russell) Pierpont. 
(See Pierpont IV). She was a granddaughter of Rev. James Pier- 
pont, one of the founders of Yale College and for thirty years pastor 
of the First Church in New Haven, Connecticut. She was also a 
granddaughter of the Rev. Thomas Hooker, one of the founders of 
the Connecticut Colony at Hartford. She was born Oct. 20, 1 738, and 
died June 21, 1773. In 1760 Richard Brockett and Mary, his wife, 
were members of the Congregational church in New Haven. On 
Dec. 14, 1790, seventeen years after the death of his first wife, he 
married a widow, Jerima Jacobs, who survived him and died Sept. 
7, 1830. The children of Richard and Mary (Pierpont) Brockett 
were: I. Joseph, born Jan. 17, 1757; married Rebecca Tuttle. 2. 
Mary, born March 13, 1759; married, June 16, 1779, James Ives, of 
Great Barrington. 3. Giles, mentioned below. 4. Lydia, born Nov. 
29, 1763; married, Feb. 22, 1787, Philomen Blakesbee. 5. Richard, 
born Jan., 1768. 6. Jesse, born Jan. 16, 1770, died Jan. 17, 1770. 
7. Jesse, born Feb. 10, 1772, died Feb. 13, 1772. 

V. Giles Brockett, son of Richard and Mary (Pierpont) Brockett, 
was born in North Haven, Conn., April 30, 1761. During the Revolu- 
tionary War he enlisted in 1778 with the Connecticut troops under 
Colonel Mead. His name is on the pension list in 1832. At the close 
of the war he decided to become a sailor, but after one or two voy- 
ages to the West Indies returned to North Haven and became a 
farmer. He was a public man and quite prominent in his commun- 
ity. He was deputy to the General Court in 1804, and representative 
in the Connecticut State Legislature in 1809. He married, Nov. 17, 
1785, Sarah Smith, daughter of Captain Stephen Smith, of New 
Haven. She was born July 10, 176S, and died Nov. 27, 1841. Giles 
Brockett was a Mason, and he and his wife were members of the 
First Congregational Church in Waterburv, where thev removed in 
1803. He died there June 2, 1842. Their children were: 1. Polly, 
mentioned below. 2. Sarah, born Jan. 20, 1789; married Samuel D. 
Castle. 3. Patty, born April 29, 1791 ; married A. H. Johnson. 4. 
Harriet, born March 28, 1794; married Col. Samuel Peck. 5. Ros- 
well, born Julv 17, 1796, died, unmarried, in Greenville, Mich., April 
1, 1853. 6. Lydia, born July 17, 1798; married Smith Miller. 

VI. Polly Brockett, daughter of Giles and Sarah (Smith) Brock- 
ett, was born Dec. 21, 1786. She married Samuel Hill, of Water- 
burv (see Hill VI.) Oct. 14, 1807. They had six children: 1. Henrv 
A., born Jan. 19, 1809. 2. Junius F. (see Hill VII). 3. Sarah M., 

378 



HILL AND ALLIED FAMILIES 

bom April 4, 1816, died Jan. 24, 1822. 4. Eunice H., born Nov. 8, 
1818, died April 1, 1890, unmarried. 5. Ellen M., born June 19, 1824, 
in Waterbury, died April 29, 1896, in Oneonta, N. Y., married John 
Benjamin Taylor, March 4, 1844, in Naugatuck, Conn. 6. Robert W. 
(see Hill VII). 

(The Pierpont Line.) 

Arms — Argent, semee of cinquefoils, gules. A lion rampant, sable. 
Crest — A fox passant proper, on a wreath. 
Motto — Pic rcpone te. 

The Pierpont family is of Norman origin, antedating the Nor- 
man Conquest. The Castle of Pierrepont took its name in the 
time of Charlemagne from a stone bridge built to replace a ferry 
on the estate of Pierrepont, which is located in the southern part 
of Picardy, in the diocese of Laon, about six miles south of Saint 
Saveur, Normandy. The first lord of whom we have authentic in- 
formation was Sir Hugh de Pierrepont, who flourished about 980 
A. D. He was succeeded by his son. Sir Godfrey de Pierrepont, who 
was the father of Sir Godfrey de Pierrepont, who left two sons, Sir 
Godfrey de Pierrepont and Sir Robert de Pierrepont. This Sir 
Godfrey de Pierrepont was the father of Sir Ingolbrand de Pierre- 
pont, lord of the Castle about 1090 A. D. and ancestor of the French 
family of the name. Sir Robert de Pierrepont went to England 
in the train of William the Conqueror, and was the founder of the 
English family. 

The seventh in descent from Robert de Pierrepont was Sir Henry, 
of Holme Pierpont, in the right of his wife Annora, daughter of 
Michael Manversm, Lord of Holme. Later. Robert Pierpont was 
created Earl of Kingston, in 1628. His last male descendant was 
Evelyn Pierpont, second Duke of Kingston, who died in 1773. Rob- 
ert, Earl of Kingston, had a younger brother, William Pierpont, who 
was the father of James Pierpont, the immigrant ancestor of the 
American family. 

/. James Pierpont, founder of the family herein dealt with, emi- 
grated to America with two sons: John, mentioned below; and 
Robert. 

//. John Pierpont, son of James Pierpont, was born in Lon- 
don, England, in 1619, and came to America with his father, set- 
tling in Roxbury, Massachusetts, now a part of Boston, where he 
bought three hundred acres of land. He was a deputy to the Gen- 
eral Court. He died in 1682. He married Thankful Stow. Their 
children were: 1. Thankful, born Nov. 26, 1649, died young. 2. 
John, born July 22, 1651, died young. 3. John, born Oct. 28, 1652. 
4. Experience, born Jan. 4, 1655. 5. Infant, born August 3, 1657, 
died young. 6. James, mentioned below. 7. Ebenezer, born Dec. 
21, 1661. 8. Thankful, born November 18, 1663. 9. Joseph, born 
April 6, 1666. 10. Benjamin, born July 26, 1668. 

379 



HILL AND ALLIED FAMILIES 

///. Rrr. James (2) Pierpont, son of John and Thankful (Stow) 
Pierpont, was born in Roxbury, Mass., Jan. 4, 1659. He was grad- 
uated from Harvard College in the class of 1681, and three years 
later preached before the church in New Haven as a candidate. He 
was an able preacher, and in addition to his ability won the love 
and confidence of the congregation. He was ordained and settled 
as its pastor in 1685, and resided in New Haven until his death, 
thirty years later. He was the successor of the Rev. John Daven- 
port, and through the influence of his position in the community, 
and the recognized value of his counsel, he was able to revive and 
carry out John Davenport's long-cherished plan for a college in 
Connecticut. Through his influence and efforts the original board 
of trustees of Yale College was organized, a charter secured, and 
a rector appointed. Tradition also states that he presented six of 
the original forty-two books which were the foundation of the Col- 
lege Library. Mr. Pierpont has been called the ' ' Founder of Yale. ' ' 
Largely through his energy and foresight the college was estab- 
lished, and he guided it through the early struggle for a firm foot- 
ing. He was instrumental also in securing Elihu Yale's gifts. Rev. 
James Pierpont was a member of the Saybrook Synod in 1708, and 
is said to have drawn up the articles of the famous "Saybrook 
Platform," which aimed to promote discipline and closer fellow- 
ship among the churches of Connecticut. He was one of the lead- 
ers of the Synod, and was noted throughout New England for the 
nobility of his character and the spirituality of Ins life. His only 
publication was a sermon preached in Cotton Mather's pulpit in 
1712, "Sundry False Hopes of Heaven Discovered and Decryed." 

He married (first) Abagail, granddaughter of John Davenport, 
Oct. 27, 1691, who died Feb. 3, 1692. He married (second) May 30, 
1694, at Hartford, Conn., Sarah, daughter of Rev. Joseph Haynes; 
she died Oct. 7, 1696. He married (third) in 1698, Mary Hooker, 
born July 3, 1673, died Nov. 1, 1740, daughter of Rev. Samuel Hook- 
er, of Farmington, and a granddaughter of Rev. Thomas Hooker, of 
Hartford, Connecticut. Child of second wife: Abigail, born Sept. 
19, 1696. Children of third wife : 1. James, born May 21, 1699. 2. 
Samuel, born Dec. 30, 1700. 3. Mary, born Nov. 23," 1702. 4. Jo- 
seph, mentioned below. 5. Benjamin, born July 18, 1706, died Dec. 
17, 1706. 6. Benjamin, born Oct. 15, 1707 ; graduate of Y'ale College, 
1726. 7. Sarah, born Jan. 9, 1709 ; married Jonathan Edwards, the 
noted divine. 8. Hezekiah, born May 6, 1712. 

Rev. James Pierpont died Nov. 2, 1714, and is buried under the 
present Centre Church in New Haven. A memorial tablet in this 
church has upon it the chief facts of his life, the engraved arms of 
the Pierpont family, and the following inscription: "His gracious 
gifts and fervent piety, elegant and winning manners were devoutly 
spent in the services of his Lord and Master." Among the lineal de- 

380 



HILL AND ALLIED FAMILIES 

scendants of James Pierpont were Jonathan Edwards, the younger, 
his grandson; the elder President Timothy Dwight, his great-grand- 
son ; and the younger President Timothy Dwight, late president of 
Yale College. His portrait, which was presented to the College, 
hangs in Alumni Hall. 

IV. Joseph Pierpont, son of Rev. James (2) and Mary (Hooker) 
Pierpont, was born in New Haven, Conn., Oct. 21, 1704. He married 
Hannah Russell, who died in 1748. Among their children was Mary, 
who married, March 13, 1756, Richard Brockett, son of Moses and 
Lvdia Ann (Granis) Brockett. (See Brockett IV). She was born 
Oct. 20, 1738, and died June 21, 1773. 

(The Hooker Line.) 

Arms — Sable a fesse between six fleurs-de-lis argent. 

Crest — A demi-eagle displayed gules, charged on the breast with a ducal coronet, or. 

The posterity of the famous Puritan divine, Rev. Thomas Hooker, 
has occupied a position of influence in New England for a period of 
two hundred and fifty years. Hooker, himself, is one of the most 
famous figures in early New England civic and secular life. Of his 
early parentage, two generations have been traced as follows : 

I. John Hooker, grandfather of the American immigrant, was of 
Devonshire, England. He had a brother, Roger Hooker, and a sis- 
ter Mary, who married John Russell, of Leicestershire. Children : 
1. John, who lived in Somersetshire. 2. Thomas, mentioned below. 
3. Rev. Zachariah, rector of St. Michael's, Cathays, Cornwall. 

II. Thomas Hooker, son of John Hooker, was of Devonshire. He 
was the father of three children : 1. A daughter, who became the 
wife of Dr. George Alcock. 2. Rev. Thomas, mentioned below. 3. 
Dorothy, married John Chester, of Leicestershire. 

717. Rev. Thomas (2) Hooker, son of Thomas (1) Hooker, was 
born at Marfield, Leicestershire, England, July 7, 1586. He became 
one of the most liberal as well as one of the ablest and most intellect- 
ual of New England's early theologians. His early training, envi- 
ronment and education fitted him well for the part he was to play in 
New England affairs. Cotton Mather, in his "Magnalia," says of 
him: "He was born of parents that were neither unable nor unwill- 
ing to bestow upon him a liberal education; whereunto the early 
lively sparkles of wit observed in him did very much to encourage 
them. His natural temper was cheerful and courteous; but it was 
accompanied with such a grandeur of mind, as caused his friends 
without the help of astrology, to prognosticate that he was born to 
be considerable." Regarding his education and conversion, 
Sprague says: "He was educated at Emanuel College, Cambridge, 
of which in due time he became a Fellow. He acquitted himself in 
this office with such ability and fidelity as to secure universal respect 
and admiration. It was while he was thus emploved that he became 

38i 



HILL AND ALLIED FAMILIES 

deeply impressed with the importance of eternal realities, and after 
a protracted season of bitter anguish of spirit, he was enabled to 
submit without reserve to the terms of the Gospel, and thus find 
peace and joy in believing. His religious experience, in its very 
commencement, seems to have been uncommonly deep and thorough, 
and no doubt it was partly owing to this that lie became much dis- 
tinguished, in after life, as a counsellor, comforter and guide, to the 
awakened and desponding." 

In 1608 he was graduated from Emanuel College, Cambridge, with*, 
the degree of B. A. This was the intellectual center of Puritanism, 
and he remained to take his Master's degree in 1611. About 1626, 
after preaching in the parish of Esher in Surrey, he became a lec- 
turer in the Church of St. Mary, at Chelmsford, Essex, delivering on 
market days and Sunday afternoons evangelical addresses which 
were noted for their moral fervor. In 1629 Archbishop Laud took 
measures to suppress church lectureships, which were an innovation 
of Puritanism. Hooker was placed under bond and retired to Little 
Baddon, four miles from Chelmsford. In 1630 he was cited to ap- 
pear before the Court of High Commission, but forfeited his bond 
and fled to Holland. Mr. Hooker remained in Holland three years, 
and was first employed as an assistant of Mr. Paget at Amsterdam. 
On account of a misunderstanding with him, Mr. Hooker removed to 
Delft, and was associated with Rev. Mr. Forbes, a Scotch minister. 
Two years later he accepted a call to Rotterdam to assist the Rev. 
Dr. William Ames. Dr. Ames is said to have remarked that he never 
met a man equal to Mr. Hooker as a preacher or a learned disputant. 

Mr. Hooker decided to go to New England, but wished to return 
to England first, as the times were supposed to be somewhat more 
tolerant. On his arrival there, however, he found that his enemies 
were still active, and he was obliged to live in concealment until his 
departure to New England. He left England about the middle of 
July, 1633, from the Downs, on the ship "Griffin. " Such was his 
peril that he and his friend, Mr. Cotton, were obliged to remain 
concealed until the ship was well out to sea. He arrived at Boston, 
Mass., Sept. 4, 1633, and on Oct. 11 he was chosen pastor of the 
church at Newton (Cambridge). He remained there, to the great 
satisfaction of the people, for two and one-half years. In June, 
1636, he joined the company of those who went to make a settlement 
at Hartford, Conn., and from this time was identified with almost 
all the important public movements of the colony. He was one of 
the moderators of the first New England Synod held at Cambridge, 
in the case of the famous Anne Hutchinson. He published many 
books and sermons between 1637 and his death. He fell a victim of 
a violent epidemic disease, and died July 7, 1647. 

Rev. Thomas Hooker was a leader of great liberality, free from 
the characteristic bigotry and narrowness of his time. He publicly 

382 



HILL AND ALLIED FAMILIES 

criticized the limitation of suffrage to church members, and ac- 
cording to William Hubbard, a contemporary historian, "After Mr. 
Hooker's coming over it was observed that many of the freemen 
grew to be very jealous of their liberties." In a sermon before the 
Connecticut General Court, in 1638, he declared that "the choice of 
public magistrates belongs to the people by God's allowance and 
that they who had the power to appoint magistrates, it is in their 
power to set the bounds and limitations of the power and place 
into which they call them." In advancing this theory, Hooker was 
greatly ahead of his age, yet even he had no conception of the sep- 
aration of church and state, as is shown in his own words : ' ' The 
privilege of election, which belong to the people, must be exercised, 
according to the blessed will and love of God." Hooker was also a 
champion of the right of magistrates to convene Synods, and in the 
Fundamental Orders of Connecticut (1639), which it is thought he 
framed, the union of church and state is presupposed. Hooker was 
pastor of the Hartford church until his death on July 7, 1647. He 
was from the time of the founding of the colony one of the foremost 
figures in the religious and public life. He was active in the for- 
mation of the New England Confederation in 1613, and in the 
same year attended the meeting of Puritan ministers at Boston, 
whose object was to defend Congregationalism. In 1648 he wrote 
a "Survey of the Summe of Church Discipline, in justification of 
New England's church system." In 1638 he was the author of 
"The Soule's Humiliation," in which he assigns as a test of con- 
version willingness of the convert to be damned if it be God's will. 

Rev. Thomas Hooker married, according to family tradition, a 
sister of John Pym. Children: 1. Rev. John, a minister of the Es- 
tablished Church in England. 2. Joanna, born about 1616, died 
1646. 3. Mary, born 1618. 4. Sarah, married Rev. John Wilson. 
5. Daughter^ married and became a widow. 6. Samuel, mentioned 
below. 

IV. Rev. Samuel Hooker, son of Rev. Thomas (2) Hooker, was 
born in 1633, and was educated at Harvard College, graduating in 
1663. He succeeded Rev. Roger Newton, his brother-in-law, and 
was second pastor of the church at Farmington, Conn., where he 
was ordained in July, 1661. He was on a committee of four in 
1662 to treat with the New Haven Colony in reference to the pro- 
posed union with Connecticut under one colonial government. All 
of the descendants of Rev. Thomas Hooker bearing the surname 
Hooker are also his descendants. He was a Fellow of Harvard, and 
on account of his earnestness and piety was called "the fervent 
Hooker." He had the habit of committing his sermons to memory, 
and was a powerful and effective preacher. He died at Farming- 
ton, Nov. 6, 1697. 

He married, Sept. 22, 1658, Mary Willett, born at Plymouth, May 

383 



HILL AND ALLIED FAMILIES 

4, 1643, daughter of Captain Thomas Willett, of Swansea, Mass., 
afterwards Seekonk, Rhode Island. Her mother was Mary (Brown) 
Willett. Mary Hooker married (second) August 10, 1703, Rev. 
Thomas Bucking-ham, of Saybrook, Conn. Children of Rev. Sam- 
uel and Mary Hooker: 1. Dr. Thomas, born June 10, 1659. 2. 
Samuel, May 22, 1661. 3. William, May 11, 1663, merchant at Farm- 
ington. 4. John, February 20, 1664-65. 5. Hon. James, Oct. 27, 
1666, resided at Guilford, Conn. 6. Roger, Sept. 14, 1668, died un- 
married, 1697-98; resided at Hartford. 7. Nathaniel, Sept. 28, 
1671, died 1711. 8. Mary, mentioned below. 9. Hezekiah, Nov. 7, 
1675, died 1686. 10. Daniel. March 25, 1679. 11. Sarah, May 5, 
1681; married Rev. Stephen Buckingham, of Norwalk, Conn. 

V. Mary Hooker, daughter of Rev. Samuel and Mary (Willett) 
Hooker, was born in New Haven, Conn., July 3, 1673. She married 
Rev. James Pierpont, the noted divine of New Haven (see Pierpont 
III) and mother of Sarah, who married the celebrated Rev. Jona- 
than Edwards. 







384 



Brockway and Allied Families 

Arms — Gules a fleur-de-lis argent, on a chief of the second (argent), a lion passant 
guardant of the first (gules). Two bars wavy, each charged with three pales wavy, gules. 
Crest — An escallop or. 

Ff=3s=jj HE Register General of Great Britain (1891) states that 
ImLf^'fi the name Brockway is unknown in Scotland and Ireland, 
^ r ¥|p-|||and uncommon in England and Wales. It is thought to 
IffigjJfJSBI navc lieen derived from t lie Old English name Brock. In 
— J * L ~ / compiling the genealogy of the Brockway family in Amer- 
ica, it was ascertained that all of the name in America prior to 1850 
were descendants of Wolston Brockway, who emigrated to Connecti- 
cut in the middle part of the seventeenth century. 

Wolston Brockway, immigrant ancestor of the Brockway family, 
was born in England, about 1638, and came to America early in life. 
He settled in the Connecticut Colony, at Lyme, which has since been 
the principal seat of the Brockways, and from which center branches 
have spread over the entire country. Wolston Brockway purchased 
much property in Lyme, and this with slight changes is still in the 
hands of lineal descendants. The family is one of the most promi- 
nent in the vicinity of Lyme among many who boast historic lineage. 
The progenitor married, at Lyme, Connecticut, Hannah Bridges, 
daughter of William Bridges ; she died Feb. 6, 1687. 

The late Ulysses Hayden Brockway was a member of this distin- 
guished old family. He was born in Hamburg, in the town of Lyme, 
Connecticut, July 19, 1851, the son of Jedediah and Elizabeth (Lord) 
Brockway. He received his early education in the public schools of 
the town. When he was but slightly over ten years old the Civil 
War broke out. Too young to go to war, he became a drummer boy 
for the recruits which were drilled at Lyme. The stirring events of 
the conflict inculcated in him a spirit of adventure and an ambition 
which school and the drudgery of farm life could not satify, and at 
the age of sixteen years he left Lyme and came to Hartford, which 
city remained his home throughout his life. He became thoroughly 
identified with its business, political, social and fraternal life. 

Mr. Brockway secured his first employment in the tailoring busi- 
ness, in which he himself later became an employer. He entered the 
oldest tailoring establishment in the city of Hartford, that founded 
in 1824 by Robert Buell, and at the time owned by Franklin Clark. 
He rapidly became one of the most valued employees in the establish- 
ment, and on the retirement of Franklin Clark in 1878, Mr. Brock- 
way, in partnership with Mr. J. H. W. Wenk, continued the business 

385 



BROCKWAY AND ALLIED FAMILIES 

under the firm name of Wenk & Brockway. After a period of eisjlit 
years of successful business, Mr. Brockway became solo owner, and 
from that time until his death conducted it under the name of U. II. 
Brockway & Company. The business was in every way a success, 
and under the management of Mr. Brockway became one' of the most 
important commercial enterprises of its kind in Hartford. As the 
leading figure in a large industry in the city of Hartford, Mr. Brock- 
way. was well known by the people. He was universally admired 
and respected for the honesty of his business dealings. 

He was deeply interested in the political affairs of the city, 
through motives of a purely disinterested nature. He was in no way 
an office-seeker. However, he was admirably titted for public service 
by reason of his keen business perception, his strict integrity, and he 
was often sought for official posts. In 1 883 he was elected to the City 
Council from the old First Ward, and in 1884-85 was returned to of- 
fice by a large majority. In 1886 he was elected alderman from the 
First Ward, and served in that capacity for four terms. In 1896, 
Mr. Brockway was appointed by Mayor Stiles B. Preston a member 
of the W'atcr Commission, on which he served for six consecutive 
years. He was greatly interested in the cause of education, and be- 
cause of his interest in the work of furthering educational opportun- 
ities in the city of Hartford, he was elected a member of the commit- 
tee of the Second North School District, on which he served for a 
number of years, rendering services of a very valuable nature. He 
was especially interested in the Henry Barnard School of the Second 
North School District, and did much to better conditions there. Mr. 
Brockway was a member of the Farmington Avenue Congregational 
Church, and during the long period of his membership devoted much 
of his time to its work, and gave liberally, but without ostentation, to 
its philanthropies. 

Mr. Brockway married, Nov. 17, 1880, Harriet E. Norton, daughter 
of Seth Porter and Elizabeth Esther (Wilcox) Norton, members 
of the old Norton family of Collinsville, Conn. (See Norton VI). 
Mrs. Brockway survives her husband, and resides at No. 136 Si- 
gourney street, Hartford, Conn. They were the parents of the fol- 
lowing children: 1. Elizabeth Norton, born Feb. 12, 1S82, died Nov. 
9, 1907; she was a graduate of Hartford High School, class of 1899; 
a graduate of Smith College, 1903 ; secretary of Second North 
School ; member of Smith College Club, and of the Daughters of 
the American Kevolution. 2. Ulysses Hayden, Jr., born July 19, 
1890. In January, 1907, he entered Yale Universtiy and was grad- 
uated from that institution in 1911, with the degree of Bachelor 
of Arts ; during his freshman year at Yale he was a member of the 
Apollo Glee Club, retaining his membership for three years ; for a 
like period he sang in the college choir. He is a member of the 
Delta Kappa Upsilon Fraternitv, the University Club, the Hart- 

386 






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H&lqs&ts ^In^cit BrxtckhTci^ 



BROCKWAY AND ALLIED FAMILIES 

ford Golf Club, and numerous other societies. After his graduation 
from Yale University, Mr. Brockway entered the employ of the 
Travellers' Insurance Company of Hartford and was connected 
with the actuary department until his enlistment in the United 
States army in October, 1917. He was called for active service on 
October 15, 1917, and shortly afterward commissioned 2d lieuten- 
ant in the Adjutant-General's Department. He has since been pro- 
moted to the rank of captain. 

Mr. Brockway's death meant to Hartford not only the loss of a 
valuable public official, but a true friend. Expressions of grief at 
his death were wide-spread, and from the various resolutions passed 
by official bodies and articles inserted in the public press a dis- 
criminating choice is difficult. The following resolution passed by 
the Second North School District, at its meeting on July 9, 1914, will 
perhaps give an adequate conception of what he meant in Hart- 
ford as a public officer and a friend of the people : 

The Second North School District recognizes in the death of Mr. Ulysses H. 
Brockway, for twenty-two years a member of the District Committee, the loss of a 
devoted servant of the interests of the District. A warm friend of the teachers and 
pupils and an example of upright, consistent and unobtrusive citizenship, which has 
been of distinct value to the youth of the District and community. During his long 
term of service for the District he was a faithful conservator of its best interests, a 
wise counselor and a self-sacrificing official. His loss will be keenly felt by his asso- 
ciates upon the committee, by the teachers of the school and by his many friends in the 
District and in the community which he has well served by his quiet, unassuming, 
but effective life. 

(Signed) Frank R. Kellogg, 
James P. Berry, 
Solomon Malley, 
District Committee. 

(The Norton Line.) 

The following is a description of the coat-of-arms of the Norton 
family, quartering St. Loe, Russell. De la Riviere, etc., etc. : 

Arms — Quarterly of eleven. In chief: i. Argent, on a bend sable, between two 
lions rampant of the second, three escallops of the field. 2. Argent, vair azure. 3. 
Argent, a bend engrailed sable between two mullets counter-changed, all within a bor- 
dure engrailed of the second. 4. Argent, bordure sable, charged with ten bezants, 
martlet of the second. 

In fess— 1. Sable, chevron ermine between three pheons argent. 2. Argent, bend 
sable, three annulets of the field. 3. Sable, three goats passant argent. 4. Ermine, cross 
engrailed gules. 

In base — 1. Argent, manche gules. 2. Gules, saltire or between four leopards' 
faces argent. 3. Azure two bars dansette or. 

Crest— On a torse of the colors, greyhound couped or, collared per fess gules 
between two barrulets of the second. 

Mantle — Sable and argent, the first veined or. 

The history of the Norton family begins with the Norman Con- 
quest, when on Sept. 29, 1066, the Seigneur de Norville crossed the 
Channel to England in the army of William the Conqueror, a con- 
stable under the Norman French regime. The name Norville. from 

387 



BROCKWAY AND ALLIED FAMILIES 

which the English form Norton is derived, is of French origin and 
signifies "north village." After the residence of the family in 
England, the English form Norton, meaning also north village or 
town, was adopted. It is supposed that the Seigneur de Norville 
was the common ancestor of all families of the name in England, 
Ireland and America. Up to the year 1650 there were thirteen im- 
migrants of the name in America, of whom authentic record exists. 
That branch of the family of which the late Seth Porter Norton, of 
Hartford, Conn., was a member, was descended from John Norton, 
who was in the Connecticut colony as early as 1646. Since the time 
of founding the family has been one of the most prominent of New 
England houses of historic lineage, and has furnished sons who 
have served with distinction in the various departments of our 
national life. 

/. John Norton, immigrant ancestor, was born in England, proba- 
bly at London, in 1622, third son of Richard and Ellen (Rowley) 
Norton. The date of his emigration to America is not known. His 
name is first mentioned on the records of the colony at Branford, 
on July 7, 1646. He was a landed proprietor there. In 1659 John 
Norton removed from Branford to Hartford, and on Sept. 29th of 
that year he made a purchase of several pieces of land and "hous- 
ing." He was made a freeman at Hartford, May 21, 1664. John 
Norton was interested in the establishment of a colony at Tunxis, 
which later became Farmington, and was one of the proprietors of 
the town. He joined the church at Farmington in October, 1661. He 
was one of the largest land owners there, a man of considerable 
wealth according to the standards of the period. All of his exten- 
sive holdings in Farmington and the vicinity descended to his heirs. 

He married (first) Dorothy , who died in Branford, Jan. 24, 

1652. His second wife, Elizabeth, died Nov. 6, 1657. He married 
(third) Elizabeth Clark, who died Nov. 8, 1702. He died in Farm- 
ington, Nov. 5, 1709. 

//. John (2) Norton, son of John (1) and Dorothy Norton, was 
born in Branford, May 24, 1651, and died in Farmington, Conn., 
April 25, 1725. He was a man of considerable prominence in the 
early colony, and was deputy to the General Court from Farmington 
in 1680-81-82. He married, in Farmington, Ruth Moore, daughter of 
Isaac and Ruth (Stanley) Moore; she and their son Thomas were 
administrators of John Norton's estate. 

111. Thomas Norton, son of John (2) and Ruth (Moore) Norton, 
was born in Farmington, Conn., on July 1, 1697, and died there in 
1760. He was the owner of a great amount of property in the vicin- 
ity of Farmington, and was one of the original proprietors of Salis- 
bury, Connecticut. In the division of public lands in April, 1739, he 
drew lot No. 24. In 1748 he purchased much land from Thomas 
Lamb. Thomas Norton married (first) on Nov. 17, 1724, Elizabeth 

388 



a* . - 









'- 



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.y^*»- 



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\. 



■ 

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- > -. 



■ %. 



g>?th ISnrtrr Nortnn 



BROCKWAY AND ALLIED FAMILIES 

Mclan of Stratford, who died in Farmington in 1736. He married 
(second) in 1739, Widow Rachel Pomeroy; (third) Sept. 11, 1753, 
Elizabeth Doming. 

IV. Ichabod Norton, son of Thomas and Elizabeth (Mclan) Nor- 
ton, was born in Farmington, Conn., in 1736, and became one of the 
most distinguished members of the Norton family. He is a notable 
figure in the revolutionary annals of the State of Connecticut, hav- 
ing served as a colonel in the Continental forces and rendered most 
valuable services to the country. Colonel Ichabod Norton married 
Ruth Strong, who also gained distinction for bravery during the war. 

V. George Norton, son of Col. Ichabod and Ruth (Strong) Nor- 
ton, was born in Farmington, Conn., in November, 1782, and during 
the early part of his life lived in Farmington, where he became a 
prosperous farmer and leading citizen. In 1800 he removed to Gran- 
ny and later to Avon, where he died on May 11, 1833. He married 
Eliza Frisbie, a member of one of the old families of Farmington. 

VI. Seth Porter Norton, son of George and Eliza (Frisbie) Nor- 
ton, was born May 16, 1823, at Avon, Conn., where he resided during 
his childhood. He received his early education in the public schools 
of the nearby town, Collinsville, a manufacturing town which offered 
the best educational opportunities to be found in the neighborhood. 
However, as is found to be a common occurrence in the lives of suc- 
cessful men of the last generation, he left school at an early age, and 
went into the largest of the manufacturing plants in the town, the 
Collins Company, makers of plows, axes, and other agricultural im- 
plements. His first employment in the company was of an unim- 
portant nature. He was a man not only of keen business foresight 
and clear perception, but possessed also an infinite capacity for de- 
tails. He mastered every phase of the business in the various posi- 
tions which he held with the firm, and was gradually advanced as he 
became of greater value to the company. He eventually became sup- 
erintendent of the Collins Company, a position which involved a very 
large and trying responsibility. Mr. Norton's energy was given un- 
reservedly to his work, and throughout the years of his connection 
with the Collins Company he was regarded as a man of the strictest 
integrity and reliability in business dealings. His fairness and jus- 
tice were proverbial. As a consequence men trusted him and his 
friends were legion. 

Seth Porter Norton achieved a success in the business world 
which was entirely the result of his own efforts, and through that 
fact appealed as a friend and advisor to the vast army of men who 
owe their success to unremitting labor and indomitable purpose, 
rather than to brilliant and exceptional strokes of genius. He was 
deeply interested in politics and held various public offices. Mr. 
Norton represented Collinsville in the Connecticut State Legislature 
for several terms. 

389 



BROCKWAY AND ALLIED FAMILIES 

Seth Porter Norton was a gentleman of the old school and a true 
Christian, whose Christianity extended beyond the narrow hounds 
of one religious denomination. Though he was a lifelong member 
of the Congregational church, he was in strong sympathy with every 
religious faith, tolerant enough to see and adopt the good in each. 
As is usual with the man who has dealt with and managed all man- 
ner of men, broad tolerance and a sympathy with humanity were 
characteristic of Mr. Norton throughout life. He knew and un- 
derstood, which was the secret of his attraction for men, and the 
reason for his numerous friends. Mr. Norton died at the age of 
forty-four years, a man well loved, honored and revered. 

He married (first) Aurelia Humason, of New Britain, Conn., on 
December 23, 1845. She died Sept. 2, 1849. He married (second) 
on Jan. 1, 1851, Elizabeth Esther Wilcox, daughter of Averit and 
Sally (Tuller) Wilcox, and a member of an old and highly respected 
family of Simsbury. Child of the first marriage : Mary, de- 
ceased. Children of second marriage : 1. Charles Everett, de- 
ceased. 2. Harriet Elizabeth, married, Nov. 17, 1880, Ulysses H. 
Brockway, of Hartford. 3. William Averit, deceased. 4. George 
Wilcox, engaged in business in Philadelphia. 5. Charles Robinson, 
deceased. 

(The Wilcox Line.) 

Arms — Ermine a chief chequy, or and gules. 
Crest — On a mount, a dove proper. 

The Wilcox family is of Saxon origin and was seated at Bury St. 
Edmunds, County Suffolk, England, before the Norman Conquest. 
Sir John Dugdale, in the visitation of the County of Suffolk, men- 
tioned fifteen generations of this family prior to the year 1600. 
This traces the lineage back to the year 1200, when the surname 
came into use as an inherited family name. AVilcox, variously 
spelled, dates back to an early period of English history. One 
"Wilcox or Wilcott" is recorded as furnishing three men-at-arms 
at the battle of Agincourt. Another of the name is on record as 
court physician to King Charles. The family is one of honor and 
renown in old England, several of its branches bearing arms. In 
America the name is found in the very beginnings of our Colonial 
history. The Wilcoxes were at Jamestown, Virginia, as early as 
1610, and at Cambridge, Massachusetts, as early as 1636. 

The derivation of the surname is interesting. It is of that large 
class of English surnames which had their source in nicknames and 
sobriquets. It is a compound of "Will," meaning literally "the 
son of William," and the suffix "cock," a term of familiarity gener- 
ally applied in the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries to one of a 
sharp or forward nature. The sobriquet was of such a character 
that it adhered to its bearer throughout life, and was transmitted to 

39o 



BROCKWAY AND ALLIED FAMILIES 

succeeding generations. Thus we have the surnames, Wilcox, Jeff- 
cock, Hancock, etc. 

The family in America has figured prominently in New England 
life and affairs since the middle of the seventeenth century. Wil- 
liam Wilcox, immigrant ancestor and progenitor of the family here- 
in under consideration, was the first of the name to establish himself 
in New England. His descendants are found largely in Massachu- 
setts and Connecticut. Others of the name followed him and be- 
came the founders of flourishing and influential families. 

/. William Wilcox, the founder, was born in the year 1601, at St. 
Albans, Hertfordshire, England, and came to this country in 1636, a 
passenger in the ship "Planter," bringing with him a certificate 
of conformity to the doctrines of the Church of England, signed 
by the minister of St, Albans. He was thirty-four years old at the 
time of his arrival. He settled in Massachusetts, where he was ad- 
mitted a freeman Dec. 7, 1636. William Wilcox was a linen weaver 
by trade. He removed in 1639 to Stratford, Conn., where he subse- 
quently rose to prominence in public affairs. In 1647 he was deputy 
to the General Court at Hartford. He died in 1652, aged fifty-one 
years. His wife, Margaret Wilcox, was born in England, in 1611, 
and accompanied him to America. They were the parents of sev- 
eral children, among them Samuel, mentioned below. 

II. Samuel Wilcox, son of William and Margaret Wilcox, was 
bom about 1636. He accompanied his parents to Stratford, but on 
attaining his majority married and settled in Windsor, Conn., where 
he was prominent in local affairs until his death. His home was in 
that part of AVindsor which is now Simsbury, where he had a grant 
of land. Samuel Wilcox was sergeant of the Windsor military com- 
pany. He married Hannah ; they were the parents of three 

children of actual record, but there were doubtless others. 

///. Deacon William (2) Wilcox, son of Samuel and Hannah W T il- 
cox, was born in Connecticut, about 1670. He was a lifelong resident 
of Simsbury, where he was the owner of considerable property. He 
married, Jan. 18, 1699, Elizabeth Wilson, daughter of Samuel and 
Mary (Griffin) Wilson, of Simsbury. They were the parents of Dea- 
con William Wilcox, mentioned below. 

IV. Deacon William (3) Wilcox, son of Deacon William (2) and 
Elizabeth (Wilson) Wilcox, was born in Simsbury, Conn., April 22, 
1702, and died there Dec. 27, 1772. Like his father, he was a leader 
in religious activities, and one of the foremost citizens of the town. 
He married, May 2, 1723, Thanks Adams, who was probably a 
daughter of Daniel and Mary Adams of Simsbury. 

V. Lieutenant William (4) Wilcox, son of Deacon William (3) and 
Thanks (Adams) W'ilcox, was born April 1, 1728, in Simsbury, 
Conn., and settled about 1750 in West Simsbury, where he died in 
1775. He was among the minute-men who marched from Simsbury 

39i 



BROCKWAY AND ALLIED FAMILIES 



and Lucy (Case) 
1772, and died in 



on the Lexington Alarm, April 19, 1775. He married Lucy Case, 
born Oct. 17, 1732, died in 1805, daughter of John (3) and Abigail 
(Humphrey) Case, granddaughter of John (2) and great-grand- 
daughter of John (1) Case, founder of the family. 

VI. Daniel Wilcox, son of Lieut. William (4) 
"Wilcox, was born in West Simsbury, March 25, 
1833, in Weatogue, where he spent his latter years. He married 
Esther Merritt, who was born March S, 1771, died Nov. 10, 1S60, at 
Weatogue. She was a daughter of James and Hannah (Phelps) 
Merritt, the latter a daughter of Thomas and Margaret (Watson) 
Phelps, of the ancient Windsor family of that name. Daniel and 
Esther Wilcox were parents of ten sons and one daughter. 

VII. Averit Wilcox, son of Daniel and Esther (Merritt) Wilcox, 
was born Jan. 25, 1793, and was a prosperous farmer of Simsbury, 
where he died Jan. 26, 18G6. He married, August 21, 1821, Sally 
Tuller, who was born Feb. 10, 1799. in Simsbury, daughter of Elisha 
and Elizabeth (Case) Tuller. 

VIII. Elisabeth Esther Wilcox, daughter of Averit and Sally 
(Tuller) Wilcox, was born in Simsbury, Conn. She married, Jan. 1, 
1851, Seth Porter Norton, of Collinsville, Connecticut, and they were 
the parents of Harriet Elizabeth Norton. (See Norton VI). 




392 



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i 

3 



jBiatUst Ml *._ fan ...^*. . . .~,— ~_ 



■ 




Befden and Allied Families 



Arms — Argent, a fcsse between three fleurs-de-lis, sable. 
Motto — Deo Ducc (God my Leader). 

jylSyjHE following excerpt is taken from a letter written by 



mm 



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IS Wm 



William Paley Baildon, F. S. A., member of the Council 
of the Archaeological Society of Yorkshire, England, and 
concerns the origin of the Belden family. "There is only 
one family of Baildon; all persons bearing that name by 
inheritance must have sprung from the Yorkshire manor of that 
name. Richard Bayldon, son of Sir Francis Bayldon, of Kippax, 
baptized May 26, 1591, was the only Richard, so far as I know, would 
have had monev to spend in the purchase of lands as Bichard of 
Wethersfield did." 

The ancestral seat of the Bayldon family, as the English house 
from which the American Beldens sprung spell the name, was the 
manor of Baildon, in Kippax, Yorkshire, England, and the family 
was one of great antiquity, worth and importance. The pedigree of 
the Baildons of Kippax Manor extends from the end of the fifteenth 
century, through five generations to the American immigrant, as 
follows: I. Walter Baildon, founder of the family. II. John Baildon, 
son and heir of Walter Baildon, died December 22, 1526. ///. George 
Baildon, son of John Baildon, was born in 1520; he is mentioned 
in the records of Methby in 1567, and is recorded in Hardwick, in 
3574. He was buried at Kippax in Yorkshire, in 1588. IV. Sir 
Francis Baildon, son of George Baildon, was born at Kippax, 
Yorkshire, in 1560, and upon the death of his father, in 1588, became 
Reeve of Kippax. He was knighted on July 23, 1603. V. Rich- 
ard Baildon, son of Sir Francis Baildon, was born at Kippax, and 
baptized there on May 26, 1591. He settled in the New England Col- 
onies toward the middle of the seventeenth century. His descendants 
have consistently adhered to the spelling Belden ; some branches use 
the form. Belding. 

(The Family in America.) 

7. Richard Belden, immigrant ancestor and progenitor of the 
American Beldens, was born in Kippax, Yorkshire, England, about 
the year 1591, the son of Sir Francis Baildon. He was baptized May 
26, 1591, according to a document which he signed on March 26, 
1613, as Richard Baylden, aged "19 years of age, born at Kippax, 

393 



BELDEN AND ALLIED FAMILIES 

county Yorkshire." This document was signed when he took the 
oath of allegiance as a soldier of the King. He emigrated to Amer- 
ica and settled in Wethersfield, Connecticut, where he became the 
owner of eight pieces of property, according to the town records, 
some of which the town gave him, and some of which he purchased 
from "Jonas Woode." During his lifetime lie accumulated consid- 
erable real estate, which he left to his children, and laid the founda- 
tion of wealth for his progeny. His descendants have been marked 
for a keen business and commercial genius, sterling morals and in- 
tellectual force. His home lot was on the corner of Broad street 
and "The "Wave leading into the Great playne." This piece of land 
remained in the family for four generations, and was sold in 1742 by 
the great-grandson of Richard Bclden, Silas Belden. He held sev- 
eral town offices, and was prominent in local affairs. He died in 
1655, and the inventory of his estate proved him to be a wealthy man 
according to the standards of the day. Richard Belden was beyond 
doubt representative of the highest type of cultivated Englishman 
who came to the New World. He brought with him to America his 
three sons: William, born about 1622; Samuel, born about 1629; 
John, mentioned below. 

II. Jolin Bclden, son of Richard Belden, was born in England 
about 1631, and accompanied his father to America, settling in 
Wethersfield, where he was made a freeman in 1657. He enlisted as 
a trooper under Captain John Mason during the years 1657-58, and 
took an active part in the affairs of the town. He inherited a large 
portion of the real estate of his father, and acquired much of his own 
by purchase, building a moderate fortune. He was licensed to be a 
tavern keeper by the town, and in all probability was a merchant. 
The inventory of his estate amounted to £911. He died June 27, 
1677, aged forty-six years. The Wethersfield Land Records, pages 
225-258, bear his autograph, "John Belden." John Belden married 
Lydia Standish, daughter of Thomas and Susanna Standish. Their 
children were: 1. John, born June 12, 1658. 2. Lieut. Jonathan, 
June 21, 1660. 3. Joseph, April 23, 1663. 4. Samuel, mentioned be- 
low. 5. Sarah, March 31, 1668. 6. Daniel, Oct. 12, 1670. 7. Child, 
Jan. 8, 1672. 8. Lydia, in March, 1675, married Stephen Kellogg. 
9. Margaret, March 29, 1677. 

III. Samuel Belden, son of John and Lydia (Standish) Belden, 
was born at Wethersfield, Conn., in 1665, and is supposed to have 
removed to New London, and to have been the progenitor of the 
New London Beldens. He married, Jan. 14, 1685, Hannah Hardy, 
daughter of Richard Hardy, and granddaughter of John Elderkin, 
one of the pioneer settlers of Norwich, Conn. ; she died Jan. 20, 1741- 
42. He died Dec. 27, 1738. The inventory of his estate, taken Jan. 
25, 1739, placed his estate at £381 16s. 1 d. The children of Samuel 
and Hannah (Hardy) Belden, born in Wethersfield, were: 1. A 

394 



BELDEN AND ALLIED FAMILIES 

daughter, died in 1G88. 2. Samuel, mentioned below. 3. Daniel, 
born Feb. 14, 1690-91. 4. Gideon, March 24, 1692-93. 5. Prudence, 
Feb. 12, 1694. 6. Eunice, April 14, 1696, died Dec. 26, 1797. 7. Rich- 
ard, April IS, 1699. 8. Matthew, June 13, 1701. 9. Hannah, Sept. 
25, 1704. 

IV. Samuel (2) Belden, son of Samuel (1) and Hannah (Hardy) 
Belden, was born in Wethersfield, Conn., in 1689. He married (first) 
April 10, 1712, Mary Spencer, of Haddam, Connecticut, who died 
Oct. 28,' 1751, at the age of sixty years. His second wife died Feb. 
23, 1775. Samuel Belden was prominent in official life in Wethers- 
field and owned a large amount of property in the town. He died 
July 31, 1771. Children: 1. Samuel, mentioned below. 2. Jared, 
born Jan. 19. 1714-15. 3. Nathaniel, born June 24, 1716. 4. Lydia, born 
May 24, 1718. 5. Asa, bom April 1, 1720, died Feb. 16, 1800. 6. Mary, 
born Dec. 11, 1721. 7. Ann, born Nov. 7, 1723. 8. Seth, born Sept. 18, 
1725. 9. Daniel, born May 19, 1727. 10. Richard, born Dec. 30, 
1728. 11. Phinehas, born Sept. 14, 1730. 12. Dorothv, born Sept, 6, 
1732. 13. Esther, born June 22, 1734. 14. Martha, born June, 1736, 
died Oct. 9, 1751. 

V. Samuel (3) Belden, son of Samuel (2) and Mary (Spencer) 
Belden, was born in AVethersfield, Conn., in 1713. He later re- 
moved to Stepney, Conn., where he was a prosperous farmer and 

well known citizen. He married Elizabeth , who died Feb. 

23, 1775. He died Jan. 10, 1789. Children: 1. Prudence, born 
July 12, 1742. 2. Abner, born Jan. 12, 1744; married, Oct. 24, 1771, 
Mary Standish. 3. Bildad, born August 7, 1746. 4. Seth, men- 
tioned below. 5. Moses, born June 18, 1749, died August 16, 1750. 
6. Rebecca, born March 27, 1751; married Daniel Woodruff, of 
Farmington, Conn. 7. Mary, born Jan. 3, 1753. 

VI. Seth Belden, son of Samuel (3) and Elizabeth Belden, was 
born in 1747. He was a soldier in the xVmerican Revolution, enlist- 
ing from AVethersfield, in November, 1775, as a private in Capt. Ozias 
Bissel's company, Col. Huntington's regiment. Seth Belden was 
killed in the battle of Long Island, August 27, 1776. No further 
record of his life exists, beyond that of his marriages. He mar- 
ried (first) Sally — ; (second) Christian Dickinson, who sur- 
vived him and died in 1S36, aged eighty years. She received a pen- 
sion from the government. Seth and Christian (Dickinson) Belden 
were the parents of several children. 

VU. Seth (2) Belden, son of Seth (1) and Christian (Dickin- 
son) Belden, was a resident of Cromwell, Conn., and was there en- 
gaged in business as a shoemaker. He was active in religious inter- 
ests in Cromwell, and was a member of the Congregational church. 
He married Sarah Smith. Children : 1. Sally, born May 10, 1801. 2. 
Child, died in infancy. 3. Louisa, born Jan. 15, 1804. 4. Lucy, born 
Jan. 15, 1804. 5. Harriet Sage, married a Mr. Bullard, and lived in 

395 



BELDEN AND ALLIED FAMILIES 

Middletown, Conn. 6. Emeline, married Ezra Sago. 7. Henry, a 
resident of Hartford, married Hannah Witherall. 8. Seth, men- 
tioned below. 

VIII. Seth (3) B eld en, son of Seth (2) and Sarah (Smith) Bel- 
den, was born in what is now the town of Cromwell, Conn., May 
8, 1812. In 1828, at the age of sixteen years, he went to Hartford, 
and there learned the trade of stone-cutter, in which he engaged 
for the remainder of his life. He later became a dealer in the 
stone business, ranking as one of the foremost business men and 
citizens of the city of Hartford. The business, first conducted un- 
der the name of Seth Belden, later became Seth Belden & Son. 

Mr. Belden was a Democrat in political conviction, and was a 
well known figure in official life in Hartford, in the second half of the 
century just closed. He was many times a member of the Common 
Council, and at various times held other city offices. He was a man 
of strong convictions, of great integrity and unimpeachable honesty. 
In religious faith he was a Universalist. 

Seth Belden married, May 15, 1831, Abigail Sophia Stedman, 
daughter of Nathan and Belinda (Stebbens) Stedman, born in Eng- 
lishtown, N. J., June 21. 1816, and died in Hartford, March 20, 
1853. Seth Belden died Sept. 28, 1896. Children: 1. Sarah So- 
phia, born 1835, died Jan. 31, 1852. 2. James Stedman, mentioned 
below. 3. Adeline Russell, born Sept. 9, 1843; married Charles 
Frederick Sedgwick, and is now living on the old homestead. 4. 
Charles Rockwell, mentioned below. 5. Alfred Burr, married (sec- 
ond) Elizabeth Corning, of Hartford, and had one child, Alfred 
Seth Belden, now a resident of New York City. 

IX. James Stedman Belden, son of Seth (3) and Abigail Sophia 
(Stedman) Belden, was born in Hartford, Conn., July 25, 1840. He 
was educated in the schools of the city. After finishing his educa- 
tion he entered his father's business, and upon attaining his ma- 
jority was admitted as a partner, the firm then becoming Seth Bel- 
den & Son. The firm was one of the best known and largest of its 
kind in Hartford, and in addition to operating quarries in Bolton 
and Glastonbury, also engaged in cement and sidewalk building. 
At the death of his father, James Stedman Belden became head of 
the firm and remained so until his death. He was an ardent Dem- 
ocrat, and was active in the political life of the city of Hartford, 
serving as councilman from the Third Ward in 1866-67-68. He was 
a member of the Hartford Business Men's Association. James S.- 
Belden died in Hartford, Conn., in December, 1914. He is sur- 
vived by his wife, and three daughters— Sophia, Elizabeth, and Mrs. 
James H. Morgan (nee Adeline Sedgwick Belden). 

IX. Charles Rockwell Belden, son of Seth (3) and Abigail Sophia 
(Stedman) Belden, was born in Hartford, Conn., Jan. 24, 1850. He 
received his early education in the public schools of the city, and 

396 



BELDEN AND ALLIED FAMILIES 

after completing his studies engaged for a period in the tailoring 
business, leaving it, however, after a short time to enter the business 
which his father had established in Hartford. He studied the- busi- 
ness in all its departments, and was an active factor in its affairs 
during the two years he was connected with the firm. He resigned 
from Seth Belden & Son in 1882, and in the same year founded the 
Hartford Coal Company. The venture was very successful from the 
outset and developed to a great size. Shortly afterward Mr. Belden 
was elected to the office of president and treasurer, and acted in that 
capacity until the time of his death. 

Mr. Belden was a man of conspicuous business genius, and pos- 
sessed a talent for organization and management which won him a 
place of unusual prominence in the business and financial circles of 
Hartford. He was generally recognized as a man whose lead might 
be followed with the greatest safety and advantage. He was a quick 
and sure judge of men, and had the qualities of the born leader, ap- 
pealing to men not through the authority which was his if he chose to 
use it, but through the power of reason. He was keenly interested 
in the local and national issues of politics, and was a staunch Repub- 
lican, though not bound to the principles of his party against his bet- 
ter judgment. He was a member of the Common Council of Hart- 
ford during the term of 1875, being elected from the Third Ward. 
Charles Rockwell Belden was a prominent factor in the club and fra- 
ternal life of the city and was a member of the following organiza- 
tions: St. John's Lodge, Free and Accepted Masons, of Hartford; 
the B. H. Webb Council, Royal Arcanum; the Hartford Council, Im- 
proved Order of Heptasophs, and the Sicaogg Tribe, Improved Or- 
der of Red Men. 

He married, May 28, 1868, Mary Elizabeth Sill, daughter of Micah 
(2) and Adelaide" (Raphael-Baker) Sill, of Hartford. (See Sill 
VIII). 

Raphael Arms— Azure, three crosses potent argent. 
Crest — A ducal coronet of five leaves or. 

The children of Mr. and Mrs. Belden were: 1. Frederick Seth, 
who succeeded his father as president and treasurer of the Hart- 
ford Coal Company; married Sidney Hanson; children: Kathleen 
and Ruth. 2. Caroline Sill, married James E. Brooks, of Orange, 
N. J. ; children : Charles and Eleanor. 3. Louise, married William 
C. Hill, of Sunbury, Penn. 

Mrs. Belden survives her husband, and resides at No. 905 Asylum 
avenue, Hartford. Charles Rockwell Belden died in Hartford, 
March 18, 1902. 

(The Sill Line.) 

Arms — Argent a fesse engrailed sable fretty or, in chief a lion passant gules. 
Crest — A demi-griffin proper collared argent 

397 



BELDEN AND ALLIED FAMILIES 

The branch of the Sill family of which Mrs. Charles R. Beldeu 
is a descendant, comprises the progeny of John Sill, the first of the 
English house to emigrate to America, where in 1G37 he settled at 
"Newtowne," now Cambridge, Massachusetts. 

/. John Sill, progenitor of the family in America, was born in 
England, and came to America in 1637, arriving in the Massachu- 
setts Colony between the months of June and December. He 
brought with him his wife Joanna, and his children— Joseph, born 
ini 1636, and Elizabeth, born in 1637, both of whom were baptized 
in England. He settled in Cambridge, and was admitted a free- 
man there on May 2, 1638. During 1638 he and his wife were ad- 
mitted members of the Congregational Society of Cambridge. In 
1638 he bought a house and lot at the southeast corner of Eliot and 
Winthrop streets. It is probable that sickness and the expense of 
the voyage from England somewhat reduced his resources, for the 
church records speak of his receiving a "bottell of sack." He was 
also indebted to one of the members of the Council, and was assisted 
in discharging his debt by one of the magistrates of the town, which 
fact would indicate that he held a position of prominence in local 
affairs. He retrieved his fortunes, however, and in 1642 was the 
owner of four and a half acres of land, in addition to his house and 
lot, and in 1645 received a grant of four acres more. In 1647 he 
is mentioned as one of the creditors of an estate, and under date of 
Feb. 23, 1648-49, as one of the proprietors of land in Cambridge. He 
died somewhat prior to 1652. His widow, Joanna Sill, survived him 
for twenty years, and among the allotments of land made on June 
9, 1652, received lot Xo. 66, containing forty acres of land in Cam- 
bridge, situated not far from the center of the town. On August 
27, 1653, she was granted power to recover certain debts due one 
Susann Blaciston, of Newcastle-upon-Tyne, in England. The will 
of Joanna Sill was presented for probate in October, 1671. 

II. Joseph Sill, son of John and Joanna Sill, was born in England, 
in 1636, and came to America with his parents the year following his 
birth. He married (first) Dec. 5, 1660, Jemima Belcher, daughter 
of Andrew Belcher, of Cambridge. She was a niece of Lieutenant- 
Governor Thomas Danforth, and aunt to Governor Jonathan Belch- 
er, of Massachusetts. Jemima (Belcher) Sill died in Cambridge, 
Mass., about the year 1675. Joseph Sill married (second) Mrs. 
Sarah Marvin, daughter of George Clark, of Milford, Conn., Feb. 
12, 1677. 

During his residence in Cambridge, Joseph Sill signed a petition 
drawn up by the freeman of that town, asking the General Court to 
continue the liberties and privileges of the charter of King James 
and King Charles I. In 1665 he was the owner of ten acres of land 
in Cambridge, and later acquired twenty more. Joseph Sill was a 
lieutenant in the local militia at the outbreak of King Philip 's War 

39» 



BELDEN AND ALLIED FAMILIES 

in 1675, and on Sept. 24th of that year was commissioned a captain 
of one hundred men under Major Pyncheon. He saw service through- 
out New England during the war, and is mentioned in Hubbard's 
history of the conflict as having engaged against the Indians in sev- 
eral expeditions on the Merrimac river, Casco bay and Ossipee riv- 
er in New Hampshire. Savage speaks of him as "the famous Cap- 
tain Joseph Sill." At the close of the war he left Cambridge and 
went to Lyme, Connecticut, where he purchased land lying north of 
Mill brook, at a place called Grassy Hill. Here he settled and fol- 
lowed agricultural pursuits during the remainder of his life. He 
died August 6, 1696, and his wife died on Feb. 17, 1715. There is to 
be found in the Massachusetts Archives, vol. 70, page 148, a letter 
written by Captain Joseph Sill in November, 1685, to the General 
Court of Massachusetts, at Boston. During his residence in Lyme 
he became one of the most prominent men of the colony. He was 
elected deputy to the General Court of Connecticut three times, in 
1686-90-91. On May 12, 1692, he was appointed by the court, captain 
of the Train Band of Lyme, and held that position until the time of 
his death. 

III. Joseph (2) Sill, son of Joseph (1) and Sarah (Clark-Marvin) 
Sill, was born Jan. 6, 1678, at Lyme, Conn., and died there, Nov. 10, 
1765. He was a farmer by occupation, and inherited the land first 
settled by his father. In 1716, with his brother Zachariah, he pur- 
chased land in the vicinity of this farm, about a mile and a half from 
the center of Lyme village. Here both settled with their families. 
This part of Lyme became known as "Silltown." In 1730 Joseph 
Sill purchased land in the North Parish of Lyme from Eben Mack, 
£300, which he deeded in 1746 to his son Jabez. The old family home- 
stead he deeded in 1730 to his son John. Joseph Sill was a member 
of the Congregational Society. He married, about 1704, Phoebe 
Lord, daughter of Lieut. Richard Lord, of Lyme, born in 1686, and 
died Jan. 4, 1772, aged eighty-six years. 

IV. Thomas Sill, son of Joseph (2) and Phoebe (Lord) Sill, was 
born in Lyme, Conn., on August 25, 1717, and died there in 1760. He 
was a farmer, and lived on the estate "Grassy Hill," inherited from 
his father. He married Jemima Dudley, of Saybrook, Conn., May 6, 
1742. She was the daughter of Lieut. Joseph and Sarah (Pratt) 
Dudley, born May 20, 1720, and died in 1814. 

V. Micah Sill, son of Thomas and Jemima (Dudley) Sill, was born 
at Lyme, Conn., Dec. 25, 1751, and died there Dec. 10, 1786. He 
passed his entire life on his farm in Lyme. At the Lexington Alarm 
in April, L775, he enlisted with his three brothers, as a patriot, in 
the Connecticut forces, and marched to Roxbury, Mass., to the re- 
lief of Boston. He was a member of Captain Joseph Jowett's com- 
pany, of the 6th Continentals, Col. Parsons commanding. Micah 
Sill was later known as Major Sill, probably from his rank in the 

399 



BELDEN AND ALLIED FAMILIES 

State Militia. He married Azubah Harvey, of North Lyme, in 1774. 

VI. Thomas (2)Sill, son of Micah and Azubah (Harvey) Sill, was 
born in Lyme, Conn., Oct. 1, 1776, and died at Middletown, Conn., 
Jan. 29, 1826. He learned the trade of cabinetmaker, and owned a 
large factory at Middletown, where he employed as many as one 
hundred men. He was a lieutenant in the 1st Light Infantry, 23rd 
Regiment, Connecticut Militia, and his commission bears the date, 
Nov. 1, 1809. He became a member of the General Society of Me- 
chanics, Jan. 4, 1814. On August 2, 1800, Thomas Sill married Clar- 
issa Treadway, daughter of Amos and Elizabeth (Blake) Treadway, 
who was bom at Middletown, Dec. 31, 1775, and died Dec. 22, 186*0, 
aged eighty-four years. 

VII. Micah (2) Sill, son of Thomas (2) and Clarissa (Treadway) 
Sill, was born in Middletown, Conn., May 8, 1803, and died March 22, 
1859. He was a watchmaker by trade, and owned a jewelry shop in 
New York City for several years, in partnership with his brother, 
Frederick Sill. He married (first) Susan Casey Starr, of Middle- 
town, Conn., on Oct. 29, 1826. He married (second) Mrs. Adelaide 
(Kaphael) Baker, of Hartford, Conn., on June 11, 1847. After his 
second marriage he went to live in Wethersheld, on his wife's farm, 
which he increased in size by the addition of adjoining lots. His 
second wife died Jan. 16, 1858. Micah Sill was a member of the 
State Militia, in which he held the rank of major. The children of 
his second marriage were : 1. Mary Elizabeth, mentioned below. 2. 
Adelaide Josephine, born Sept. 1, 1849 ; married Charles C. Tomlin- 
son, of Hartford, Conn., May 7, 1873. 

VIII. Mary Elizabeth Sill, first daughter of Micah (2) and Ade- 
laide (Eaphael-Baker) Sill, married Charles Rockwell Belden, of 
Hartford, Conn. (See Belden IX). 




400 



McClary and Allied Families 

Arms— Or, a chevron azure, between three roses gules. 



^psyjHEBE is a duty which every American owes the land 
j >£j which gives him his opportunity and fortune, a duty which, 
I || unless embellished and ornamented by unusual induce- 
ljy ^4^f |*.fj ments, it is the custom of the average citizen to overlook. 
On everyhand one finds men whose talents and inclinations 
fit them preeminently for public service, but who shun this duty of 
patriotism because of the greater benefits, pecuniary and of other na- 
tures, which accrue to them from the field of busniess. The country 
has its statesmen, but it needs in the ranks of its servants and advi- 
sors the trained and analytical mind of the business man to solve the 
problems which face the Nation to-day, the problems within its own 
borders. The talents of the ordinary business men do not run to un- 
ravelling the intricacies of international law, but rather do they ap- 
ply to and excel in the management of questions of commerce, labor, 
reform, etc., which agitate the public to-day. For men so endowed to 
reject office and government service because of selfish reasons is a 
blot upon their citizenship. No man can truly uphold the ideals and 
standards of America, who, being capable, refuses the high honor of 
public service. 

It may with truth and conviction be said that the late John Mc- 
Clary, of Hartford, Connecticut, did his duty to its full extent in the 
long years in which he faithfully served the Government of the 
United States, subserving every personal wish to its demands, be- 
cause of a high standard of patriotism and honor which put country 
before self. 

Mr. McClary was of Scotch parentage, the son of John and 
Ellen (Eeilly) McClary, natives of the world-famed shipbuilding 
city of Glasgow, Scotland. The Scotch are among the most intense- 
ly patriotic people in the world, a people whose love of home and 
country is a fire unquenchable, as is amply attested by history. The 
allegiance which his parents brought to the land of their adoption 
was equally strong in their son, and was the moving factor in Mr. 
McClary 's devotion to his service in the offices of the government, 
despite the fact that he was eminently fitted for success in a field of 
business which, when he finally entered it, comparatively late in 
life, proved lucrative and successful. 

Shortly after their marriage, John McClary, Sr., came to Amer- 
ica with his wife, settling in the city of Boston, where John McClary, 

401 



McCLARY AND ALLIED FAMILIES 

Jr., was born. When he was quite young his parents moved to 
Wakefield, Massachusetts. It was here that he received his eaiiv 
education, attending school until he reached the age of fifteen vears. 
While young McClary was still in his thirteenth year, 1861, the Civil 
War broke out, sweeping the country like a fever, and drawing men 
to the colors in a burst of enthusiasm which, to put it tritelv, was no 
respecter of age. Youth and age stood side by side eagerlv await- 
ing the chance to serve their country. All the willingness and eager- 
ness which he could muster did not stand Mr. McClary in the stead 
which additional years would have, and he found that enlistment was 
barred to him because of his age. Two years later, however, in 1863, 
he left school, and was admitted to the army as a member of the 
Signal Corps. From that time until the close of hostilities he saw 
active service with a branch of the army which is constantly exposed 
to greater danger than any other. To a man of spirit and courage, 
to live through the soul-stirring events of a great war is one of the 
greatest fortunes which can befall him. Mr. McClary came into 
close contact with many of the great events of those days, wonder- 
ful yet terrible, and was one of the audience in the Ford* Theatre in 
Washington, on the fateful night when John Wilkes Booth assas- 
sinated Abraham Lincoln, the genius who had safely guided the 
country through the storms of Civil War. Mr. McClary did not give 
up his position in the Signal Service at the end of the war, but re- 
tired for a period, and returning North, went to live with his sister, 
Mrs. Mary Wetherby, in Springfield, Massachusetts, living with her 
for a number of years. 

During his residence in Springfield, he became associated with 
Colonel Bartholomew and James L. Thompson in the American Ex- 
press Company, with whom he was connected for several years. 
Shortly after his marriage, Mr. McClary again entered the Signal 
Service and went West with his wife. The work to which he was 
then assigned was in connection with the Weather Bureau, and in- 
volved considerable sacrifice of personal wishes and inclinations, 
because of the fact that they had constantly to be moving from one 
section of the country to another. They have resided all over the 
United States. Mr. McClary 's last post was in California, where he 
was stationed about 1890. In 1891 he gave up active service and re- 
turned to the East, making his home in Hartford, Connecticut. Here 
he bought out a woodworking factory, and from that time until his 
death devoted himself to his business interests. In this enterprise 
he attained a high degree of success, and became known as one of the 
substantially successful business men of the city of Hartford, de- 
spite the fact that he had entered the field of business at a time of 
life when the majority of men are fairly established in it. 

Mr. McClary was keenly interested in the political issues of the 
times, as an observer, and as a member of the body politic, but he 

402 



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McCLARY AND ALLIED FAMILIES 

never entered the political field as a candidate for public office. He 
was very active in the social and club life of Hartford from the time 
of his first residence in the city, and was a member whose presence 
was counted upon and whose voice was reckoned with in the council 
of many important and influential organizations in the city. He was 
a member of the Grand Army of the" Republic, the Army and Navy 
clubs. He had attained the thirty-second degree in the Masonic or- 
der, and was a member of Washington Commanderv, Knights Tem- 
plar, and also of the Mecca Temple, Mystic Shrine/ 

On September 28, 1S6S, while a resident in the home of his sis- 
ter in Springfield, Massachusetts. Mr. McClary married Jennie Cut- 
ler, of Boston, a daughter of Nathan Moore and Columbia (Shearer) 
Cutler, of that city. Mr. Cutler was a native of Farmington, Maine, 
where his father had established himself. The genealogy of the Cut- 
ler family, of which Mrs. McClary is a descendant in the eighth gen- 
eration, is given at length in the following pages. Mrs. McClary 's 
grandmother was Sarah (King) Shearer, a daughter of Jesse King 
of Palmer, Massachusetts, of an early and prominent family in that 
neighborhood. Jesse King married Mary Graham, a daughter of 
Rev. Mr. Graham, of Pelham, Massachusetts. Both Mrs. McClary's 
parents died when she was very young, and she was brought up by 
her aunt, Mrs. A. V. Blanehard, of Palmer, Massachusetts'. She re- 
sides in the beautiful McClary home at No. 56 Highland avenue, 
Hartford, where all her dearest associations are centered. She is 
deeply interested in charitable and philanthropic work, to which her 
late husband devoted a large portion of his time. She is active in 
community welfare work and takes an unusual interest in the cur- 
rent topics of the day. Mrs. McClary's home engendered a charm 
of good feeling and hospitality which is felt alike by the oldest friend 
and the most casual visitor to it. Mr. and Mrs. McClary had no chil- 
dren. They were members of Christ Episcopal Church in Hartford, 
in the parochial interests of Avhich she is still a figure of importance. 

Mr. McClary died on July 7, 1909, and in his death Hartford lost 
a man who meant much to its interests, a man whose place was a 
truly enviable one in the commercial life of the city, in its social life, 
and in the estimation of scores of friends, whose opinion of him is 
adequately expressed in the famous "Take him for all in all, we 
shall not look upon his like again." 

(The Cutler Line.) 

Anns — Or, three bendlets sable; over all a lion rampant gules. 

Crest — A demi-lion rampant gules holding in his paws a battleaxe or. 

The name Cutler is of that class of patronymics which were de- 
rived from the trades or occupations of their original forebears. 
Others of this class are Cooper, Smith, Miller, Gardner, Fuller, etc. 
When the adoption of surnames became prevalent, the first member 

403 



McCLARY AND ALLIED FAMILIES 

of the Cutler family to adopt the name was in all probability a cutler 
name was in all probability a cutler by trade, a maker of knives or 
other cutting instruments. 




linear 
defenc 

of Thomas Cutler, who was buried at Silkton, January 21~ 1622! 
Thomas Cutler was a descendant of Sir John Cutler, standard bear- 
er during- the War of the Koses, who was knighted in the reign of 
Henry VI. Sir Gervase Cutler married for his first wife Elizabeth, 
daughter of Sir John Bently. The children of this marriage were 
Margaret, who married Sir Edward Mosely ; and a son Gervase, who 
died young. Sir Gervase Cutler married (second) Ladv Magdalen, 
the ninth daughter of Sir John Egerton, Duke of Bridgewater, and 
of this marriage there were nine children. Cutlers have filled places 
of honor and importance in England for the past thousand years. 
The American Cutlers have figured notably in New England history 
for two and a half centuries. 

The New England ancestors were James, Eobert and John Cut- 
ler, who emigrated from the Mother Country to the American Col- 
onies in 1634, settling in Massachusetts. James Cutler came to 
Watertown, Massachusetts, in 1631. The name of Robert Cutler 
first appears on the records of Charlestown, in 1636, where it is re- 
corded that, he was married. John Cutler, Sr., with a family, was 
settled at Hingham, Massachusetts, in 1637. 

/. James Cutler, immigrant ancestor and founder, settled as early 
as 1634 at Watertown, Massachusetts, where the first record of the 
family name in New England, in America, in fact, is to be found. He 
was one of the original grantees of land in the noitherly part of the 
town, on the road to Belmont. James Cutler had married in England 
Anna Grout, sister of Captain John Grout, and had espoused the 
cause of Puritanism, for which defection from the Established 
Church both he and his wife were so persecuted that they resolved 
to seek peace and religious freedom in New England, and according- 
ly came to America unaccompanied by friends or near relatives. 
There is no authentic record by which to fix the date of the arrival of 
James Cutler. His first child, James, was born "Ye 6th day, 9th 
month, 1635." He had that year passed all necessary probation and 
been received an inhabitant of Watertown, having a house lot as- 
signed him. The lot contained eight acres, bounded on the east by 
the lot of Thomas Boylston, west and north by a highway, i. e., by 
Common street and Pond road, and south by the lot of Elias Bar- 
ron. In the first "great divide," July 25, 1636, he was assigned 
twenty-five acres, and three acres in the further plain (now Wal- 
tham) next to the river. In 1612 he had assigned to him eighty- 
four acres in the fourth division, and four other farms. On October 

404 



McCLARY AND ALLIED FAMILIES 

2, 1645, he was one of the petitioners "in relation to Nashawav plan- 
tation, now Weston." On December 13, 1649, James Cutler and Na- 
thaniel Bowman for £70 bought of Edward Goffe two hundred acres 
m Cambridge Farms. James Cutler sold his share of one hundred 
acres to Bowman for £39, on March 4, 3651. This land adjoined 
Rock Meadow and was near Waltham. About this time he settled 
at Cambridge Farms, now Lexington, on what is known as Wood 
street, and not far from the Concord (now Bedford) line, a part of 
which farm remained in the family until sold by the heirs of Leonard 
Cutler. James Cutler is supposed to have built one of the first 
houses at the Farms. Vestiges of the cellar of his house still remain. 
The house was located some thirty rods from the present highway, 
on an elevation commanding an extensive view. James Cutler died 
at Cambridge Farms, May 17, 1694, aged eightv-eight vears. His 
will was dated November 24, 1684. James Cutler married (first) 

Anna , who was buried September 30, 1644. He married 

(second) March 9, 1645, Mary, widow of Thomas King, who died De- 
cember 7, 1654. His third wife was Phoebe, daughter of John Page, 
whom he married in 1662. 

11. James (2) Cutler, son of James (1) and Anna Cutler, was born 
in Watertown, Massachusetts, September 6, 1635. He was a farmer, 
residing at Cambridge Farms, near Concord line, and was a soldier 
in King Philip's War. He made his will on the 28th and died on the 
31st of July, 16S5. He married, June 15, 1665, Lydia (Moore) 
Wright, daughter of John Moore, of Sudbury, and widow of Samuel 
Wright ; she died in Sudbury, November 23, 1723. (See Moore II). 

///. Thomas Cutler, son of James (2) and Lydia (Moore-Wright) 
Cutler, was born December 16, 1677, at Cambridge Farms (now Lex- 
ington), where he resided the greater part of his life. He was con- 
stable in 1719, and selectman in 1729, 1731, 1733 and 1734. About 
1750 he purchased of Noah Ashley a farm in Western, now Warren, 
and removed there. Thomas Cutler died December 23, 1759. He be- 
queathed to each of his daughters and granddaughters a cow, be- 
sides sums of money; to son David his silver-headed cane, half the 
service of his negro man, besides money and half his books and ap- 
parel; to his son Thomas half the service of his negro man, and his 
lands and buildings, and half his books and apparel, besides other 
things. His will discloses the fact that he was the owner of at least 
one slave. 

Thomas Cutler married (first) Sarah, daughter of Samuel (3) 
and Dorcas (Jones) Stone, who joined the church in Lexington, 
July 4, 1708, and died January 10, 1750, aged sixty-nine years. ( See 
Stone VIII). He married (second) Lydia Simonds, April 10, 1750, 
and with her was dismissed to the church at Western, May 17, 1752, 
having owned the covenant at Lexington, June 6, 1703. 

IV. David Cutler, son of Thomas and Sarah (Stone) Cutler, was 

405 



McCLARY AND ALLIED FAMILIES 

born August 28, and baptized September 9, 1705, at Lexington. He 
joined the church in Lexington, April 14, 1728. He resided on the 
family homestead near the Bedford line. He was surveyor of the 
township during the reign of King George III; served as constable 
in Lexington in 1746, and as selectman in 1749-50-51. His will, dated 
September 13, 1758, mentions his wife Mary. He left personal prop- 
erty inventoried at £573 1 5s. David Cutler died December 5, 1760, of 
small-pox, which was particularly fatal in those days because of 'the 
fact that there was no known way to combat its onslaughts. Pie mar- 
ried Mary Tidd, who survived him thirty-seven years, and died May 
25, 1797, aged ninety-three years. 

V. Joseph Cutler, son of David and Mary (Tidd) Cutler, was 
born at Lexington, Massachusetts, May 31, 1733, in the second house 
which was built on the Cutler farm. His residence in Warren was 
on the west side of the river, and it was here that he died, February 
7, 1816, aged eighty-three years. He married (first) May 6, 1755, 
Rebecca, daughter of John and Esther (Prince) Hoar, of Lincoln, 
Massachusetts, born July, 1735, and died September 16, 1758. He 
married (second) Mary, sister of Major Reuben Reed, of Warren, 
Massachusetts, on September 20, 1759. She was born January 30, 
1738, and died March 28, 1792. 

VI. Hoik Nathan Cutler, A. M., son of Joseph and Mary (Reed) 
Cutler, was born at Western, now Warren, Massachusetts," May 29, 
1775, and died June 8, 1861. He was graduated from Dartmouth 
College in 1798, and was preceptor at Middlebury Academy for one 
year thereafter. He then studied law with Judge Chipman, of Ver- 
mont, and later at Worcester, Massachusetts, and in the last men- 
tioned city he was admitted to the bar in 1801. For a time he prac- 
ticed in his native town, but in 1803 removed to Farmington, Maine, 
where he resided for the remainder of his life. For about thirty- 
five years he was engaged in the active pursuit of his profession, and 
was deeply interested in the educational and political affairs of his 
town and State. He was several times a member of the Legislature 
of Massachusetts before its separation (1810-11-12-19-20). He was 
appointed judge of the Court of Common Pleas by Governor Berry 
in 1812, but declined to accept the office. In 1819, Hon. Nathan Cut- 
ler was a member of the convention that framed the Constitution of 
the State of Maine, and subsequently became active in public life and 
politics in Maine. He was many times a member of the Legislature of 
that State. Upon the death of Gov. Lincoln, early in the year 1829, 
by virtue of his office as president of the Senate, Hon. Nathan Cut- 
ler became governor of the State of Maine, and in 1829 he was one 
of the presidential electors. He was one of the incorporators of 
Framington Academy, and during his lifetime president of the 
board of trustees. Governor Cutler was much interested in classical 
studies, of which he was a life-long student, and he did much to in- 
culcate a love of learning in his associates. 

406 



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McCLARY AND ALLIED FAMILIES 

He married (first) Hannah, daughter of Isaac Moore, of Warren, 
Massachusetts, on September 10, 1804. She died February 20, 
1835. Seven of the nine children of Governor and Mrs. Cutler grew 
to maturity. He married (second) in 1856, Harriet, widow of Wil- 
liam Weld, and daughter of Colonel Easterbrooks, of Brunswick, 
Maine. 

VII. Nathan Moore Cutler, son of Hon. Nathan and Hannah 
(Moore) Cutler, was born August 2, 1808. At the age of sixteen 
years he entered Philips Academy at Exeter, New Hampshire. After 
graduating from that institution he attended Bowdoin College, but 
was obliged to discontinue his studies on account of poor health. He 
then entered on a business career,' first at Warren, Massachusetts, 
and later at Bangor, Maine. Under the administration of President 
Martin Van Buren, he held the office of debenture clerk in the Boston 
Customs House. The collector of the port at the time was George 
Bancroft. This position he held until the time of his death on Octo- 
ber 30, 1819. He married, September 12, 1836, Columbia Shearer, of 
Palmer, Massachusetts, who died in Cambridge, Massachusetts. (See 
Shearer IV). 

VIII. Jennie Cutler, daughter of Nathan Moore and Cohvmbia 
(Shearer) Cutler, is of the eighth generation in direct descent from 
James Cutler, who settled in Watertown, Massachusetts, as early as 
1634. She married John McClary, of Boston, Massachusetts, a 
sketch of whose life is appended hereto. 

(The Moore Line.) 

This name came into England with William the Conqueror in 1066. 
Thomas de More was among the survivors of the battle of Hastings, 
October 11, of that year, and was a recipient of many favors at the 
hands of the triumphant invaders. From the time of the Conquest to 
the period of American Colonial emigration, the family figured nota- 
bly in Scotch and English history. Elizabeth More, daughter of Sir 
Adam More, became the wife of King Robert II., of Scotland, in 1347, 
and the ancestress of the long line of Stuart monarchs. Members of 
the family have been active in public, official and military life in the 
United Kingdom from time immemorial. In the time of James I. the 
Mores of Scotland were strict non-Conformists, consequently their 
removal in great numbers from Scotland into Ireland in 1612 is eas- 
ily accounted for. Many espoused Quakerism, and this explains 
their predominance in the colony of William Penn. Bearing on its 
roll of membership such men as Sir John Moore and Tom Moore, the 
poet, the family has just reason to be proud of an honored ancestry. 
Someone has said that in tracing out a pedigree one is as likely to 
find a scaffold as a crown. Not so in the case of the Moores. 

The American branches have been equally distinguished. The 
family had several unrelated progenitors, of whom the first to arrive 

407 



McCLARY AND ALLIED FAMILIES 

was Richard Moore, who came in the "Mayflower" in 1620, landing 
at Plymouth, Massachusetts. The name is common to the earliest 
records of Plymouth, Newbury and Salem, the earliest settlements 
in the colony. John Moore, founder of one of the earliest of the 
Massachusetts families of the name, was a resident of Sudbury, 
Massachusetts, as early as 1642. 

/. Jolni Moore, immigrant ancestor and progenitor, was a native 
of England. The exact date of his coining to America is not known; 
he seems first to have settled in Sudbury, Massachusetts, however. 
He purchased a house and land there in 1642 of Edmund Rice. His 
property was located in what is now Wayland. He took the oath of 
fidelity on July 9, 1645. John Moore died January 6, 1673-74, and 
his will, dated August 25, 1668, was proved April 7, following his 
death. He married Elizabeth Whale, daughter of Philemon Whale ; 
she was executrix of his will. Among their children was Lydia, men- 
tioned below. 

//. Lydia Moore, daughter of John and Elizabeth (Whale) Moore, 
was born in Sudbury, Massachusetts, June 24, 164-3. She married 
(first) Samuel Wright. She married (second) June 15, 1665, James 
Cutler, Jr., of Cambridge Farms, Massachusetts. She died in Sud- 
bury, November 23, 1723. (See Cutler II). 

(The Stone Line.) 

The origin of the surname Stone may be traced to the fact that 
early ancestors of the family lived near some remarkable roadside 
stone, and used the name as a means of identification when the neces- 
sity for surnames arose. Atte Stone, de la Stone, del Stone, and de 
Stone, are common to all medieval English registers. The" court roll 
of the manors of Bovills and Piggotts, in Ardleigh, England, con- 
tains an entry in Latin, dated in the reign of Henry V., on the day of 
Mars next after the festival of the Holy Trinity, 1416, in which the 
names of persons living in the vicinity of these manors are men- 
tioned, among them one "Willelmiatte Stone" (William at the 
stone), who is referred to as being absent from a Court Baron, for 
which delinquency he, among others named, is fined. The Ardleigh 
Stones form the main line of which the American family of the name 
is a branch. The Massachusetts Stones, descendants of the founder, 
Gregory Stone, have figured prominently in the Colonial and State 
history of Massachusetts for two and a half centuries. 

I. Symond Stone, earliest known ancestor of this branch of the 
Stone family, made a will, recorded in the parish records of Much 
Bromley, England, under date of May 12, 1506, and proved Febru- 
ary 10, 1510. He bequeaths to his son W T alter "my tenement in Ard- 
leigh," and as Ardleigh is in the immediate vicinity of Much Brom- 
ley, it would appear that the first Symond was a descendant of the 

408 



McCLARY AND ALLIED FAMILIES 

'/William at the stone," mentioned above. In a Court Roll of 1465 
in the reign of Edward IV. reference is made to three fields in this 
locality called "Stoneland." The translation of the Latin record is 
as follows: "At this court the lords (of the Manor) through their 
Steward handed over and let at rent to Robert Rande three fields of 
land called Stoneland a parcel of Rovells: — to hold for himself and 
his assignees from the festival of the Holy Archangel Michael next 
coming after the present date up to the end and terminus of twenty 
years then following and fully completed. " -- 

//. David Stone, son of Symond Stone, lived at Much Bromley, 
County Essex, England, early in the sixteenth century. 

III. Symond (2) Stone, son of David Stone, was "of Much Brom- 
ley, where he married Agnes . 

IV. David (2) Stone, son of Symond (2) and Agnes Stone, was 

bom, lived and died at Much Bromley; he married Ursula . 

It has been proved that he and not Rev. Timothy Stone, as formerly 
supposed, was the father of the American emigrant, Gregory, men- 
tioned below. 

V. Gregory Stone, immigrant ancestor and founder, was baptized 
in Much Bromley, County Essex, England, April 19, 1592. Accord- 
ing to his own deposition, made September 18, 1658, he was born in 
1591 or 1592. His age at death, November 30, 1672, was given as 
eighty-two. The exact date of his coming to America is not known. 
He is thought to have come in company with his brother Simon, with 
whom he was admitted a freeman in Massachusetts, May 25, 1636. 
Gregory Stone was one of the original proprietors of Watertown, 
but resided most of his life in Cambridge. He had a considerable 
property here and his orchards were famous even at this early 
period. His farm was on the site of the Botanic Gardens of Harvard 
University. Gregory Stone was one of the most prominent men of 
his day in Cambridge. He was deputy to the Massachusetts General 
Court; deacon of the church, serving thirty-four years and outliving 
all the original membership; was a civil magistrate and one of the 
governor's deputies. His will, proved December 14, 1672, mentions 
his wife Lydia and her children by a former marriage, John Cooper 
and Lydia Fiske ; his sons, Daniel, David, John and Samuel ; daugh- 
ters, Elizabeth Porter, Sarah Merriam, wife of David Merriam; 
grandson of David Stone. He married (first) in England, June 20, 
1617, Margaret Garrad, who was born December 5, 1597, died Au- 
gust, 1626, in England. His second wife was Lydia Cooper, widow, 
who died June 24, 1674. 

VI. Deacon Samuel Stone, son of Gregory and Margaret (Gar- 
rad) Stone, was baptized in Nayland, England, February 4, 1630-31, 
and died September 27, 1715. He came to America with his brothers 
and sister when very young. On attaining their majority, he and his 
"brother David Stone, settled at Cambridge Farms (Lexington). It 

409 



McCLARY AND ALLIED FAMILIES 

is likely that they cleared their farms before removing to them, and 
that they were among- the first settlers. Samuel Stone subscribed 
toward the first meeting house in 1692. In 1693 he paid the largest 
taxes in Lexington, and subsequently became the owner of what was 
one of the largest estates in the vicinity. He was a deacon of the 
church, town assessor, and member of many important committees. 
He married (first) June 7, 1655, at Watertown, Sarah Steams; she 

died October 4, 1700. He married (second) Abigail , who died 

at Woburn, 1728, aged seventy-one years. 

VII. Deacon Samuel (2) Stone, son of Deacon Samuel (1) and 
Sarah (Stearns) Stone, was born at Cambridge Farms, (Lexington) 
Massachusetts. October 1, 1656, and died there June 17, 1713. Pie 
was designated in the town records as "Samuel Stone, East," to 
distinguish him from his cousin "Samuel Stone, West." He was one 
of the original members of the Lexington church, in 1696. His wife 
was received from the Concord church in 1698. He married, June 
12, 1679, Dorcas Jones, of Concord, who died September 24, 1746, 
aged eighty-seven years. In November, 1715, Samuel Stone was 
chosen deacon to succeed his father. He was selectman in 1715-16 
and 1723, and was prominent in the affairs of the town until his 
death. 

VIII. Sarah Stone, daughter of Deacon Samuel (3) and Dorcas 
(Jones) Stone, was born in Lexington, Massachusetts, in 1681. She 
became the wife of Thomas Cutler, of Lexington, and died January 
10, 1750, aged sixty-nine years. She joined the church in Lexington, 
July 4, 1708. (See Cutler III). 

(The Shearer Line.) 

Arms — Argent a fesse gules between three torteaux. each charged with a mullet of 
the field argent. 

Crest — On a chapeau a dexter hand holding up by the band a garb, all proper. 

According to Bardsley the surname of Shearer is of the occupa- 
tive class and signifies, "the shearer," that is one who sheared the 
nap of cloth, or a cloth shearman. The name is found in Lincoln- 
shire as early as 1273. The Shearer family herein dealt with is of 
ancient Irish origin, and was founded in the American Colonies in 
the early part of the eighteenth century. The progenitor, James 
Shearer, was a native of County Antrim, Ireland. 

1. James Shearer, founder of the family in America, was born in 
County Antrim, Ireland, in 1678. In 1720 he emigrated to the New 
World, and settled in the town of Union, Connecticut. He remained 
in Union for a period of six years, and in 1726 his family and the 
Kevins family removed to Elbows, near the town of Palmer, Massa- 
chusetts. He occupied a central location in the district, his farm 
being laid out east from Cedar Swamp brook and south of Deacon 
SedgAvick's farm. He was a man of considerable prominence in the 
early community and several localities in the vicinity were named 

410 



McCLARY AND ALLIED FAMILIES 

after him and his family. His home was frequently used hy the pro- 
prietors of the town for their business meetings. The children of 
James Shearer were: 1. John, mentioned below. 2. James, Jr. 3. 
William. 

//. John Shearer, son of James Shearer, was born in 1710, and ac- 
companied his parents to America in 1720. He later settled in Brim- 
field, in the easterly part of what is now Three River Village. His 
children were: 1. Joseph. 2. John, born March 22, 1746; married, 
1774, Jane White. 3. William, married Jerusha Perry. 4. Thomas. 
5. David, married Kate King, 1791. 6. Jonathan, born March 29, 
1762 ; married Hannah Dickinson. 7. Noah, married Terza Merrick, 
1791. 8. Daniel, mentioned below. 9. Jane, married Wallace Little. 
10. Betsey, married William White. 

777. Esquire Daniel Shearer, son of John and Jane Shearer, was a 
prominent figure in the public and political life of the town of Pal- 
mer, Massachusetts, during his entire life. He was active also in 
judicial affairs. He married Sarah King, daughter of Jesse and 
Mary B. (Greyham) King, of Palmer, Massachusetts. (See King 
IV). Their children were: 1. Elvira, married A. V. Blanchard, Oc- 
tober 25, 1S27. 2. Jane, married William Blanchard, August 23, 
1831. 3. Columbia, mentioned below. 

IV. Columbia Shearer, third daughter of Judge Daniel and Sarah 
(King) Shearer, married, September 12, 1836, Nathan Moore Cutler, 
son of the Hon. Nathan and Hannah (Moore) Cutler. (See Cutler 
VII). 

(The King Line.) 

Arms — Sable on a chevron, or, between three crosses crosslet of the last, three 
escallops of the first. An esquire's helmet surmounts the shield. 

Among the pioneer settlers of the town of Palmer, Massachusetts, 
and the immediate vicinity, was John King, Esq., the progenitor of 
the King family herein under consideration. The theory has been 
advanced that John King, Esq., was a resident of the town of 
Springfield, Massachusetts, prior to his coming to Palmer, as were 
many of the original settlers of the place. There has, however, been 
no proof to substantiate the theory. The Kings of Palmer in subse- 
quent generations became large land owners, and were numbered 
among the most prominent and influential citizens of the town, active 
in civic and religious affairs, office holders, public servants, and civic 
and business leaders. 

7. John King, the progenitor of the family and the immigrant an- 
cestor, was born in England in 1681. The date of his coming to 
America is not known. Prior to his emigration he was married in 

England to Sarah , born in 1691. He became the first settler 

of the Elbow District, Hampshire county, Massachusetts, where he 
was the first to build a crude log cabin, camping out, tradition says, 
near the site of the old cemetery during the first few days there. He 

" 411 



McCLARY AND ALLIED FAMILIES 

finally located near the small stream which afterwards became 
known as King's brook. The noted Tamor spring divided his prop- 
erty from that of his neighbors, Richard Combs, of Springfield, and 
Ebenezer Mirick, of the same place. The following mention of the 
original John King and his family is found on the flyleaf of the first 
volume of the Rochester Church Records : 

"On the 18th of May, 1729, then John King and Sarah, his wife, 
who lived at a place called the Elbows, in Hampshire Co., owned the 
covenant, and their children were baptized, viz : William, Thomas, 
Joseph, Benjamin, Aaron and Sarah, by me, who was sent by the 
proprietors of the land to minister to them. (Signed) Timothy Rug- 
gles. Had the visit been six months later, the result might have been 
different." — Hardwick history, per Lucius Page, D. D. 

The children of John and Sarah King were : 1. John, Jr., born in 

Boston, in 1715 ; married Margaret . 2. Joseph, born in 1716. 

3. Thomas, born in 1719; married Jemima. 4. William, born in 
1720. 5. Benjamin, born in 1722, died June 7, 1756. 6. Sarah, born 
in 1723. 7. Aaron, mentioned below. 8. Moses, died April 26, 1729. 
9. Hannah, born August 8, 1729, died September 24, 1729. 10. Mary, 
born December 30, 1730; married Captain Sylvanus Walker. 11. 
David, born in April, 1733 ; married Mary Graham. 12. Jonathan, 
born January 17, 1736. 

II. Aaron King, son of John and Sarah King, was born in 1725. 
He was a resident of Elbow District, Palmer, Massachusetts, all his 
life, and was a prominent resident of the place. He married Sarah 
Kibbe, of Connecticut. Their children were: 1. Sarah, born Sep- 
tember 7, 1747; married Thomas Bliss, April 25, 1765. 2. Aaron, 
born July 2, 1750, died October 22, 1754. 3. Joseph, born August 20, 
1752, died October 8, 1754. 4. Myrana, born September 7, 1755; 
married Charles Eddy. 5. Isaac, born June 20, 1757, resided in 
England. 6. Jesse, mentioned below. 

III. Capt. Jesse King, son of Aaron and Sarah (Kibbe) King, was 
born in Elbow District, Palmer, Massachusetts, March 5, 1759. He 
was one of the most prominent citizens of the town during the great- 
er part of his life time, and was actively identified with local affairs. 
He was also prominent in the militia and bore the rank of captain. 
He married, February 24, 1781, Mary B. Greyham, daughter of Rev. 
Mr. Greyham, of Pelham, Massachusetts. Their children were : 1. 
Aaron, born October 15, 1782; married Eliza Ketchum. 2. Sarah, 
mentioned below. 3. Myrana, born July 7, 1786 ; married Timothy 
Ferrell. 4. Nabbie, born August 11, 1788 ; married Gersham Make- 
peace, of Warren, Massachusetts. 5. Mary L., born August 9, 1790; 
married Daniel King, of Palmer. 6. Jesse, born August 8, 1792. 7. 
Isaac, born July 2, 1795 ; married Abby Cutler, of W T arren, Massa- 
chusetts. 8. Joseph, born November 19, 1798; married Mary E. 
Chamber, and removed to Mobile, Alabama. 

412 



McCLARY AND ALLIED FAMILIES 

IV. Sarah King, daughter of Captain Jesse and Mary B. (Grey- 
liam) King;, was born in Elbow District, Palmer, Massachusetts, Oc- 
tober 22, 1784. She married Judge Daniel Shearer, of Palmer, 
Massachusetts. (See Shearer III). 




413 




General Robert Anderson 

Arms — Or, on a chevron gules, between three hawks' heads erased sable, as many- 
acorns slipped argent. 

Crest — An eagle's head erased argent holding in his beak paleways an arrow gules 
headed and feathered or. , 

Motto — Nil desperandum, auspice Deo. 

\S$g| | MONG the family names that for generations and even for 
centuries have been associated with the English-speaking 
peoples until they have gained a specially British character 
and are found wherever that race has gone, there is a 
large number that the student can recognize as having an 
earlier Scandinavian or Danish origin, and which were undoubtedly 
brought to Great Britain during the period when the hardy sea-raid- 
ers of the north were making incursion after incursion into the fair 
realm of our ancestors. The Norsemen were finally defeated, it is 
true, but they left numerous colonies in the land they had harried, 
the members of which gradually became an integral part of the peo- 
ple and introduced Norse customs and ideas into the life of England 
and many words, including proper names, into the language. 

Among these names is that of Anderson, borne by a number of dis- 
tinguished houses in various parts of England and Scotland for 
several centuries, and later transplanted to America, where it now 
enjoys a wellnigh universal distribution. Anderson belongs to that 
great group of surnames that have been derived from earlier given 
names, with the addition of the affix "son" or its equivalent, the 
name in this case being, of course, Andrew, a fact that has led cer- 
tain authorities to claim it as originally Scottish. But in spite of the 
fact that Andrew has always been an exceedingly common name in 
Scotland, there are certain internal evidences strongly contradic- 
tory. Had the name been of recent origin, it might easily have been 
so, but in the day when the first Andersons made their home in Scot- 
land, the Scottish equivalent of "son" was "mac," and the form 
which should and did arise there was MacAndrew or MacAndrews. 
So eminent an authority as Dr. Joseph Anderson, sometime presi- 
dent of the Society of Antiquities of Scotland, and himself a member 
of the family, emphatically denies the theory of Norse origin and 
stated in a letter to an historical investigator, that the Danes were 
defeated and driven from Scotland by Macbeth. In commenting up- 
on this, however, the latter gentleman calls attention to Shake- 
speare's account of the matter where he says: "At St. Colmy's 
Inch; Ten thousand dollars to the general use," implying that, al- 

414 



GENERAL ROBERT ANDERSON 

though, defeated and forced to pay a heavy tribute, they were never- 
theless allowed to remain in the country. Mr. Anderson also re- 
marks what is obviously true, that the Danes formed a perfectly 
definite and well recognized element in the population of North- 
umberland and other parts of Great Britain until they were finally 
merged in the homogeneous race that became the British peoples. 
A most interesting piece of evidence bearing upon the antiquity of 
the Anderson race is to be found in the existence of an old carved 
monolith in Sutherland, Scotland. Upon this crude shaft appear, 
arranged in chevron form, the heads of three seals which are said to 
bear a striking likeness to the hawks' heads that later were so prom- 
inent a part of the cognizance and arms of the Anderson family. 
Such transformations are common enough in heraldry, and it is en- 
tirely possible although nothing else has been found to confirm it, 
that the Andersons subsequently altered their ancient badge to suit 
some newer conditions and circumstances, but retained the original 
form of the chevron for their display. 

Sutherland, the extreme northern point of Scotland, was a south- 
ern country to the Scandinavian peoples who gave it its name, and 
it was there that they first made their landing upon the unknown 
island which they so greatly coveted and which they in vain strove to 
subjugate through several centuries of almost ceaseless warfare. It 
was in Sutherland, in all probability, that the Andersons first ap- 
peared in Scotland, but, other than the very slight evidence of the 
seals' heads, there is no way of ascertaining whether they moved 
south from there to Northumberland, or whether separate landings 
were made by others bearing the same name. For it was in North- 
umberland and across the Tweed in Scotland that the earliest his- 
torical members of the family made their home. The first actual rec- 
ord of the name is to be found in an old Latin document of the time 
of Henry II, in which one Joseph Anderson is referred to as of 
Northumberland, and from that time on we have evidence that men 
bearing the name were numerous on both sides of the Tweed, and 
especially at Newcastle-on-Tyne, Northumberland. "The Visita- 
tions," as they were called, were the periodic visits of the King-at- 
Arms to various portions of the kingdom, to settled disputed points 
concerning titles, precedence, and the right to bear arms among the 
nobility and gentry of the region, and in the records of these Visita- 
tions in Northumberland the name Anderson occurs frequently. 
They are thus proven to have been of the aristocratic class that held 
so proud a place in the life of the mediaeval ages and, indeed, it was 
to the Andersons of Newcastle-on-Tyne that the arms issued above 
were issued. 

Those were rough times, especially along the border, and the men 
of that region had need of courage and enterprise if they were to 
maintain their place among their violent and almost barbarous 

415 



GENERAL ROBERT ANDERSON 

neighbors. But it was also an age of romance, when men, in a semi- 
conscious way, were great worshippers of high, if somewhat fan- 
tastic, ideals of conduct, and it is from that time that we inherit a 
surprising volume of poetry and beauty, giving a richness and full- 
ness to our artistic and intellectual life that is scarcely to be dupli- 
cated. Life was a splendid and noble game to the men of that period 
in spite of the very grim realities that fenced them in, and in that, 
so high was their spirit, that love, honor, and even death itself, 
were all made to play their parts and valued as they contributed to 
the plot of the drama. If it be thought that this glamor is something 
that has been added by later ages, fascinated with the quaint ways 
and customs of the past, it is but necessary to turn to the authors 
and bards of the day to discover that they outdo the most ardent 
antiquarian in the extravagance of their praise of the chivalric view 
of life, then actual, but even today inspiring in retrospect. To this 
great heritage from the past the Scottish border has made a very 
great and special contribution. It was from that region that Sir 
Walter Scott drew so great,. a source of inspiration; it was from 
there that such great names of romance as those of Percy and de 
Multon for the English, Wallace and the Douglas for the Scots, 
have come down to us. Among these violent yet gorgeous figures, 
in the midst of this harsh yet splendid life, the Andersons made 
their way along the path of time, and all the evidence is to show 
that they rather more than maintained their position and prestige 
and grew in importance among their fellows from generation to 
generation, both while they could remain conspicuous as aristocrats 
and later, when the rising tide of democracy put all men on a more 
equal footing and brought everyone into a more direct competition 
with his neighbor. 

Indeed, the Andersons in America, where they appeared early in 
the colonial period, were prominently identified "with the rise of this 
very tide of democracy, members of the family having taken part in 
all the great struggles for liberty in which America, the country of 
their adoption, has engaged. The roles played by the men of the 
name have been of great distinction and value down to the time of 
the late General Robert Anderson, the gallant officer whose defense 
of Fort Sumter was one of the most striking and heroic incidents of 
the Civil War, for which, as well as for many other deeds of cour- 
age and self-sacrifice, his memory should be held in eternal honor 
and veneration by a grateful country. 

The first Andersons to appear in America were two young men, 
brothers, Thomas and John Anderson, who were members of the 
Newcastle-on-Tyne family, and who made the voyage to the New 
World during the reign of Charles I, about 1634. They were fol- 
lowed the next year by Richard Anderson, who is believed to have 
been either a brother or the father of the others, and the three set- 

416 



GENERAL ROBERT ANDERSON 

tied at Tidewater, Virginia, for a time. A second family came 
shortly after the Restoration, and a third arrived later from the 
Bermuda Islands, whither they had been deported from England 
for participation in the rebellion led by the ill-starred Duke of 
Monmouth. All of these families made their home at Tidewater, 
but it is the first of these that we are concerned with. These three 
men — Thomas, John and Richard — moved after a comparatively 
short time from Tidewater up the Virginia coast and settled 
permanently in Hanover county, whence they were locally referred 
to as the Hanover Andersons. There is at this point a great dearth 
of records, so that the exact relationship of the next generation has 
never been proved, but there is indirect evidence sufficient to assure 
us of one fact, namely, that it was one of the three members of the 
first Anderson family that was the progenitor of the distinguished 
Virginia and Kentucky line. The proof of this lies in the fact that 
, Robert Anderson, of the second generation, from whom there is 
traceable a perfectly clear descent, was bora at a date when, ac- 
cording to Hotten's "Book of Immigrants," no Andersons other 
than these were present in the colony. 

I. Thomas Anderson who, according to tradition, was the father 
of Robert Anderson, was one of the first two of the name to come to 
this country. He and his brother John sailed hither on the good 
ship "Bonaventura," and after residing at Tidewater removed to 
Hanover county. According to the late Col. Robert Waller, who, 
as a very old gentleman in 1866 told his friend, General Thomas 
McArthur Anderson, this, the first of the Anderson line, was en- 
gaged in the occupation of shipwright at Gloucester Point. It is 
not known whom he married, as the records of that region in the 
early period have been largely destroyed, but there is very little 
doubt that Robert Anderson who is mentioned below, was the son. 

II. Robert Anderson; if his fatherhood as here given is not sus- 
ceptable of positive proof, the possibility of error is at least limited 
to three men, who were probably father and sons, and certainly not 
more distantly related than brothers. The fact that there were no 
other colonists of the name in this country in the year 1644, or 
about which time Robert Anderson was born, is conclusive evidence 
on this point. Robert Anderson was granted seven hundred and 
twenty-seven acres of land, April 16, 1683, for the importation of 
fifteen persons into the colony, this tract being situated at New 
Kent. He was a prominent man in local affairs ; a vestryman of St. 
Peter's Church at New Kent in 1686, and continued to hold that 
position until such time as the parish of St. Paul was formed out of 
a portion of the older parish in 1704. His death occurred in 1718, 
when about seventy-four years of age. He married Cecilia Massie, 
a member of the well known Virginia family of that name which 
made its appearance in this country about the same time as the 

4i7 



GENERAL ROBERT ANDERSON 

Andersons first settled here. They were the parents of the fol- 
lowing children: Robert (2), who is mentioned at length below; 
Richard; David; Matthew; John; Thomas; Nelson; Mary; Cecilia. 

///. Robert (2) Anderson, eldest son of Robert (1) and Cecilia 
(Massie) Anderson, was born about 1663, and died about 1716, 
some two years before his father, when fifty-three years of age. On 
October 23, 1690, he became possessed of the seven hundred and 
twenty-seven acres allotted to his father, and on the same date was 
granted an additional twelve hundred acres in consideration of the 
importation of twenty-four persons into the colony, thus becoming 
■one of the large landowners of the region. Like his father, he was 
a vestryman of St. Peter's parish, and he was captain of the parish 
militia, a body that had been formed as early as 1612, when the 
whole colony was little more than an armed camp, for fear of the 
savages in the surrounding wilderness. 

Robert (2) Anderson married Mary Overton, daughter of "Wil- 
liam and Elizabeth (Waters) Overton, natives of England, and sis- 
ter of Capt. James Overton, who took part in the colonial wars 
with the Indians. They were the parents of the following children: 
Richard; James; Gailand; Matthew; David, of Albemarle; Robert 
(3), who is mentioned below; Nathaniel; Charles; John; and proba- 
bly two daughters, Charity and Sarah. 

IV. Robert (3) Anderson, known as Robert of Goldmine, sixth 
son of Robert (2) and Mary (Overton) Anderson, was bora Janu- 
ary 1, 1712, and died December 9, 1792. His handsome estate 
gained the name of "Goldmine," from the stream of that name that 
flowed through it into the South Anna river. He not only was one 
of the wealthiest and most important members of the community, 
but took an active part in public affairs in the colony, and held a 
number of offices in the gift of the community. He was a magis- 
trate in 1768, and in 1715 represented Louisa county in the House 
of Burgesses. Robert (3) Anderson married, July 3, 1739, Eliza- 
beth Clough, born April 3, 1713 and died Nov. 10, 1779, a daughter 
of Richard and Anne (Poindexter) Clough, and granddaughter of 
Richard Poindexter, the founder of that distinguished family in 
America. They were the parents of the following children: Rich- 
ard, died in infancy; Robert, born Aug. 10, 1711, married Elizabeth 
Shelton; Matthew,' bora Dec. 6, 1713, died Dec. 21, 1806, married 
Mary Dabney; Ann, born Jan. 21, 1715, became the wife of Anthony 
New; Cecilia, born August 2, 1718, became the wife of William An- 
derson; Richard Clough, mentioned below; Elizabeth, born Nov. 21, 
1752, became the wife of Reuben Austin; George, born May 27, 

1755, married (first) Goldsborough, (second) Jane Tucker; 

Samuel, born June 25, 1757, married Ann Dabney; Mary, born in 
May, 1759, married (first) Capt. John Anderson, (second) Elka- 
nah Talley; Charles, born May 10, 1762, died unmarried. 

418 



GENERAL ROBERT ANDERSON 

V. Richard Clough Anderson, eighth child of Robert (3) and 
Elizabeth (Clough) Anderson, was born January 12, 1750, and died 
October 15, 1826. The life in Virginia at that period was peculiarly 
well fitted to produce the highest type of manhood and citizenship, 
the environment contributing in almost equal degree the factors of 
culture and refinement imported by the colonists from the old and 
highly developed civilization of Europe, and the invigorating and 
fibre-hardening frontier existence. It was under such influences 
that Richard Clough Anderson grew to manhood, and the result 
was what we find in so many of the great men of that period, a 
combination of gentleness and strength, an almost rugged charac- 
ter overlaid with the amenities of civilized intercourse that make 
them especially effective in dealing with uncompromising condi- 
tions of life, to say nothing of rendering them among the most at- 
tractive and romantic figures of history. As a lad young Anderson 
spent most of his time in hunting and trips of exploration through 
what was then the uncharted wilderness, a pastime containing 
many elements of danger and hardship. As he approached man- 
hood, the disputes between the colonies and Great Britain and the 
growing oppression of the king grew more acute and frequent, and 
it became obvious to the more courageous and clearsighted that 
only a conflict could settle the matter. Committees of safety were 
appointed in all the colonies, and Richard Clough Anderson became 
prominent on that in Virginia. From the outset, his sympathies 
and efforts were entirely on the side of the cause of liberty, and he 
worked with a devotion and single-mindedness that places him a 
most patriotic and courageous man of the time. Like his father, 
who also took part in these stirring proceedings as far as his ad- 
vanced age would permit, he was a warm personal friend of Patrick 
Henry, and followed that inspired leader unreservedly. As the mat- 
ter drew to a head and force became necessary, he volunteered for 
the service, and was in 1775 appointed quartermaster of the Han- 
over minute-men. On March 7th in the year following, he was com- 
missioned captain of a company of regular troops which formed a 
part of the Fifth Virginia Regiment under Col. Charles Scott, who 
afterwards became governor of Kentucky. This regiment was 
quickly in the thick of the fighting, and with it Captain Anderson 
saw action at White Plains, Oct. 7, 1776 ; Trenton, December 25-26 
of the same year, and many other engagements of the first order. 
He displayed so much gallantry in action that he was placed in com- 
mand of the Fifth Virginia in June, 1777, and, although still retain- 
ing his rank of captain, commanded that body of veterans at Bran- 
dywine, Germantown, Valley Forge, Monmouth, Savannah and 
Charleston. At Savannah, Oct. 9, 1779, he was severely wounded, 
but recovered in time to take part in the engagement at Charles- 
ton, May 12, 1780, when he, along with the whole army, was sur- 

419 



GENERAL ROBERT ANDERSON 

rendered to the British by Gen. Lincoln. Capt. Anderson remained 
a prisoner for about nine months and was then exchanged, and once 
more took the field with the army. He had been commissioned ma- 
jor by the Continental Congress, March 20, 1779, and after his ex- 
change and release was ordered to report to Gen. Lafayette, to 
whom his knowledge of the French language and his great familiar- 
ity with the country where that officer was campaigning, made him 
invaluable. He remained with Lafayette until the beginning of the 
operations against Yorktown, and was then sent to assist Gen. Nel- 
son in mobilizing and organizing a militia. He was appointed ad- 
jutant-general with the nominal rank of colonel, and remained with 
Nelson for a short period after the surrender of Cornwallis. He 
was then commissioned lieutenant-colonel of the Third Virginia 
Regiment, and held that post until the grand muster-out in 17S3. At 
that time he had served in all seven years and ten months, with the 
greatest gallantry and distinction, and the Richmond Despatch, of 
Jan. 21, 1861, in commenting upon his record, made the statement 
that ''there was no braver officer in the American army." 

In the autumn of 1783, after the return of peace, he was ap- 
pointed the principal surveyor of the western lands reserved to pay 
the soldiers of the Virginia line, and later his title was made sur- 
veyor-general. He remained in charge of this important work un- 
til his death, Oct. 16, 1826, and performed a great service to his 
country and State in the efficient manner in which he handled this 
difficult matter. His death was due in large measure to the indirect 
action of his old wound, received at Savannah in 1779, so that it 
may truly be said that, as much as those who fell upon the field of 
honor, he gave his life for liberty and his country. 

While wounded and a prisoner at Charleston, Col. Anderson 
made the acquaintance and became intimate with Lieut. -Col. Jona- 
than Clark, of the Eighth Virginia, Capt. John Clark, and Edmund 
Clark, three brothers, prisoners like himself, and this friendship 
continued after the war, and finally led up to his marriage with 
their sister. Col. Anderson was one of those who at the Danville 
Convention successfully opposed the efforts of Wilkinson and Se- 
bastian to induce Kentucky to declare its independence of the Un- 
ion and form an alliance with Spain. He was a founder of the So- 
ciety of the Cincinnati, and himself a charter member. After his 
appointment as survej'or-general of the Virginia Military Land 
District, he established an office at Louisville, Kentucky, near the 
"Soldiers' Retreat," and there made his home until the close of his 
life. 

Colonel Richard Clough Anderson married (first), Nov. 24, 1787, 
Elizabeth Clark, daughter of John and Ann (Rogers) Clark, and 
sister of his three comrades. She died without issue, Jan. 15, 1795, 
and Col. Clark married (second) Sept. 17, 1797, Sarah Marshall, a 

420 



GENERAL ROBERT ANDERSON 

rendered to the British by Gen. Lincoln. Capt. Anderson remained 
a prisoner for about nine months and was then exchanged, and once 
more took the field with the army. He had been commissioned ma- 
jor by the Continental Congress, March 20, 1779, and after his ex- 
change and release was ordered to report to Gen. Lafayette, to 
whom his knowledge of the French language and his great familiar- 
ity with the country where that officer was campaigning, made him 
invaluable. He remained with Lafayette until the beginning of the 
operations against Yorktown, and was then sent to assist Gen. Nel- 
son in mobilizing and organizing a militia. He was appointed ad- 
jutant-general with the nominal rank of colonel, and remained with 
Nelson for a short period after the surrender of Cornwallis. He 
was then commissioned lieutenant-colonel of the Third Virginia 
Regiment, and held that post until the grand muster-out in 1783. At 
that time he had served in all seven years and ten months, with the 
greatest gallantry and distinction, and the Richmond Despatch, of 
Jan. 21, 1861, in commenting upon his record, made the statement 
that "there was no braver officer in the American army." 

In the autumn of 1783, after the return of peace, he was ap- 
pointed the principal surveyor of the western lands reserved to pay 
the soldiers of the Virginia line, and later his title was made sur- 
veyor-general. He remained in charge of this important work un- 
til his death, Oct. 16, 1826, and performed a great service to his 
country and State in the efficient manner in which he handled this 
difficult matter. His death was due in large measure to the indirect 
action of his old wound, received at Savannah in 1779, so that it 
may truly be said that, as much as those who fell upon the field of 
honor, he gave his life for liberty and his country. 

While wounded and a prisoner at Charleston, Col. Anderson 
made the acquaintance and became intimate with Lieut. -Col. Jona- 
than Clark, of the Eighth Virginia, Capt. John Clark, and Edmund 
Clark, three brothers, prisoners like himself, and this friendship 
continued after the war, and finally led up to his marriage with 
their sister. Col. Anderson was one of those who at the Danville 
Convention successfully opposed the efforts of Wilkinson and Se- 
bastian to induce Kentucky to declare its independence of the Un- 
ion and form an alliance with Spain. He was a founder of the So- 
ciety of the Cincinnati, and himself a charter member. After his 
appointment as surveyor-general of the Virginia Military Land 
District, he established an office at Louisville, Kentucky, near the 
"Soldiers' Retreat," and there made his home until the close of his 
life. 

Colonel Richard Clough Anderson married (first), Nov. 24, 1787, 
Elizabeth Clark, daughter of John and Ann (Rogers) Clark, and 
sister of his three comrades. She died without issue, Jan. 15, 1795, 
and Col. Clark married (second) Sept. 17, 1797, Sarah Marshall, a 

420 



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second cousin of his first wife, and of the same degree of consan. 
guinity from the great Chief Justice, John Marshall, to whom more 
than any one other man is due the place that our courts, and espec- 
ially the Supreme Court, occupy in the political structure of the 
commonwealth. Of the second marriage of Col. Richard Clough An- 
derson were born Richard Clough, Jr., and Robert, with whose 
career we are here especially concerned. 

VI. Gen. Robert Anderson — There are few names that appeal 
more strongly to the imagination, even in the stirring period of our 
great Civil War, than that of General Robert Anderson, the heroic 
defender of Fort Sumter who, in holding for so long that forlorn 
hope, defended also the dignity of his country and the honor of his 
flag. 

Born June 14, 1805, at "Soldiers' Retreat," his father's home 
near Louisville, Kentucky, Robert Anderson passed his childhood 
in his native place and there received the elementary portion of his 
education. He was twenty years of age when in 1825 he graduated 
from the West Point Military Academy. His military history may 
be epitomized as follows : 

Cadet at Military Academy, July I, 1821, to July I, 1825, when he was graduated and 
commissioned brevet second lieutenant, Second Artillery ; promoted second lieutenant, 
Third Artillery, 1826. 

Private secretary to his brother, Richard Clough Anderson, Jr., United States Min- 
ister Plenipotentiary and Envoy Extraordinary to Colombia, 1825-26. 

Garrison duty, Fortress Monroe, 1826-28 ; ordnance duty, March 8, 1828, to May 9, 
1832. 

Staff colonel and inspector-general of Illinois, May 9 to October 11, 1832, in Black 
Hawk War. During this period he once mustered into service, and twice mustered out, 
Abraham Lincoln (afterward President), who served as a captain in that war. Col. An- 
derson was placed in charge of the Indians captured at Bad Axe, and conducted Black 
Hawk to Jefferson Barracks; as he was just recovering from fever, he was assisted by 
Lieut. Jefferson Davis, afterwards President of the Southern Confederacy. 

On ordnance duty, Dec. 6, 1834, to May 5, 1835; an d garrison duty, Fort Constitu- 
tion, N. H., 1835. 

At United States Military Academy, 1835-37; assistant instructor of artillery, Sept. 
10 to December 1, 1835, and instructor, Dec. 1, 1835, to Nov. 6, 1837. 

In Florida War against Seminole Indians, 1837-38; brevetted captain for gallantry 
and successful conduct. 

On duty in Cherokee Nation, a. d. c. to Maj. Gen. Scott, May 9 to July 7, 1838. 

Assistant adjutant-general, Eastern Department, July 7, 1838, to July, 1841. 

In garrison, Fort Moultrie, South Carolina, 1845-46; at Fort Marion, Florida, 1846; 
at Fort Brooke, Florida, 1846-47. 

In Mexican War, in siege of Vera Cruz, March 9-29, 1847; battle of Cerro Gordo, 
April 14-18, 1847; skirmish at Amazoque, May 14, 1847; battle of Molino del Rey, Sept. 
8, 1847; first to enter the mill and severely wounded. 

Garrison duty, Fort Preble, Maine, 1850-53. 

Governor of Harrodsburg Branch, Military Asylum, Kentucky, June II, 1853, to Nov. 
I, 1854- 

Member of Board for Armament of Fortifications, 1854-55. 

Major First Artillery, Oct. 5, 1857. Charge of programme of instruction for Artil- 
lery School of Practice, Fortress Monroe, 1859-60. 

In command of defences in Charleston (South Carolina) Harbor, 1860-61. 

Commissioned Brigadier-general by President Lincoln, and in command of Depart- 
ment of Kentucky, May 28 to Aug. 15, 1861 ; and of Department of the Cumberland, Au- 
gust 15 to Oct. 8, 1861. 

Waiting orders, in ill health, 1861-63. 

421 



GENERAL ROBERT ANDERSON 

In command at Fort Adams, Rhode Island, Aug. 19 to Oct. 27, 1863, and at New 
York City, Department of the East. 

Retired from active service Oct. 29, 1863, "for disability resulting from long and 
faithful service and wounds and disease contracted in the line of duty." 

In Department of the East, Oct. 27, 1863, to Jan. 22, 1864. 

Brevetted major-general, U. S. A., Feb. 3, 1865, "for gallant and meritorious ser- 
vice in the Harbor of Charleston. South Carolina, in the defense of Fort Sumter. 

Under orders by President Lincoln, re-raised at Fort Sumter, April 14, 1865, the 
same flag he had lowered with honors of war when he evacuated the fort on the same 
date in 1861. 

Proposer and organizer of the Alumni of West Point, i860 ; first meeting held at 
the College of New York. 

The most important episode in the career of General Anderson is 
one of the best known in the Civil War, and was, indeed, the open- 
ing engagement in that historic straggle. What are not so well 
known, perhaps, are the many difficulties and obstacles he had to 
face, and the terrible responsibility which rested upon him in every 
decision he made in that momentous time. Pressure was brought 
to bear upon him from all quarters to surrender his charge, for his 
foes were not confined to the ranks of the enemies of his country. 
Thrown upon his own resources, without means of communication 
with his superiors, it was a difficult question that he faced, and one 
the answering of which he felt was in a measure the answer of the 
nation. In the words of a delightful little volume entitled "Major 
Anderson and Port Sumter," written by his daughter, Mrs. James 
Marsland Lawton of New York City, his course in this extremity is 
thus described. 

"In this emergency, Anderson turned to God in prayer, and under 
the divine gui dance lie was able to escape the snare that had been 
set for him. He abandoned Fort Moultrie, but took his troops to 
Fort Sumter, which he promptly put in a defensive state, and pre- 
pared to hold it as long as the conditions would permit. He had 
about eighty men (counting officers and the band) to make good his 
position, and when the Rebels finally arrived they numbered some- 
thing in the neighborhood of ten thousand, but in spite of this dis- 
crepancy, he held on until, in his own w T ords, in his report to Wash- 
ington : 

" 'Having defended Fort Sumter for thirty-six hours, until the 
quarters were entirely burned, the main gates destroyed by lire, 
the gorge walls seriously impaired, the magazine surrounded by 
flames, and its door closed from the effects of heat, four barrels and 
three cartridges of powder only being available, and no provisions 
remaining but pork, I accepted terms of evacuation offered by Gen- 
eral Beauregard, and marched out of the Fort on Sunday after- 
noon, the fourteenth instant, with colors flying and drums beating, 
bringing away company and private property, and saluting my flag 
with fifty guns. ' ' ' 

422 



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GENERAL ROBERT ANDERSON 

The terms offered by Beauregard were the same that had been of- 
fered him before the defense, and were, that he be allowed "to with- 
draw his garrison, taking with him all the property, public and pri- 
vate, and saluting his flag." How greatly the Confederates re- 
spected the heroic conduct of Major Anderson may be seen in the 
fact of their enthusiastic greeting to him and his men as they 
marched out of the fort. "The rebels lined their batteries and 
cheered the garrison as the men left the fort and passed out to the 
fleet beyond the bar." The enthusiasm of Major Anderson's recep- 
tion in New York was heartfelt and beyond all words to express. 
The horses were taken from the carriage, and it was drawn by men. 
"Women held up their babies to be blessed by him. 

Although Major Anderson's health had been greatly impaired by 
the terrible experience he had been through, and the still more ter- 
rible responsibility, and although agreed that a rest was impera- 
tive, he nevertheless put aside all personal considerations and hast- 
ened to the aid of his country in a position in which he alone could 
aid it. He was notified by the Legislature of Kentucky, through the 
President, that he was the only Union officer who would be allowed 
to recruit through the State's borders, and he at once responded, 
determined to save if possible his native State "from the sin of se- 
cession." He was conspicuously successful, and not only organ- 
ized the Army of the Cumberland but so directed public opinion 
that Kentucky finally remained with the Union. 

One of the most dramatic moments in the life of General Ander- 
son was when, on the 14th of April, 1865, four years after his evac- 
uation of Fort Sumter, he raised over its ruins the identical flag 
he had lowered on that occasion. The flag is now preserved in a 
glass case in the office of the Secretary of War at Washington. 
Shortly after, the President commissioned Major Anderson a bri- 
gadier-general, and in 1S65 he was brevetted major-general as a 
reward for the gallantry and value of his services. During the ma- 
jor part of the war he was relieved from active duty on account of 
his broken health, but remained in service in New York and New- 
port. He was a great student of tactics and strategy, and translated 
a number of valuable French works, the "Instructions for Field Ar- 
tillery, Horse and Foot" (1810), and "Evolutions of Field Batter- 
ies," (I860). 

General Anderson was united in marriage, March 26, 1842, with 
Eliza Bayard Clinch, a daughter of General Duncan Lamont Clinch, 
United States Army, and Eliza Bayard (Mackintosh) Clinch, his 
wife. To General and Mrs. Anderson were born the following 
children : Marie L. ; Sophie C. ; Eliza Mackintosh Clinch, who be- 
came the wife of James Marsland Lawton; Robert, Jr.; and Dun- 
can Lamont Clinch, of whom the last two are deceased. 

423 



GENERAL ROBERT ANDERSON 

In the year 1S69 General Anderson went abroad in the hope of 
renewing his health, and for a time was in the south of France. 
There his death occurred October 27, 1871, at Nice. 

The man-of-war "Guerriere" was sent over for his body, which 
was brought to Fortress Monroe, where it was given the most im- 
posing ceremonies from the Navy and the Army, and lay in chapel 
until it was taken to New York, before being taken to West Point, 
where it now reposes. A public funeral was held in New York. 

Centennial services of General Anderson's birth were held at 
West Point on June 11, 1905. A memorial window in his honor has 
just been finished for the chapel. 

"Long after Fort Sumter shall have crumbled away, brightly 
will stand forth the example of Anderson as that of a soldier true 
to his standard, and of an American true to his country." — Senator 
Crittenden's last words to the Senate. 




424 



Editorial 



A REVERED MEMORY 

On preceding pages of this Magazine, is an interesting narrative 
concerning General Robert Anderson, the distinguished soldier 
who is famous in history as the heroic defender of Fort Sumter, in 
Charleston Harbor, during those dreadful days which marked the 
beginning of four years of fratracidal strife. 

Among the children of General Anderson was Eliza Mackintosh 
Clinch Anderson, who became the wife of the late Mr. James Mars- 
land Lawton. Mrs. Lawton was devoted to the memory of her illus- 
trious father, and it was but recently that she gave to the chapel of 
the United States Military Academy at West Point a fine chime of 
bells in his honor. Among her very latest acts was the commital to 
the editor of this Magazine certain data of which he made use in 
the narrative in these pages, before-mentioned, relating to General 
Anderson and his ancestry, as well as her verification of the written 
matter — this, too, but a few days before her death, which occurred 
August 22nd, 1919. 

The editor may be pardoned for a slight indulgence in reminis- 
cence. As a young officer in General Sherman's army, he came to 
New York City on a military errand, early in April, 1865, immediate- 
ly after that army had reached the Carolina coast after its March 
through Georgia. He was a westerner (from Illinois), and an entire 
stranger here, but in the hotel lobby he attracted much friendly at- 
tention from the many army and navy officers about, all easterners. 
Among these was General Robert Anderson, who invited the young 
officer to his home, his carriage being at the curb. The invitation 
was accepted, and two nights were passed most pleasantly. The 
young man, the first of Sherman's soldiers whom the General had 
met, was led into a narrative relation of the campaign against At- 
lanta, the March to the Sea, and the subsequent campaign in the 
Carolinas. Among his auditors, and most deeply interested ones, he 
pleasurably recalls, were the General's daughters, girls just budding 

425 



EDITORIAL 

into young womanhood, and among them she who became Mrs. Law- 
ton. In view of the foregoing, the reader may realize in some de- 
gree the real sentimental interest with which the editor has per- 
formed his task in connection with the career of the distinguished old 
soldier who treated him so cordially, as well as in association with 
the fine woman who as daughter and patriot, and almost with her 
last breath, paid her tribute to a father whom history will ever honor 
as one of America's staunchest patriots and most true-hearted sol- 
diers. 



LITERARY NOTES 



"Scannell's New Jersey's First Citizens, and State Guide," comes 
to us from its very industrious editor, Mr. James J. Scannell, of 
Paterson, New Jersey. This is the second volume of the publication, 
and much more comprehensive than its predecessor. Its design, 
and in which it proves pleasingly successful, is to give in brief all 
pertinent facts with reference to the really useful men (and women) 
of its State. The volume contains more than three hundred more 
sketches than appeared in the first publication of 1917, and presents 
an aggregate of seven hundred and twenty-nine persons of note in 
the various walks of life. In addition, there are supplemental pages 
— a State Guide, with information as to the various State depart- 
ments and institutions, with mention of their various officials; a 
vocational index embracing the professions and other principal occu- 
pations; and a geographical index, for the location of the individ- 
uals written of in the work. The volume in its entirety is a monu- 
ment of industry and perseverance. 

"Wit, Wisdom and Foibles of the Great," is the title of an ample 
volume concerning men and women who have figured largely on the 
pages of history, but in larger part is a compilation of anecdotes 
illustrative of the characters of notables in modern historical times. 
It represents an immense amount of careful labor by the " com- 
piler," Mr. Charles A. Shriner, of Paterson, New Jersey, who on 
his title page uses the word we have quoted (compiler) in place of 
the usual ' ' author. ' ' ' Published by the Funks & Wagnall Company. 



426 



Statement of the Ownership, Management, Circulation, Etc. 



Required by the Act of Congress of August 24, 1912. 



OF AMERICANA, published Quarterly at Somerville, New Jersey, for Oct. 1st, 1919. 

City and State of New York, / 
County of New York, j ' 

Before me, a Notary Public, in and for the State and county aforesaid, per- 
sonally appeared Marion L. Lewis, who, having been duly sworn according 
to law, deposes and says that he is the Vice-President and Manager of the "Americana," 
(Amer. Hist. Society, Inc.), and that the following is, to the best of his knowledge 
and belief, a true statement of the ownership, management, etc., of the aforesaid pub- 
lication for the date shown in the above caption, required by the Act of August 24, 
191 2, embodied in section 443, Postal Laws and Regulations, printed on the reverse 
of this form, to wit: 

1. That the names and addresses of the publisher, editor, managing editor, and 
business managers are: Publisher, The American Historical Society, Inc. Editor, 
Fenwick Y. Hedley, No. 267 Broadway, New York. Managing Editor, Marion L. 
Lewis, No. 267 Broadway, New York. Business Manager, Marion L. Lewis, No. 267 
Broadway, New York. 

2. That the owners are: Benjamin F. Lewis, Sr., No. 908 Central avenue, Wil- 
mette, 111. ; Marion L. Lewis, No. 267 Broadway, N. Y. ; Metcalf B. Hatch, Nutley, 
N. J.; Ed. Lewis, No. 2121 Foster avenue, Brooklyn, N. Y. ; Florence A. Kclsey, Great 
Barrington, Mass. ; Benjamin F. Lewis, Jr., 542 South Dearborn street, Chicago, 111. 

3. That the known bondholders, mortgagees, and other security holders owning or 
holding 1 per cent, or more of total amount of bonds, mortgages, or other securities are: 
None. 

4. That the two paragraphs next above, giving the names of the owners, stock- 
holders, and security holders, if any, contain not only the list of stockholders and security 
holders as they appear upon the books of the company but also, in cases where the 
stockholder or security holder appears upon the books of the company as trustee or in any 
other fiduciary relation, the name of the person or corporation for whom such trustee is 
acting, is given ; also that the said two paragraphs contain statements embracing affiant's 
full knowledge and belief as to the circumstances and conditions under which stock- 
holders and security holders who do not appear upon the books of the company as 
trustees, hold stock and securities in a capacity other than that of a bona fide owner; 
and this affiant has no reason to believe that any other person, association, or corporation 
has any interest direct or indirect in the said stock, bonds, or other securities than as so 
stated by him. 

M. L. LEWIS, Business Manager. 
Sworn to and subscribed before me this 29th day of September, 1919. 

O. H. RAYMOND, 
Notary Public of New York City. 



INDEX 






Vol. XIII. 
January, 1919 — December, 1919. 



Ahraham Lincoln's Mother, A Sketch of, Lucy Porter Higgins.. 156 

Adams, Samuel, Biographical Sketch 238 

Aftermath, The (Editorial) Ill 

Alden, John, Biographical Sketch 225 

American History, The Lottery in, Howard A. Rogers 40 

Loyalists in South Wales, E. Alfred Jones 146 

Anderson, General Robert, Biographical Sketch 414 

Arts and Literature in Lowell, Mass. (Illustrated.) Frederick 

W. Coburn 336 

Arctic Disaster of 1871, the Great 103 

Bassett and Allied Families 275 

Battles in Time of Peace. ( Editorial) 321 

Beginnings of New England (Illustrated) 215 

Beginnings of Prohibition, The (Illustrated) Louis C. Hatch... 323 

Beginnings of Worcester, Mass. (Illustrated) Charles Nutt.... 11 

Belden and Allied Families 393 

Boucher, John N., Early Transportation 113 

Bradford, William, Biographical Sketch 221 

Brewster, William, Biographical Sketch 220 

Brockway and Allied Familes 385 

Coburn, Frederick W., Art and Literature in Lowell, Mass 336 

Cotton, John, Biographical Sketch 227 

Danielson, Lockwood Families 198 

Davenport, John, Biographical Sketch 228 

Delano-Hitch Families 300 

Deming and Allied Families 235 

Dowley-Esterbrook Families, The 186 

Duer and Allied Families 292 

^ Early Transportation (Illustrated) John N. Boucher 113 



(iii) 



iv INDEX 

Eaton, Arthur W. H., Chapters in the History of Halifax, Nova 

Scotia, No. XIII .' 21 

Eaton, Arthur W. H.. Chapters in the History of Halifax, Nova 

Scotia, No. XIV ' 253 

Eaton, Theophilus, Biographical Sketch 236 

Editorials 109, 208, 320, 425 

Eliot, John, Biographical Sketch 229 

Endicott, John, Biographical Sketch 232 

Ensign-Stratton Family, The 193 

Esterbrook-Dowley Families, The 186 

Goodwin and Allied Families 55 

Halifax, Nova Scotia, Chapters in Historv of, Arthur W .H. 

Eaton. No. XIII .' 21 

Halifax, Nova Scotia, Chapters in History of, Arthur W. H. 

Eaton, No. XIV 253 

Hancock, John, Biographical Sketch 242 

Hatch, Louis C, The Beginnings of Prohibition 323 

Hartwell, Frederick W., Biographical Sketch 317 

Higgins, Lucy Porter. A Sketch of Abraham Lincoln's Mother. . 156 
Higgins, Lucy Porter, When and Where the First Ships were 

built in New England 241 

Higginson, Francis, Biographical Sketch 226 

Hill and Allied Families 69, 367 

Historical Perspective, The (Editorial) 320 

Hitch-Delano Families 300 

Hooker, Thomas, Biographical Sketch 228 

Illinois in History 167 

Jackson, Dr. Hall, Biographical Sketch 94 

Jones, E. Alfred, American Loyalists in South Wales 146 

Leach and Allied Families 177 

Lincoln's Mother, A Sketch of Abraham, Lucy Porter Higgins. . 156 

Library Notes 190, 210, 426 

Littell-Ungrich Families 311 

Lockwood, Danielson Families 198 

Lottery in American History, The, Howard O. Rogers 40 

Lowell, Mass., Arts and Literature in (Illustrated) Frederick W. 

Coburn 336 

McClary and Allied Families 401 

McVickar, Rt. Rev. William Nelson, Genealogical Sketch 306 



•„'* ! ";?•%-. '""' 



INDEX v 

New England, Beginnings of (Illustrated) 215 

New England, When and Where the First Ships were built in 

(Illustrated) Lucy Porter Higgins 244 

Nutt, Charles, Beginnings of Worcester, Mass. (Illustrated) 1 

Nutt, Charles, Biographical Sketch 212 

Otis, James, Biographical Sketch 240 

Phips, Sir William, Biographical Sketch 234 

Post-Hiller Families 81 

Pynchon, William, Biographical Sketch 236 

Revered Memory, A (Editorial) 425 

Rogers, Howard O., The Lottery in American History 40 

Standish, Myles, Biographical Sketch 223 

Stowell, Prof., Theodore Barrows, Biographical Sketch 89 

Stratton-Ensign Family, The 193 

Ungrich-Littell Families 311 

When and Where Some of the First Ships were built in New 

England, (Illustrated) Lucy Porter Higgins 244 

Williams, Roger, Biographical Sketch 230 

Winslow, Edward, Biographical Sketch 222 

Winthrop, John, Biographical Sketch 233 

Winthrop, John, The Younger, Biographical Sketch 234 

World War, The Great (Editorial) 109 

World War, Lessons of (Editorial) 208 

Worcester, Mass., Beginnings of (Illustrated) Charles Nutt .... 1 



ILLUSTRATIONS 



Facing Page 

Adams, Samuel, Portrait 239 

Anderson, General Robert, Steel Engraving 421 

Anderson, General Robert, Steel Engraving 422 

Arrival of the Train, The 140 

Bancroft's Birthplace, Portrait, Tower and Grave. 12 

Bassett, Charles F.. Steel Engraving ' 277 

Blackstone Canal, Worcester, Mass., about 1830 129 

Brockway, Ulysses Hayden, Portrait 386 

Canal Boat Scene as described by Charles Dickens 132 

City Hall and Monument Square, Lowell, Mass 336 

City Hall, Portland, Maine . . . .' 325 

Civil War Soldier's Monument, Worcester, Mass 19 

Clinch, General Duncan Lamont, Steel Engraving 423 

Colonial Warehouses, Delaware River at Easton 135 

Common at Worcester, Mass., 1849, The 4 

Conant, Hannah Leach, Steel Engraving Between Pages. . . .184, 185 

Conestoga Wagon, 1825 126 

Court House, Worcester, Mass., 1864 14 

■ Cutler, Nathan, Steel Engraving 406 

Delano, Warren, Steel Engraving 304 

Dow, Neal, Portrait 333 

Dowley, George Stevens, Steel Engraving 186 

Early Springfield, Mass., with view of Connecticut River 142 

End of the Voyage, The 252 

Ensign, Dwight Watts, Steel Engraving 196 

Esterbrook, Adeline S., Steel Engraving Between Pages . . . .190, 191 

Esterbrook, W. H., Steel Engraving Between Pages 190, 191 

Ferry House of David Martin, Easton, Pennsylvania 135 

From an Old Painting by William A. Wall 244 

Forbes, Rev. Eli, Steel Engraving 62 

Fort Allen, Portland, Maine 328 

Fort Hill Park, Lowell, Mass 341 

Goodwin, Charles Clinton, Steel Engraving 56 

(vi) 



INDEX vii 

Hancock, John, Portrait 243 

Hartwell, Frederick W., Steel Engraving 317 

Hill, Robert W., Steel Engraving 367 

Hill, Seth, Steel Engraving 71 

Hiller, Elizabeth P., Steel Engraving, Between Pages 88,89 

Hitch, Frederic Delano, Steel Engraving 305 

Home of Harriet Beecher Stowe, Brunswick, Maine, where Un- 
cle Tom's Cabin was written 329 

Home of the Pearls, Orr's Island, Maine 328 

Hurlburt, Henry C, Portrait 279 

Landing of the Pilgrim Fathers, Frontispiece No. 3 

Leach, James C, Steel Engraving, Between Pages 178, 179 

Leach, Phebe Conant, Steel Engraving, Between Pages 178, 179 

J • Lockwood, Amos D., Steel Engraving 204 

Longfellow Home, Portland, Maine 323 

Longfellow's Birthplace, Portland, Maine 323 

Looking Down the Merrimac River from Anthony Street, Low- 
ell, Mass 348 

Lucy Larcom Park, Lowell, Mass 341 

McClary, Jennie Cutler, Steel Engraving, Between Pages. .. .402, 403 

McClary, John, Steel Engraving, Between Pages 402, 403 

McVickar, William Nelson, Steel Engraving 307 

Mayflower, The 215 

Memorial Building and Public Library, Lowell, Mass 340 

New Bedford Wharves in Palmy Days of Whaling 249 

Newark's Statue of Abraham Lincoln 156 

Nobility Hill, Worcester, Mass 8 

North Entrance of the Village of Worcester, Mass., 1841 4 

Norton, Seth Porter, Portrait 389 

Old and New, The 140 

Old Post Homestead, Old Westbury, Long Island 82 

Old Time Scene in Easton, Pennsylvania 137 

Old View of Main Street, Worcester, Mass 8 

Otis, James, Portrait 240 

Pawtucket Falls 349 

Phelps, Captain William Dane, Steel Engraving 59 

Plymouth, Mass., in 1622 223 

Plymouth Rock 219 

Portland Headlights, Portland Harbor, Maine 328 

Post, E., Steel Engraving 85 



viii INDEX 

Post, Joseph, Steel Engraving, Between Pages 86, 87 

Post, Mary, Steel Engraving 86, 87 

Post Office, Portland, Maine 325 

Pynchon, William, Steel Engraving 236 

Railroad and Steamboat Mail Stage Lines, Poster 145 

Residence of James Blaine, Augusta, Maine 329 

Residence of James Post, Old Westbury, Long Island 83 

Residence of Mrs. George S. Dowley, Brattleboro, Vt., Steel En- 
graving 188 

Residence of Mrs. John McClary, Hartford, Conn., Steel En- 
graving 403 

Spanish War Memorial, Army Square, Worcester, Mass 16 

Stage Coach, Pittsburgh and Philadelphia 118 

State Capitol, Augusta, Maine, Frontispiece No. 4 

State Normal School, Lowell, Mass 340 

Stratton, Flavel Coolidge, Steel Engraving 195 

Stratton, Ira, Steel Engraving, Between Pages 194, 195 

Stratton, Martha A., Steel Engraving, Between Pages 194, 195 

Stowell, Prof. Theodore Barrows, Steel Engraving 90 

Suit of Armor presented to City of Worcester, Mass. Frontispiece No. 1 

Union Station, Portland, Maine 325 

Unrivalled Express Rider, Ginery Twichell, The 113 

Views of Different Court Houses Worcester, Mass 14 

Whaler Hove down for Repairs 249 

Whalers Ready for the Voyage 247 

White Mountain Touring Coach, A 124 

Winthrop, John, Portrait 233 




i